James Francis Edward Stuart
James Francis Edward Stuart, nicknamed The Old Pretender, was the son of King James II and VII of England and Ireland, his second wife, Mary of Modena. He was Prince of Wales from July 1688, until just months after his birth, his Catholic father was deposed and exiled in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. James II's Protestant elder daughter, Mary II, her husband, William III, became co-monarchs and the Bill of Rights 1689 and Act of Settlement 1701 excluded Catholics from the British throne. James Francis Edward was raised in Continental Europe. After his father's death in 1701, he claimed the English and Irish crown as James III of England and Ireland and James VIII of Scotland, with the support of his Jacobite followers and his cousin Louis XIV of France. Fourteen years he unsuccessfully attempted to gain the throne in Britain during the Jacobite rising of 1715. Following his death in 1766, his elder son, Charles Edward Stuart, continued to claim the British crown as part of the Jacobite Succession.
James Francis Edward was born 10 June 1688, at St. James's Palace, he was the son of King James II of England and Ireland and his Roman Catholic second wife, Mary of Modena, and, as such, was automatically Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay, among other titles. The prince's birth was controversial and, coming five years after his mother's last conception, unanticipated on the part of a number of British Protestants, who had expected his sister Mary, from his father’s first marriage, to succeed their father. Mary and her younger sister Princess Anne had been raised as Protestants; as long as there was a possibility of one of them succeeding him, the king's opponents saw his rule as a temporary inconvenience. When people began to fear that James's second wife, would produce a Catholic son and heir, a movement grew to replace him with his elder daughter Princess Mary and his son-in-law/nephew, William of Orange; when the prince was born, rumours began to spread that he was an impostor baby, smuggled into the royal birth chamber in a warming pan and that the actual child of James and Mary was stillborn.
In an attempt to scotch this myth, James published the testimonies of over seventy witnesses to the birth. On 9 December, in the midst of the Glorious Revolution, Mary of Modena disguised herself as a laundress and escaped with the infant James to France. Young James was brought up at the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, which Louis XIV had turned over to the exiled James II. Both the ex-king and his family were held in great consideration by the French king, they were frequent visitors at Versailles where Louis XIV and his court treated them as ruling monarchs. In June 1692 his sister Louisa Maria was born, his military education was overseen by Richard Hamilton and Dominic Sheldon, two veterans of his father's old Irish Army. On his father's death in 1701, James was recognised by King Louis XIV of France as the rightful heir to the English and Scottish thrones. Spain, the Papal States, Modena recognized him as King James III of England, Ireland and VIII of Scotland and refused to recognise William III, Mary II, or Anne as legitimate sovereigns.
As a result of his claiming his father's lost thrones, James was attainted for treason in London on 2 March 1702, his titles were forfeited under English law. Though delayed in France by an attack of measles, James attempted invasion, trying to land at the Firth of Forth on 23 March 1708; the fleet of Admiral Sir George Byng intercepted the French ships, combined with bad weather, prevented a landing. James served for a time in the French army. Between August and September 1710, Queen Anne appointed a new Tory administration led by Robert Harley, who entered into a secret correspondence with de Torcy, the French Minister of Foreign Affairs, in which he claimed to desire James's restoration to the throne should James convert to Protestantism. A year however, the British government pushed for James's expulsion from France as a precondition for a peace treaty with France. In accordance with the Treaty of Utrecht and Lord Bolingbroke, the Secretary of State, colluded with the French in exiling James to the Duchy of Lorraine.
Queen Anne became ill at Christmas 1713 and seemed close to death. In January 1714, she recovered but had not much longer to live. Through de Torcy and his London agent, Abbé François Gaultier, Harley kept up the correspondence with James, Bolingbroke had entered into a separate correspondence with him, they both stated to James. However, James, a devout Catholic, replied to Torcy: "I have chosen my own course, therefore it is for others to change their sentiments." In March came James's refusal to convert, following which Harley and Bolingbroke reached the opinion that James's restoration was not feasible, though they maintained their correspondence with him. As a result, in August 1714, James's second cousin, the Elector of Hanover, George Louis, a German-speaking Protestant, the closest Protestant relative of the now deceased Queen Anne, became king of the created Kingdom of Great Britain as George I. James denounced the new King, noting "we have beheld a foreign family, aliens to our country, distant in blood, strangers to our language, ascend the throne."
Following George's coronation in October 1714, major riots broke out in provincial England. The following year, Jacobites started uprisings in Scotland and Cornwall aimed at putting "James III and VIII" on the throne. On 22 December 1715, James reached Scotland after the Jacobite defeats at the Battle of Sheriffmuir
Santa Maria in Campitelli
Santa Maria in Campitelli or Santa Maria in Portico is a church dedicated to the Virgin Mary on the Piazza di Campitelli in Rione Sant'Angelo, Italy. The church contains a 25 cm-high icon of the Virgin Mary dated by style and dendrochronology to the 11th century, though it had been claimed by tradition to have appeared miraculously in 524 at the table of Galla, a Roman woman, helping the poor, carried in processions since 590, it was housed in the now-demolished Oratory of Santa Gala, sited at what is now the piazza's far end near the Porticus Octaviae. The icon was believed to have saved the city from plague in 1656, when it was carried in procession through the streets. On account of this, the earlier church on this site was replaced by Pope Alexander VII between 1659 and 1667 with the present one, designed by Carlo Rainaldi in the high Baroque style; the pope entrusted its operation to the Clerics Regular of the Mother of God. The present church has a travertine façade with large columns against it, thus giving it strong vertical lines.
The original design included statues. Santa Maria in Portico is a diaconate; the interior shrine of Our Lady was created to contain the icon at the same date, with a "gloria". There is a staircase behind the'gloria' allowing a better view of the icon, open by request only; the first chapel on the right has a St Michael by Sebastiano Conca. The second has a Saints Anne and Mary by Luca Giordano; the angels are by Michel Maille, Francesco Cavallini, Francesco Baratta. In the right crossing is the funerary monument of Cardinal Bartolomeo Pacca, sculpted by Ferdinando Pettrich; the main altar, designed by Rainaldi, completed by Antonio De Rossi and Giovanni Paolo Schor, enshrines the image of Our Lady mentioned above. In the third chapel to the left, a Conversion of St Paul by Ludovico Gimignani, in the first chapel on the left, The Holy Family and Beata Ludovica Albertoni by Lorenzo Ottoni. At left is Chapel of St. John the Baptist, which contains the funerary monument to Cardinal Paluzzo Paluzzi Altieri degli Albertoni, sculpted by Giuseppe Mazzuoli.
Works by Il Baciccia can be seen in the side chapels. In front of the church is a fountain by Giacomo della Porta. Since the time of the James Francis Edward Stuart, the church has been a centre of devotion for the conversion of England
Jacobite rising of 1715
The Jacobite rising of 1715, was the attempt by James Francis Edward Stuart to regain the thrones of England and Scotland for the exiled House of Stuart. The 1688 Glorious Revolution deposed James II and VII and replaced him with his Protestant daughter Mary II and her Dutch husband William III and II, ruling as joint monarchs. Since neither Mary nor her sister Anne had surviving children, the 1701 Act of Settlement ensured a Protestant successor by excluding Catholics from the English and Irish thrones, that of Great Britain after the 1707 Act of Union; when Anne became the last Stuart monarch in 1702, her heir was the distantly related but Protestant Sophia of Hanover, not her Catholic half-brother James Francis Edward. Sophia died two months before Anne in August 1714. French support had been crucial for the Stuart exiles, but their acceptance of the Protestant succession in Britain was part of the terms that ended the 1701-1714 War of the Spanish Succession; this ensured a smooth inheritance by George I in August 1714, the Stuarts were banished from France by the terms of 1716 Anglo-French Treaty.
The 1710-1714 Tory government had prosecuted their Whig opponents, who now retaliated, accusing the Tories of corruption: Robert Harley was imprisoned in the Tower of London while Lord Bolingbroke escaped to France and became James' new Secretary of State. On 14 March 1715, James appealed to Pope Clement XI for help with a Jacobite rising: "It is not so much a devoted son, oppressed by the injustices of his enemies, as a persecuted Church threatened with destruction, which appeals for the protection and help of its worthy pontiff". On 19 August, Bolingbroke wrote to James that "..things are hastening to that point, that either you, Sir, at the head of the Tories, must save the Church and Constitution of England or both must be irretrievably lost for ever". Believing the great general Marlborough would join him, on 23 August James wrote to the Duke of Berwick, his illegitimate brother and Marlborough's nephew, that. Despite receiving no commission from James to start the rising, the Earl of Mar sailed from London to Scotland and on 27 August at Braemar held the first council of war.
On 6 September at Braemar, Mar raised the standard of "James the 8th and 3rd", acclaimed by 600 supporters. Parliament responded with the Habeas Corpus Suspension Act of 1715, passed an Act that confiscated the land of rebelling Jacobite landlords in favor of their tenants who supported the London government; some of Mar's tenants travelled to Edinburgh to prove their loyalty to the Hanoverian crown and acquire title to Mar's land. In northern Scotland, the Jacobites were successful, they took Inverness, Gordon Castle and further south, although they were unable to capture Fort William. In Edinburgh Castle, the government stored arms for up to 10,000 men and £100,000 paid to Scotland when she entered the Union with England. Lord Drummond, with 80 Jacobites, tried under the cover of night to take the Castle, but the Governor of the Castle learnt of their plans and defended it. By October, Mar's force, numbering nearly 20,000, had taken control of all Scotland above the Firth of Forth, apart from Stirling Castle.
However, Mar was indecisive, the Jacobite capture of Perth and the move south by 2,000 men were at the initative of subordinates. Mar's hesitation gave the Hanoverian commander, the Duke of Argyll, time to increase his strength with reinforcements from the Irish Garrison. On 22 October Mar received his commission from James appointing him commander of the Jacobite army, his forces outnumbered Argyll's Hanoverian army by three-to-one, Mar decided to march on Stirling Castle. On 13 November at Sheriffmuir, the two forces joined battle; the fighting was indecisive, but near the end, the Jacobites numbered 4,000 to Argyll's 1,000. Mar's force began to advance on Argyll, poorly protected, but Mar did not close in believing that he had won the battle already. Instead, Mar retreated to Perth. On the same day as the Battle of Sherrifmuir, Inverness surrendered to Hanoverian forces, a smaller Jacobite force led by Mackintosh of Borlum was defeated at Preston. Amongst the leaders of a Jacobite conspiracy in western England were six MPs.
The government arrested the leaders, including Sir William Wyndham, on the night of 2 October, on the following day obtained Parliament's legitimation of these arrests. The government sent reinforcements to defend Bristol and Plymouth. Oxford, famous for its monarchist sentiment, fell under government suspicion, on 17 October General Pepper led the dragoons into the city and arrested some leading Jacobites without resistance. Though the main rising in the West had been forestalled, a planned secondary rising in Northumberland went ahead on 6 October 1715, including two peers of the realm, James Radclyffe, 3rd Earl of Derwentwater, William Widdrington, 4th Baron Widdrington, a future peer, Charles Radclyffe de jure 5th Earl of Derwentwater. Another future English peer, Edward Howard 9th Duke of Norfolk, joined the rising in Lancashire, as did other prominent figures, including Robert Cotton, one of the leading gentlemen in Huntingdonshire; the English Jacobites joined with a force of Scottish Borderer Jacobites, led by William Gordon, 6th Viscount Kenmure, this small army received Mackintosh's contingent.
They marched into England, where the Government forces caught up with
St. Peter's Basilica
The Papal Basilica of St. Peter in the Vatican, or St. Peter's Basilica, is an Italian Renaissance church in Vatican City, the papal enclave within the city of Rome. Designed principally by Donato Bramante, Carlo Maderno and Gian Lorenzo Bernini, St. Peter's is the most renowned work of Renaissance architecture and the largest church in the world. While it is neither the mother church of the Catholic Church nor the cathedral of the Diocese of Rome, St. Peter's is regarded as one of the holiest Catholic shrines, it has been described as "holding a unique position in the Christian world" and as "the greatest of all churches of Christendom". Catholic tradition holds that the Basilica is the burial site of Saint Peter, chief among Jesus's Apostles and the first Bishop of Rome. Saint Peter's tomb is directly below the high altar of the Basilica. For this reason, many Popes have been interred at St. Peter's since the Early Christian period, there has been a church on this site since the time of the Roman emperor Constantine the Great.
Construction of the present basilica, which would replace Old St. Peter's Basilica from the 4th century AD, began on 18 April 1506 and was completed on 18 November 1626. St. Peter's is famous for its liturgical functions; the Pope presides at a number of liturgies throughout the year, drawing audiences of 15,000 to over 80,000 people, either within the Basilica or the adjoining St. Peter's Square. St. Peter's has many historical associations, with the Early Christian Church, the Papacy, the Protestant Reformation and Catholic Counter-reformation and numerous artists Michelangelo; as a work of architecture, it is regarded as the greatest building of its age. St. Peter's is one of the four churches in the world that hold the rank of Major Basilica, all four of which are in Rome. Contrary to popular misconception, it is not a cathedral. St. Peter's is a church built in the Renaissance style located in the Vatican City west of the River Tiber and near the Janiculum Hill and Hadrian's Mausoleum, its central dome dominates the skyline of Rome.
The basilica is approached via St. Peter's Square, a forecourt in two sections, both surrounded by tall colonnades; the first space is the second trapezoid. The façade of the basilica, with a giant order of columns, stretches across the end of the square and is approached by steps on which stand two 5.55 metres statues of the 1st-century apostles to Rome, Saints Peter and Paul. The basilica is cruciform in shape, with an elongated nave in the Latin cross form but the early designs were for a centrally planned structure and this is still in evidence in the architecture; the central space is dominated both externally and internally by one of the largest domes in the world. The entrance is through entrance hall, which stretches across the building. One of the decorated bronze doors leading from the narthex is the Holy Door, only opened during jubilees; the interior is of vast dimensions. One author wrote: "Only does it dawn upon us – as we watch people draw near to this or that monument, strangely they appear to shrink.
This in its turn overwhelms us."The nave which leads to the central dome is in three bays, with piers supporting a barrel-vault, the highest of any church. The nave is framed by wide aisles. There are chapels surrounding the dome. Moving around the basilica in a clockwise direction they are: The Baptistery, the Chapel of the Presentation of the Virgin, the larger Choir Chapel, the altar of the Transfiguration, the Clementine Chapel with the altar of Saint Gregory, the Sacristy Entrance, the Altar of the Lie, the left transept with altars to the Crucifixion of Saint Peter, Saint Joseph and Saint Thomas, the altar of the Sacred Heart, the Chapel of the Madonna of Column, the altar of Saint Peter and the Paralytic, the apse with the Chair of Saint Peter, the altar of Saint Peter raising Tabitha, the altar of St. Petronilla, the altar of the Archangel Michael, the altar of the Navicella, the right transept with altars of Saint Erasmus, Saints Processo and Martiniano, Saint Wenceslas, the altar of St. Jerome, the altar of Saint Basil, the Gregorian Chapel with the altar of the Madonna of Succour, the larger Chapel of the Holy Sacrament, the Chapel of Saint Sebastian and the Chapel of the Pietà.
At the heart of the basilica, beneath the high altar, is the Confessio or Chapel of the Confession, in reference to the confession of faith by St. Peter, which led to his martyrdom. Two curving marble staircases lead to this underground chapel at the level of the Constantinian church and above the purported burial place of Saint Peter; the entire interior of St. Peter's is lavishly decorated with marble, architectural sculpture and gilding; the basilica contains a large number of tombs of popes and other notable people, many of which are considered outstanding artworks. There are a number of sculptures in niches and chapels, including Michelangelo's Pietà; the central feature is a baldachin, or canopy over the Papal Altar, designed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini. The apse culminates in a sculptural ensemble by Bernini, containing the symbolic Chair of Saint Peter. One observer wrote: "St Peter's Basilica is the reason why Rome is still the center of the civilized world. For religious and architectural reasons it by itself justifies a journey to Rome, its interior offers a palimpsest of artistic styles at the
Duke of York
Duke of York is a title of nobility in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. Since the 15th century, it has, when granted been given to the second son of English monarchs; the equivalent title in the Scottish peerage was Duke of Albany. However, King George I and Queen Victoria granted the second sons of their eldest sons the titles Duke of York and Albany and Duke of York respectively. Granted in the 14th century in the Peerage of England, the title Duke of York has been created eight times; the title Duke of York and Albany has been created three times. These occurred during the 18th century, following the 1707 unification of the Kingdom of England and Kingdom of Scotland into a single, united realm; the double naming was done so that a territorial designation from each of the separate realms could be included. The current Duke of York is Prince Andrew, the second son of Queen Elizabeth II. Prince Andrew has no male heirs and has been unmarried since his 1996 divorce. In medieval times, York was the main city of the North of England and the see of the Archbishop of York from AD 735.
Yorkshire was England's largest shire in area. York under its Viking name "Jorvik" was a petty kingdom in the Early Medieval period. In the interval between the fall of independent Jorvik under Eirik Bloodaxe, last King of Jorvik, the first creation of the Dukedom of York, there were a few Earls of York; the title Duke of York was first created in the Peerage of England in 1385 for Edmund of Langley, the fourth surviving son of Edward III, an important character in Shakespeare's Richard II. His son Edward, who inherited the title, was killed at the Battle of Agincourt in 1415; the title passed to Edward's nephew Richard, the son of Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge. The younger Richard managed to obtain a restoration of the title, but when his eldest son, who inherited the title, became king in 1461 as Edward IV, the title merged into the Crown; the title was next created for Richard of Shrewsbury, second son of King Edward IV. Richard was one of the Princes in the Tower, and, as he died without heirs, the title became extinct at his death.
The third creation was for Henry Tudor, second son of King Henry VII. When his elder brother Arthur, Prince of Wales, died in 1502, Henry became heir-apparent to the throne; when Henry became King Henry VIII in 1509, his titles merged into the crown. The title was created for the fourth time for Charles Stuart, second son of James I; when his elder brother, Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, died in 1612, Charles became heir-apparent. He was created Prince of Wales in 1616 and became Charles I in 1625 when the title again merged into the Crown; the fifth creation was in favour of James Stuart, the second son of Charles I. The city and state of New York in what is now the United States of America were named for this particular Duke of York; when his elder brother, King Charles II, died without heirs, James succeeded to the throne as King James II, the title once again merged into the Crown. During the 18th century the double dukedom of York and Albany was created a number of times in the Peerage of Great Britain.
The title was first held by Duke Ernest Augustus of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Bishop of Osnabrück, the youngest brother of King George I. He died without heirs; the second creation of the double dukedom was for Prince Edward, younger brother of King George III, who died without heirs, having never married. The third and last creation of the double dukedom was for Prince Frederick Augustus, the second son of King George III, he served as Commander-in-Chief of the British Army for many years, was the original "Grand old Duke of York" in the popular rhyme. He too died without heirs; the sixth creation of the Dukedom of York was for Prince George of Wales, second son of the future King Edward VII. He was created Duke of York following the death of his elder brother, Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale; the title merged with the crown when George succeeded his father as King George V. The seventh creation was for Prince Albert, second son of King George V, younger brother of the future King Edward VIII.
Albert came unexpectedly to the throne when his brother abdicated, took the name George VI, the Dukedom merging into the crown. The title was created for the eighth time for Prince Andrew, second son of Queen Elizabeth II. At present, he only has two daughters. Thus, if he has no future sons, the title will again become extinct at his death. Aside from the first creation, every time the Dukedom of York has been created it has had only one occupant, that person either inheriting the throne or dying without male heirs. In the early 18th century, the eldest son of the overthrown King James II and thus Jacobite claimant to the throne, James Francis Edward Stuart, known to his opponents as the Old Pretender, granted the title "Duke of York" to his own second son, using his purported authority as King James III. Henry became a cardinal in the Catholic church and is thus known as the Cardinal Duke of York. Since James was not recognised as king by English law, the grant is not recognised as a legitimate creation.
Cape York Peninsula, Australia Duke of York Archipelago, Canada Duke of York Bay, Canada York, Upper Canada, now Toronto, Ontario York County, New Brunswick, Canada Duke of York Island, Antarctica Cape York, Greenland Duke of York Island, Papua New Guinea Duke of York Islands Duke of York's Royal Military School New York, a U. S. state New York City, the largest city in the state of New York and the United States Duke of York School, renamed Lenana School after Kenya attain
John III Sobieski
John III Sobieski was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1674 until his death, one of the most notable monarchs of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Sobieski's military skill, demonstrated in combating the invasions of the Ottoman Empire, contributed to his prowess as King of Poland. Sobieski's 22-year reign marked a period of the Commonwealth's stabilization, much needed after the turmoil of the Deluge and the Khmelnytsky Uprising. Popular among his subjects, he was an able military commander, most famous for his victory over the Turks at the 1683 Battle of Vienna. After his victories over them, the Ottomans called him the "Lion of Lechistan". Official title: Joannes III, Dei Gratia rex Poloniae, magnus dux Lithuaniae, Prussiae, Samogitiae, Smolenscie, Volhyniae, Severiae, etc. Official title: Jan III, z łaski bożej, król Polski, wielki książę litewski, pruski, mazowiecki, żmudzki, kijowski, wołyński, podlaski i czernichowski, etc. English translation: John III, by the grace of God King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania, Prussia, Samogitia, Smolensk, Volhynia, Podlasie and Chernihiv, etc.
John Sobieski was born on 17 August 1629, in Olesko, now Ukraine part of the Ruthenian Voivodeship in the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth to a renowned noble family de Sobieszyn Sobieski of Janina coat of arms. His father, Jakub Sobieski, was the Voivode of Castellan of Kraków. John Sobieski spent his childhood in Żółkiew. After graduating from the Nowodworski College in Kraków in 1643, young John Sobieski graduated from the philosophical faculty of the Jagiellonian University in 1646. After finishing his studies and his brother Marek Sobieski left for western Europe, where he spent more than two years travelling, they visited Leipzig, Paris, London and The Hague. During that time, he met influential contemporary figures such as Louis II de Bourbon, Charles II of England and William II, Prince of Orange, learned French and Italian, in addition to Latin. Both brothers returned to the Commonwealth in 1648. Upon receiving the news of the death of king Władysław IV Vasa and the hostilities of the Khmelnytsky Uprising, they volunteered for the army.
They both fought in the siege of Zamość. They commanded their own banners of cavalry. Soon, the fortunes of war separated the brothers. In 1649, Jakub fought in the Battle of Zboriv. In 1652, Marek died in Tatar captivity after his capture at the Battle of Batih. John was fought with distinction in the Battle of Berestechko. A promising commander, John was sent by King John II Casimir as one of the envoys in the diplomatic mission of Mikołaj Bieganowski to the Ottoman Empire. There, Sobieski learned the Tatar language and the Turkish language and studied Turkish military traditions and tactics, it is he participated as part of the allied Polish-Tatar forces in the 1655 Battle of Okhmativ. After the start of the Swedish invasion of Poland known as "The Deluge", John Sobieski was among the Greater Polish regiments led by Krzysztof Opaliński, Palatine of Poznań which capitulated at Ujście, swore allegiance to King Charles X Gustav of Sweden. However, around late March 1656, he abandoned their side, returning to the side of Polish king John II Casimir Vasa, enlisting under the command of hetmans Stefan Czarniecki and Jerzy Sebastian Lubomirski.
By 26 May 1656 he received the position of the chorąży koronny. During the three-day-long battle of Warsaw of 1656, Sobieski commanded a 2,000-man strong regiment of Tatar cavalry, he took part in a number of engagements over the next two years, including the Siege of Toruń in 1658. In 1659 he was elected a deputy to the Sejm, was one of the Polish negotiators of the Treaty of Hadiach with the Cossacks. In 1660 he took part in the last offensive against the Swedes in Prussia, was rewarded with the office of starost of Stryj. Soon afterward he took part in the war against the Russians, participating in the Battle of Slobodyshche and Battle of Lyubar, that year he again was one of the negotiators of a new treaty with the Cossacks. Through personal connections, he became a strong supporter of the French faction in the Polish royal court, represented by Queen Marie Louise Gonzaga, his pro-French allegiance was reinforced in 1665, when he married Marie Casimire Louise de la Grange d'Arquien and was promoted to the rank of Grand Marshal of the Crown.
In 1662 he was again elected a deputy to the Sejm, took part in the work on reforming the military. He was a member of the Sejm in 1664 and 1665. In between he participated in the Russian campaign of 1663. Sobieski remained loyal to the King during the Lubomirski Rebellion of 1665–66, though it was a difficult decision for him, he participated in the Sejm of 1665, after some delays, accepted the prestigious office of the Marshal of the Crown on 18 May that year. Around late April or early May 1666 he received another high office of the Commonwealth, that of the Field Crown Hetman. Soon afterward, he was defeated at the Battle of Mątwy, signed the Agreement of Łęgonice on the 21 July, which ended the Lubomirski Rebellion. In October 1667 he achieved another victory over the Cossacks of Petro Doroshenko and their Crimean Tatar
Santa Maria in Trastevere
The Basilica of Santa Maria in Trastevere. The basic floor plan and wall structure of the church date back to the 340s, much of the structure to 1140-43; the first sanctuary was built in 221 and 227 by Pope Callixtus I and completed by Pope Julius I. The church has large areas of important mosaics from the late 13th century by Pietro Cavallini; the inscription on the episcopal throne states that this is the first church in Rome dedicated to Mary, mother of Jesus, although some claim that privilege belongs to the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore. It is one of the oldest churches in the city. A Christian house-church was founded here about 220 by Pope Saint Callixtus I on the site of the Taberna meritoria, a refuge for retired soldiers; the area was made available for Christian use by Emperor Alexander Severus when he settled a dispute between the Christians and tavern-keepers, according to the Liber Pontificalis "I prefer that it should belong to those who honor God, whatever be their form of worship."
In 340, when Pope Julius I rebuilt the titulus Callixti on a larger scale, it became the titulus Iulii in commemoration of his patronage and one of the original 25 parishes in Rome. The church underwent two restorations in the fifth and eighth centuries and in 1140-43 it was re-erected on its old foundations under Pope Innocent II. Innocent II razed the church along with the completed tomb of the Antipope Anacletus II, his former rival. Innocent II arranged for his own burial on the spot occupied by the tomb; the richly carved Ionic capitals reused along its nave were taken either from the ruins of the Baths of Caracalla or the nearby Temple of Isis on the Janiculum. When scholarship during the 19th century identified the faces in their carved decoration as Isis and Harpocrates, a restoration under Pius IX in 1870 hammered off the offending faces; the predecessor of the present church was built in the early fourth century and that church was itself the successor to one of the tituli, Early Christian basilicas ascribed to a patron and literally inscribed with his name.
Although nothing remains to establish with certainty where any of the public Christian edifices of Rome before the time of Constantine the Great were situated, the basilica on this site was known as Titulus Callisti, based on a legend in the Liber Pontificalis, which ascribed the earliest church here to a foundation by Pope Callixtus I, whose remains, translated to the new structure, are preserved under the altar. The inscriptions found in Santa Maria in Trastevere, a valuable resource illustrating the history of the Basilica, were collected and published by Vincenzo Forcella; the present nave stands on the earlier foundations. The 22 granite columns with Ionic and Corinthian capitals that separate the nave from the aisles came from the ruins of the Baths of Caracalla, as did the lintel of the entrance door. Inside the church are a number of 12th and late 13th-century mosaics. Below are mosaics on the subject of the Life of the Virgin by Pietro Cavallini. Above is the mosaic representation of the "Coronation of the Virgin".
The "Coronation of the Virgin" sits atop an apse vault, depicts Pope Innocent II holding a model of the church. Domenichino's octagonal ceiling painting, Assumption of the Virgin fits in the coffered ceiling setting that he designed; the fifth chapel to the left is the Avila Chapel designed by Antonio Gherardi. This, his Chapel of S. Cecilia in San Carlo ai Catinari are two of the most architecturally inventive chapels of the late-17th century in Rome; the lower order of the chapel is dark and employs Borromini-like forms. In the dome, there is an opening or oculus from which four putti emerge to carry a central tempietto, all of which frames a light-filled chamber above, illuminated by windows not visible from below; the church keeps a relic of her head, as well as a portion of the Holy Sponge. Among those buried in the church are the relics of Pope Callixtus I, Pope Innocent II, Antipope Anacletus II, Cardinal Philippe of Alençon and Cardinal Lorenzo Campeggio; the Romanesque campanile is from the 12th century.
Near the top, a niche protects a mosaic of the Child. The mosaics on the façade are believed to be from the 12th century, they depict the Madonna suckling the Child, flanked by 10 women holding lamps. This image on the façade showing Mary nursing Jesus is an early example of a popular late-medieval and renaissance type of image of the Virgin; the motif itself originated much earlier, with significant seventh-century Coptic examples at Wadi Natrun in Egypt. The façade of the church was restored in 1702 by Carlo Fontana, who replaced the ancient porch with a sloping tiled roof — seen in Falda's view above — with the present classicizing one; the octagonal fountain in the piazza in front of the church, which appears in a map of 1472, was restored by Carlo Fontana. Ancient sources maintain that the titulus S. Mariae was established by Pope Alexander I around 112. Traditions give the names of the early patrons of the tituli and have retrospectively assigned them the title of cardinal: thus at that time, the cardinal-patron of this basilica, these traditions assert, would have been Saint Calepodius.
Pope Callixtus I confirmed the titulus in 221. Callisti et Iuliani. By the 12th century, cardinal deacons as well as the presbyters had long be