Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Green-Wood Cemetery is a cemetery in Brooklyn, New York City, founded in 1838 as a rural cemetery. Like other early rural cemeteries, Green-Wood was founded in a time of rapid urbanization when churchyards in New York City were becoming overcrowded. Located in Greenwood Heights, the cemetery lies several blocks southwest of Prospect Park, between Park Slope, Windsor Terrace, Borough Park and Sunset Park; the architecture critic Paul Goldberger, quoting The New York Times from 1866, observed that "it is the ambition of the New Yorker to live upon the Fifth Avenue, to take his airings in the Park, to sleep with his fathers in Green-wood". The gates of the cemetery were designated a New York City landmark in 1966, the Weir Greenhouse, used as a visitor's center, in 1982; the cemetery was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1997 and was granted National Historic Landmark status in 2006 by the U. S. Department of the Interior; the Fort Hamilton Parkway Gate and the cemetery's chapel were designated as landmarks by New York City in 2016.
Described as "Brooklyn's first public park by default long before Prospect Park was created", Green-Wood Cemetery was so popular that it inspired a competition to design Central Park in Manhattan, as well as Prospect Park nearby. Less inspired by Pére Lachaise Cemetery in Paris, which at the time retained the axial formality of Alexandre Théodore Brongniart's original design, than by opened Mount Auburn Cemetery in Cambridge, where a cemetery in a naturalistic park-like landscape in the English manner was first established, Green-Wood was able to take advantage of the varied topography provided by glacial moraines. Battle Hill, the highest point in Brooklyn, is on cemetery grounds, rising 200 feet above sea level, it was the site of an important action during the Battle of Long Island on August 27, 1776. A Revolutionary War monument by Frederick Ruckstull, Altar to Liberty: Minerva, was erected there in 1920. From this height, the bronze Minerva statue gazes towards the Statue of Liberty across New York Harbor.
Green-Wood Cemetery contains 7000 trees spread out over 478 acres. The rolling hills and dales, several ponds and an on-site chapel provide an environment that still draws visitors. In 2017 it received 280,000 visitors. There are several famous monuments located there, including a statue of DeWitt Clinton, a memorial erected by James Brown, president of Brown Brothers bank and the Collins Line, to the six members of his family lost in the SS Arctic disaster of 1854; this incorporates a sculpture of the ship, half-submerged by the waves, as well as a Civil War Memorial. During the Civil War, Green-Wood Cemetery created the "Soldiers' Lot" for free veterans' burials; the gates were designed by Richard Upjohn in Gothic Revival style. The main entrance to the cemetery was built in 1861-65 of Belleville, New Jersey brownstone; the sculptured groups on Nova Scotia limestone panels depicting biblical scenes of death and resurrection from the New Testament including Lazarus, The Widow's Son, Jesus' Resurrection over the gateways are the work of sculptor John M. Moffitt.
A Designated Landmarks of New York plaque was erected on it in 1958 by the New York Community Trust, it was designated an official New York City landmark in 1966. Several wooden shelters were built, including one in a Gothic Revival style, one resembling an Italian villa, another resembling a Swiss chalet. A descendent colony of monk parakeets that are believed to have escaped their containers while in transit now nests in the spires of the gate, as well as other areas in Brooklyn; the cemetery was the idea of a Brooklyn social leader. The Pierrepont papers deposited at the Brooklyn Historical Society contain material about the organizing of Green-Wood Cemetery, it was a popular tourist destination in the 1850s, by the early 1860s it was drawing annual crowds second in size only to Niagara Falls. Most famous New Yorkers who died during the second half of the nineteenth century were buried there. On December 5, 1876, the Brooklyn Theater Fire claimed the lives of at least 278 individuals, with some accounts reporting over 300 dead.
Out of that total, 103 unidentified victims were interred in a common grave at Green-Wood Cemetery. An obelisk near the main entrance at Fifth Avenue and 25th Street marks the burial site. More than two dozen identified victims were interred individually in separate sections at the Cemetery of the Evergreens in Brooklyn. Buried at the cemetery are 6 British Commonwealth service personnel whose graves are registered by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission, 3 from World War I and 3 from World War II, among the latter being Leading Aircraftsman Remsen Taylor Williams, Royal Canadian Air Force, buried in the Steinway Vault. Green-Wood has remained non-sectarian, but was considered a Christian burial place for white Anglo-Saxon Protestants of good repute. One early regulation was that no one executed for a crime, or dying in jail, could be buried there. Although he died in the Ludlow Street Jail, the family of the infamous "Boss" Tweed managed to circumvent this rule; the cemetery's chapel was completed in 1911.
It was designed by the architectural firm of Warren and Wetmore, who designed Grand Central Terminal, the Commodore Hotel, the Yale Club and many other buildings. The chapel is a reduced version of the upper sections of Christopher Wren's Tom Tower at Christ Church College in Oxford. Green-Wood's landscape architect David Bates Douglass modeled his two subsequently designed garden cemeteries upon Green-Wood: Albany Rural Cemetery, located in Menands, New York, Mount Hermon Cemetery, in Q
Tales of a Wayside Inn
Tales of a Wayside Inn is a collection of poems by American poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. The book, published in 1863, depicts a group of people at the Wayside Inn in Sudbury, Massachusetts as each tells a story in the form of a poem; the poems in the collection are told by a group of adults in the tavern of the Wayside Inn in Sudbury, Massachusetts, 20 miles from the poet's home in Cambridge, a favorite resort for parties from Harvard College. The narrators are friends of the author who, though they were not named, were so plainly characterized as to be recognizable. Among those of wider fame are Ole Bull, the violinist, Thomas William Parsons, the poet and translator of Dante; each of the three parts has a prelude and a finale, there are interludes which link together the tales and introduce the narrators. The prelude for the first part begins: Longfellow undertook the large-scale project in part to combat grief over the death of his wife Fanny in 1861. While writing it, he dealt with his personal struggles during the American Civil War, including his oldest son's illnesses and injuries while serving in the Army of the Potomac.
As he wrote to a friend in England, "I have been through a great deal of trouble and anxiety... However, I have managed to get a volume of poems through the press". Longfellow intended to call the collection The Sudbury Tales, but was worried it sounded too similar to Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales; as early as October 11, 1862, however, he considered the alternative title Tales of a Wayside Inn. He wrote in his journal that day: "Write a little on the Wayside Inn. A beginning only." Longfellow visited the real-life Wayside Inn in 1862 with his friend and publisher James Thomas Fields. At the time, the inn was called the Red Horse Tavern and had closed after the owner, Lyman Howe, died in 1861, it would not reopen as an inn until 1897. Longfellow referred to it as "a rambling, tumble-down building", he toured the building with Abigail Eaton, a relative of the Howe family, who told Longfellow the history of the building and her family. Henry Ford bought the inn in 1923, restored it, donated it to a charitable foundation.
It remains as an operating inn to this day. Most of the stories were derived by Longfellow from his wide reading — many of them from the legends of continental Europe, a few from American sources; the best known inclusion is the previously-published poem "Paul Revere's Ride". It includes "The Saga of King Olaf", a poem which Longfellow started writing as early as 1856, making it the oldest in the collection. While assembling the collection, he intended to use a poem called "Galgano", a translation he had made in 1853 from a work by Italian poet Niccolò di Giovanni Fiorentino, as the student's tale. Fields was involved with the preparation of the book in the selection of individual titles for the poems, as well as for the title of the book itself, suggestions for rhyming words; when the book was announced for publication, it was the poet's friend Charles Sumner who persuaded him to change the title from The Sudbury Tales to Tales of a Wayside Inn. The collection was first published on November 1863, with an initial print run of 15,000 copies.
The New York Times called the book "a pleasant fiction" and an "excellent account". A second series was published in 1870, a third published in 1872–1873. Though they sold well, the latter two volumes were less popular than the first. Many of the characters in Tales of a Wayside Inn were inspired by real people: Luigi Monti, Daniel Treadwell, Thomas William Parsons, Henry Wales, Isaac Edrehi, Ole Bull, Lyman Howe. Tales of a Wayside Inn - complete text Tales of a Wayside Inn - complete text Official site of historical Wayside Inn Tales of a Wayside Inn public domain audiobook at LibriVox
New-York Historical Society
The New-York Historical Society is an American history museum and library located in New York City at the corner of 77th Street and Central Park West on the Upper West Side of Manhattan. The society was founded in 1804 as New York's first museum, it presents exhibitions, public programs, research that explore the rich history of New York and the nation. The New-York Historical Society Museum & Library has been at its present location since 1908; the granite building was designed by Sawyer in a classic Roman Eclectic style. A renovation of the landmark building was completed in November 2011 that made it more open to the public, provided space for an interactive children's museum, accomplished other changes to enhance access to its collections. Louise Mirrer has been the president of the Historical Society since 2004, she was Executive Vice Chancellor for Academic Affairs of the City University of New York. Beginning in 2005, the museum presented a groundbreaking two-year exhibit on Slavery in New York, its largest theme exhibition in 200 years on a topic which it had never addressed before.
It included an art exhibit by artists invited to use museum collections in their works. The Society focuses on the developing city center in Manhattan. Another historical society, the Long Island Historical Society was founded in Brooklyn in 1863; the New-York Historical Society holds an extensive collection of historical artifacts, works of American art, other materials documenting the history of the United States and New York. It presents researched exhibitions on a variety of topics and periods in American history, such as George Washington, Alexander Hamilton, Slavery in New York, The Hudson River School, Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Tiffany designer Clara Driscol, the history of the Constitution; the Historical Society offers an extensive range of curriculum-based school programs and teacher resources, provides academic fellowships and organizes public programs for adults to foster lifelong learning and a deep appreciation of history. The New-York Historical Society's museum is the oldest in New York City and predates the founding of the Metropolitan Museum of Art by nearly 70 years.
Its art holdings comprise more than 1.6 million works. Among them are a world-class collection of Hudson River School paintings, including major works by Thomas Cole and Frederic Edwin Church; the Historical Society holds an important collection of paintings and drawings by marine artist James Bard. The museum holds much of sculptor Elie Nadelman's legendary American folk art collection, including furniture and household accessories such as lamps, textiles and ceramic objects, as well as paintings, weathervanes, sculptural woodcarvings, chalkware; the Historical Society's holdings in artifacts and decorative arts include George Washington's camp bed from Valley Forge, the desk at which Clement Clarke Moore wrote "A Visit from Saint Nicholas", one of the world's largest collections of Tiffany lamps and glasswork, a collection of more than 550 late nineteenth-century American board games. Its research library contains more than three million books, maps, newspapers, music sheets, prints and architectural drawings.
Among its collections are far-ranging materials relating to the founding and early history of the nation including the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America". The Society operates a website showing many images from its collection. In 2015 it announced the digitization and posting of over a thousand negatives by photographer Robert L. Bracklow from the late 19th and early 20th centuries; the Historical Society was founded on November 20, 1804 through the efforts of John Pintard. He was for some years secretary of the American Academy of Fine Arts, as well as the founder of New York's first savings bank, he was among the first to agitate for a free school system. The first meeting comprised 11 of the city's most prominent citizens, including Mayor DeWitt Clinton. At the meeting, a committee was selected to draw up a constitution, by December 10, the Historical Society was organized. According to the Historical Society's first catalogue, printed in 1813, the museum held 4,265 books, as well as 234 volumes of United States documents, 119 almanacs, 130 titles of newspapers, 134 maps, 30 miscellaneous views.
It had collected the start of a manuscript collection, several oil portraits and 38 engraved portraits. The Historical Society suffered under heavy debt during its early decades. In 1809, it organized a celebration of the 200th anniversary of the arrival of Henry Hudson in New York Harbor. Inspired by the event, the Historical Society petitioned and obtained an endowment fro
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
Henry Bergh (sculpture)
Henry Bergh is a statue by American artist James H. Mahoney located at the Wisconsin Humane Society in Milwaukee, United States; the bronze statue portrays Henry Bergh, the father of the humane movement in the United States, holding a cane in his proper right hand and petting a dog with a bandaged paw with his proper left hand. It stands 9 feet high. Mahoney's statue is a full-length bronze of Henry Bergh, he wears a frock coat, vest and boots, while holding a cane and petting a wounded dog. The statue's granite base has the raised inscription HENRY BERGH; the right front of the base reads American Bronze Co. Chicago Illinois. There is a circular plaque on the base that reads The Wisconsin Humane Society, as well as a United States seal with a ribbon and star that included a founder's mark; the circular plaque was added to the base in 1941 in honor of its 50th dedication anniversary. Henry Bergh graduated from Columbia College in the 1830s. Following college he became a diplomat at the American Delegation in Russia.
It was during this time. Once back in America he realized that Americans mistreated their horses by requiring them to pull heavy loads. Bergh traveled to England to learn about their humane society and, upon his return to America in 1866, founded the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals; this was subsequently expanded in 1877 into the American Humane Association, which included both the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals and the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children. The Wisconsin Humane Society was founded in 1879 with Richard D. Whitehead serving as its superintendent. Whitehead commissioned the sculpture; the statue was placed in the trafficked Market Square on April 29, 1891 and dedicated with an elaborate ceremony that included releasing white pigeons to fly over the statue, having a pony be the first to drink from the trough. The statue was unveiled on April 29, 1891, shortly after the 25th anniversary of Bergh's founding of the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals.
It was placed atop an animal watering trough in downtown Milwaukee's Market Square, near the present City Hall. "The Milwaukee City Hall was built on Market Square in 1895, increasing the traffic around the Bergh monument. By 1941 few horses were seen on the streets of Milwaukee and it was decided to convert the watering trough to a flower bed." Since it has been moved several times. It was first moved to the Wisconsin Humane Society in 1966 when the Marshall and Ilsley Bank planned to build a new structure on its site; because the statue was too heavy to transport over Milwaukee's bridges, it was taken without the watering trough. The statue has moved with the Wisconsin Humane Society, it stands in front of the Humane Society's building on West Wisconsin Avenue. According to the Wisconsin Humane Society's website, this is the only known statue of Henry Bergh in the United States. "Treatment completed to restore statue in June 2013."/> James H. Mahoney was the sculptor who produced this bronze statue in 1891.
Mahoney is credited as one of the artists who produced the National Monument to the Forefathers in Plymouth, Massachusetts. Animalier R. D. Whitehead Monument
Vivisection known as V-section, is surgery conducted for experimental purposes on a living organism animals with a central nervous system, to view living internal structure. The word is, more broadly, used as a pejorative catch-all term for experimentation on live animals by organizations opposed to animal experimentation, but the term is used by practicing scientists. Human vivisection, such as live organ harvesting, has been perpetrated as a form of torture. However, as vivisection etymologically means a surgery on a living being, all forms of open surgery on living people are human vivisection. Research requiring vivisection techniques that cannot be met through other means is subject to an external ethics review in conception and implementation, in many jurisdictions use of anesthesia is mandated for any surgery to cause pain to any vertebrate. In the U. S. the Animal Welfare Act explicitly requires that any procedure that may cause pain use "tranquilizers and anesthetics", with exceptions when "scientifically necessary".
The act does not define "scientific necessity" or regulate specific scientific procedures, but approval or rejection of individual techniques in each federally funded lab is determined on a case-by-case basis by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee, which contains at least one veterinarian, one scientist, one non-scientist, one other individual from outside the university. In the U. K. any experiment involving vivisection must be licensed by the Home Secretary. The Animals Act 1986 "expressly directs that, in determining whether to grant a licence for an experimental project,'the Secretary of State shall weigh the adverse effects on the animals concerned against the benefit to accrue.'" In Australia, the Code of Practice "requires that all experiments must be approved by an Animal Experimentation Ethics Committee" that includes a "person with an interest in animal welfare, not employed by the institution conducting the experiment, an additional independent person not involved in animal experimentation."Anti-vivisectionists have played roles in the emergence of the animal welfare and animal rights movements, arguing that animals and humans have the same natural rights as living creatures, that it is inherently immoral to inflict pain or injury on another living creature, regardless of the purpose or potential benefit to mankind.
At the turn of the 19th century, medicine was undergoing a transformation. The emergence of hospitals and the development of more advanced medical tools such as the stethoscope are but a few of the changes in the medical field. There was an increased recognition that medical practices needed to be improved, as many of the current therapeutics were based on unproven, traditional theories that may or may not have helped the patient recover; the demand for more effective treatment shifted emphasis to research with the goal of understanding disease mechanisms and anatomy. This shift had a few effects, one of, the rise in patient experimentation, leading to some moral questions about what was acceptable in clinical trials and what was not. An easy solution to the moral problem was to use animals in vivisection experiments, so as not to endanger human patients. This, had its own set of moral obstacles, leading to the anti-vivisection movement. One polarizing figure in the anti-vivisection movement was François Magendie.
Magendie was a physiologist at the Académie Royale de Médecine in France, established in the first half of the 19th century. Magendie made several groundbreaking medical discoveries, but was far more aggressive than some of his other contemporaries with his use of animal experimentation. For example, the discovery of the different functionalities of dorsal and ventral spinal nerve roots was achieved by both Magendie, as well as a Scottish anatomist named Charles Bell. Bell used an unconscious rabbit because of "the protracted cruelty of the dissection", which caused him to miss that the dorsal roots were responsible for sensory information. Magendie, on the other hand, used conscious, six-week-old puppies for his own experiments. While Magendie's approach was more of an infringement on what we would today call animal rights, both Bell and Magendie used the same justification for vivisection: the cost of animal lives and experimentation was well worth it for the benefit of humanity. Many viewed Magendie's work unnecessarily torturous.
One note is that Magendie carried out many of his experiments before the advent of anesthesia, but after ether's discovery it was not used in any of his experiments or classes. During the period before anesthesia, other physiologists expressed their disgust with how he conducted his work. One such visiting American physiologist describes the animals as "victims" and the apparent sadism that Magendie displayed when teaching his classes; the cruelty in such experiments even led to Magendie's role as an important figure in animal rights legislation. He was so despised in Britain that his experiments were cited in the drafting of the Cruel Treatment of Cattle Act 1822 and the Cruelty to Animals Act 1876; the Cruelty to Animals Act, 1876 in Britain determined that one could only conduct vivisection on animals with the appropriate license from the state, that the work the physiologist was doing had to be original and necessary. The stage was set for such legislation by physiologist David Ferrier. Ferrier was a pioneer in understanding the brain and used animals to show that certain locales of the brain corresponded to bodily movement elsewhere in the body in 1873.
He put these animals to sleep, caused them to move unconsciously