The Seneca are a group of indigenous Iroquoian-speaking people native to North America who lived south of Lake Ontario. They were the nation located farthest to the west within the Six Nations or Iroquois League in New York before the American Revolution. In the 21st century, more than 10,000 Seneca live in the United States, which has three federally recognized Seneca tribes. Two are in New York: the Seneca Nation of New York, with two reservations in western New York near Buffalo; the Seneca-Cayuga Nation is located in Oklahoma, where their ancestors were relocated from Ohio during Indian Removal. 1,000 Seneca live in Canada, near Brantford, Ontario, at the Six Nations of the Grand River First Nation. They are descendants of Seneca who resettled there after the American Revolution, as they had been allies of the British and forced to cede much of their lands. A legend of the Seneca tribe states that the tribe originated in a village called Nundawao, near the south end of Canandaigua Lake, at South Hill.
Close to South Hill stands the 865 foot -high Bare Hill, known to the Seneca as Genundowa. Bare Hill is part of the Bare Hill Unique Area, which began to be acquired by the state in 1989. Bare Hill had been the site of a pre-Seneca indigenous fort; the first written reference to this fort was made in 1825 by David Cusick in his history of the Seneca Indians. The traces of an ancient fort, covering about an acre, surrounded by a ditch, by a formidable wall, are still to be seen on top of Bare Hill, they indicate defenses raised by Indian hands, or more belong to the labors of a race that preceded the Indian occupation. The wall is now about tumbled down, the stones seem somewhat scattered, the ground is overgrown with brush. In the early 1920s, the material that made up the Bare Hill fort was used by the Town of Middlesex highway department for road fill; the Seneca traditionally lived in what is now New York state between the Genesee River and Canandaigua Lake. The dating of an oral tradition mentioning a solar eclipse yields 1142 AD as the year for the Seneca joining the Iroquois.
Some recent archaeological evidence indicates their territory extended to the Allegheny River in present-day northwestern Pennsylvania after the Iroquois destroyed both the Wenrohronon and Erie nations in the 17th century, who were native to the area. The Seneca were by far the most populous of the Haudenosaunee nations, numbering about four thousand by the seventeenth century. Seneca villages were located as far east as current-day Schuyler County, south into current Tioga and Chemung counties and east into Tompkins and Cayuga counties, west into the Genesee River valley; the villages were the headquarters of the Seneca. While the Seneca maintained substantial permanent settlements and raised agricultural crops in the vicinity of their villages, they hunted through extensive areas, they prosecuted far-reaching military campaigns. The villages, where hunting and military campaigns were planned and executed, indicate the Seneca had hegemony in these areas. Major Seneca villages were protected with wooden palisades.
Ganondagan, with 150 longhouses, was the largest Seneca village of the 17th century, while Chenussio, with 130 longhouses, was a major village of the 18th century. The Seneca had two branches; each branch distinct, they were individually incorporated and recognized by the Iroquois Confederacy Council. The western Seneca lived predominately in and around the Genesee River moving west and southwest along the Erie and Niagara rivers south along the Allegheny River into Pennsylvania; the eastern Seneca lived predominantly south of Seneca Lake. They moved east into Pennsylvania and the western Catskill area; the west and north were under constant attack from their powerful Iroquoian brethren, the Huron To the South, the Iroquoian-speaking tribes of the Susquehannock threatened constant warfare. The Algonkian tribes of the Mohican blocked access to the Hudson River in the northeast. In the southeast, the Algonkian tribes of the Lenape people threatened war from eastern Pennsylvania, New Jersey and the Lower Hudson.
The Seneca used the Genesee and Allegheny rivers, as well as the Great Indian War and Trading Path, to travel from southern Lake Ontario into Pennsylvania and Ohio. The eastern Seneca had territory just north of the intersection of the Chemung, Susquehanna and Delaware rivers, which converged in Tioga; the rivers provided passage deep into all parts of eastern and western Pennsylvania, as well as east and northeast into the Delaware Water Gap and the western Catskills. The men of both branches of the Seneca wore the same head gear. Like the other Haudenosaunee, they wore hats with dried cornhusks on top; the Seneca had one feather sticking up straight. Traditionally, the Seneca Nation's economy was based on hunting and gathering activities and the cultivation of varieties corn and squash; these vegetables were the staple of the Haudenosaunee diet and were called "the three sisters". Seneca women grew and harvested varieties of the three sisters, as well as gathering and processing medicinal plants, berries and fruit.
Seneca women held sole ownership of the homes. The women tended to any domesticated animals such as dogs and turkeys; the Iroquois had a matrilineal kinship system. Women we
The Lenape called the Leni Lenape, Lenni Lenape and Delaware people, are an indigenous people of the Northeastern Woodlands, who live in Canada and the United States. Their historical territory included present-day New Jersey and eastern Pennsylvania along the Delaware River watershed, New York City, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Today, Lenape people belong to the Delaware Delaware Tribe of Indians in Oklahoma; the Lenape have a matrilineal clan system and were matrilocal. During the decades of the 18th century, most Lenape were pushed out of their homeland by expanding European colonies, their dire situation was exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. The divisions and troubles of the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them farther west. In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape now reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin and Ontario.
The name Lenni Lenape Leni Lenape and Lenni Lenapi, comes from their autonym, which may mean "genuine, real, original," and Lenape, meaning "Indian" or "man". Alternately, lënu may be translated as "man."The Lenape, when first encountered by Europeans, were a loose association of related peoples who spoke similar languages and shared familial bonds in an area known as Lenapehoking, the Lenape traditional territory, which spanned what is now eastern Pennsylvania, New Jersey, southern New York, eastern Delaware. The tribe's common name Delaware is not of Native American origin. English colonists named the Delaware River for the first governor of the Province of Virginia, Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr, whose title was derived from French; the English began to call the Lenape the Delaware Indians because of where they lived. Swedes settled in the area, early Swedish sources listed the Lenape as the Renappi. Traditional Lenape lands, the Lenapehoking, was a large territory that encompassed the Delaware Valley of eastern Pennsylvania and New Jersey from the north bank Lehigh River along the west bank Delaware south into Delaware and the Delaware Bay.
Their lands extended west from western Long Island and New York Bay, across the Lower Hudson Valley in New York into the lower Catskills and a sliver of the upper edge of the North Branch Susquehanna River. On the west side, the Lenape lived in numerous small towns along the rivers and streams that fed the waterways, shared the hunting territory of the Schuylkill River watershed with the rival Iroquoian Susquehannock; the Unami and Munsee languages belong to the Eastern Algonquian language group. Although the Unami and Munsee speakers people are related, they consider themselves as distinct, as they used different words and lived on opposite sides of the Kitatinny Mountains of modern New Jersey. Today, only elders speak the language although some young Lenape youth and adults learn the ancient language; the German and English-speaking Moravian missionary John Heckewelder wrote: "The Monsey tong is quite different though came out of one parent language."William Penn, who first met the Lenape in 1682, stated that the Unami used the following words: "mother" was anna, "brother" was isseemus, "friend" was netap.
Penn instructed his fellow Englishmen: "If one asks them for anything they have not, they will answer, mattá ne hattá, which to translate is,'not I have,' instead of'I have not.'"According to the Moravian missionary David Zeisberger, the Unami word for "food" is May-hoe-me-chink. The Unami word for "hill" is Ah-choo. Sometimes the languages shared words, such as "corn,", Xash-queem, or "wolf,", too-may. In contemporary Unami orthography, "food" is michëwakàn, "hill" is ahchu, "corn" is xàskwim, "wolf" is tëme. At the time of first European contact, a Lenape person would have identified with his or her immediate family and clan, and/or village unit. Next with more distant neighbors who spoke the same dialect. Among many Algonquian peoples along the East Coast, the Lenape were considered the "grandfathers" from whom other Algonquian-speaking peoples originated. Lenape has three phratries, each of which had twelve clans; these are: Wolf, Took-seat Turtle, Poke-koo-un'go Turkey, Pul-la'-ook Lenape kinship system has matrilineal clans, that is, children belong to their mother's clan, from which they gain social status and identity.
The mother's eldest brother was more significant as a mentor to the male children than was their father, of another clan. Hereditary leadership passed through the maternal line, women elders could remove leaders of whom they disapproved. Agricultural land was managed by women and allotted according to the subsistence needs of their extended families. Families were matrilocal. By 1682, when William Penn arrived to his America
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces. As of 2018, the British Army comprises just over 81,500 trained regular personnel and just over 27,000 trained reserve personnel; the modern British Army traces back to 1707, with an antecedent in the English Army, created during the Restoration in 1660. The term British Army was adopted in 1707 after the Acts of Union between Scotland. Although all members of the British Army are expected to swear allegiance to Elizabeth II as their commander-in-chief, the Bill of Rights of 1689 requires parliamentary consent for the Crown to maintain a peacetime standing army. Therefore, Parliament approves the army by passing an Armed Forces Act at least once every five years; the army is commanded by the Chief of the General Staff. The British Army has seen action in major wars between the world's great powers, including the Seven Years' War, the Napoleonic Wars, the Crimean War and the First and Second World Wars.
Britain's victories in these decisive wars allowed it to influence world events and establish itself as one of the world's leading military and economic powers. Since the end of the Cold War, the British Army has been deployed to a number of conflict zones as part of an expeditionary force, a coalition force or part of a United Nations peacekeeping operation; until the English Civil War, England never had a standing army with professional officers and careerist corporals and sergeants. It relied on militia organized by local officials, or private forces mobilized by the nobility, or on hired mercenaries from Europe. From the Middle Ages until the English Civil War, when a foreign expeditionary force was needed, such as the one that Henry V of England took to France and that fought at the Battle of Agincourt, the army, a professional one, was raised for the duration of the expedition. During the English Civil War, the members of the Long Parliament realised that the use of county militia organised into regional associations commanded by local members of parliament, while more than able to hold their own in the regions which Parliamentarians controlled, were unlikely to win the war.
So Parliament initiated two actions. The Self-denying Ordinance, with the notable exception of Oliver Cromwell, forbade members of parliament from serving as officers in the Parliamentary armies; this created a distinction between the civilians in Parliament, who tended to be Presbyterian and conciliatory to the Royalists in nature, a corps of professional officers, who tended to Independent politics, to whom they reported. The second action was legislation for the creation of a Parliamentary-funded army, commanded by Lord General Thomas Fairfax, which became known as the New Model Army. While this proved to be a war winning formula, the New Model Army, being organized and politically active, went on to dominate the politics of the Interregnum and by 1660 was disliked; the New Model Army was paid off and disbanded at the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660. For many decades the excesses of the New Model Army under the Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell was a horror story and the Whig element recoiled from allowing a standing army.
The militia acts of 1661 and 1662 prevented local authorities from calling up militia and oppressing their own local opponents. Calling up the militia was possible only if the king and local elites agreed to do so. Charles II and his Cavalier supporters favoured a new army under royal control; the first English Army regiments, including elements of the disbanded New Model Army, were formed between November 1660 and January 1661 and became a standing military force for Britain. The Royal Scots and Irish Armies were financed by the parliaments of Ireland. Parliamentary control was established by the Bill of Rights 1689 and Claim of Right Act 1689, although the monarch continued to influence aspects of army administration until at least the end of the nineteenth century. After the Restoration Charles II pulled together four regiments of infantry and cavalry, calling them his guards, at a cost of £122,000 from his general budget; this became the foundation of the permanent English Army. By 1685 it had grown to 7,500 soldiers in marching regiments, 1,400 men permanently stationed in garrisons.
A rebellion in 1685 allowed James II to raise the forces to 20,000 men. There were 37,000 in 1678. After William and Mary's accession to the throne England involved itself in the War of the Grand Alliance to prevent a French invasion restoring James II. In 1689, William III expanded the army to 74,000, to 94,000 in 1694. Parliament was nervous, reduced the cadre to 7000 in 1697. Scotland and Ireland had theoretically separate military establishments, but they were unofficially merged with the English force. By the time of the 1707 Acts of Union, many regiments of the English and Scottish armies were combined under one operational command and stationed in the Netherlands for the War of the Spanish Succession. Although all the regiments were now part of the new British military establishment, they remained under the old operational-command structure and retained much of the institutional ethos and traditions of the standing armies created shortly after the restoration of the monarchy 47 years earlier.
The order of seniority of the most-senior British Army line regiments is based on that of the English army
Old Swiss Confederacy
The Old Swiss Confederacy was a loose confederation of independent small states within the Holy Roman Empire. It is the precursor of the modern state of Switzerland, it formed during the 14th century, from a nucleus in what is now Central Switzerland, expanding to include the cities of Zürich and Berne by the middle of the century. This formed a rare union of rural and urban communes, all of which enjoyed imperial immediacy in the Holy Roman Empire; this confederation of eight cantons was politically and militarily successful for more than a century, culminating in the Burgundy Wars of the 1470s which established it as a power in the complicated political landscape dominated by France and the Habsburgs. Its success resulted in the addition of more confederates, increasing the number of cantons to thirteen by 1513; the confederacy pledged neutrality in 1647, although many Swiss served as mercenaries in the Italian Wars and during the Early Modern period. After the Swabian War of 1499 the confederacy was a de facto independent state throughout the early modern period, although still nominally part of the Holy Roman Empire until 1648 when the Treaty of Westphalia ended the Thirty Years' War.
The Swiss Reformation divided the confederates into Reformed and Catholic parties, resulting in internal conflict from the 16th to the 18th centuries. The Swiss Confederacy fell to invasion by the French Revolutionary Army in 1798, after which it became the short-lived Helvetic Republic; the adjective "old" was introduced after the Napoleonic era with Ancien Régime, retronyms distinguishing the pre-Napoleonic from the restored confederation. During its existence the confederacy was known as Eidgenossenschaft or Eydtgnoschafft, in reference to treaties among cantons. Territories of the confederacy came to be known collectively as Schweiz or Schweizerland, with the English Switzerland beginning during the mid-16th century. From that time the Confederacy was seen as a single state known as the Swiss Republic after the fashion of calling individual urban cantons republics; the nucleus of the Old Swiss Confederacy was an alliance among the valley communities of the central Alps to facilitate management of common interests and ensure peace along trade routes through the mountains.
The foundation of the Confederacy is marked by the 1315 Pact of Brunnen. Since 1889, the Federal Charter of 1291 among the rural communes of Uri and Unterwalden has been considered the founding document of the confederacy; the initial pact was augmented by pacts with the cities of Lucerne, Zürich, Berne. This union of rural and urban communes, which enjoyed the status of imperial immediacy within the Holy Roman Empire, was engendered by pressure from Habsburg dukes and kings who had ruled much of the land. In several battles with Habsburg armies, the Swiss were victorious. From 1353 to 1481, the federation of eight cantons—known in German as the Acht Orte —consolidated its position; the members enlarged their territory at the expense of local counts—primarily by buying judicial rights, but sometimes by force. The Eidgenossenschaft, as a whole, expanded through military conquest: the Aargau was conquered in 1415 and the Thurgau in 1460. In both cases, the Swiss profited from weakness in the Habsburg dukes.
In the south, Uri led a military territorial expansion that would by 1515 lead to the conquest of the Ticino. None of these territories became members of the confederacy. At this time, the eight cantons increased their influence on neighbouring cities and regions through additional alliances. Individual cantons concluded pacts with Fribourg, Schaffhausen, the abbot and the city of St. Gallen, Rottweil and others; these allies became associated with the confederacy, but were not accepted as full members. The Burgundy Wars prompted a further enlargement of the confederacy. In the Swabian War against Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, the Swiss were victorious and exempted from imperial legislation; the associated cities of Basel and Schaffhausen joined the confederacy as a result of that conflict, Appenzell followed suit in 1513 as the thirteenth member. The federation of thirteen cantons constituted the Old Swiss Confederacy until its demise in 1798; the expansion of the confederacy was stopped by the Swiss defeat in the 1515 Battle of Marignano.
Only Berne and Fribourg were still able to conquer the Vaud in 1536. The Reformation in Switzerland led to doctrinal division amongst the cantons. Zürich, Basel and associates Biel, Neuchâtel and the city of St. Gallen became Protestant. In Glarus, Appenzell, in the Grisons and in mo
Fort Ligonier is a British fortification from the French and Indian War located in Ligonier, United States. The fort served as a staging area for the Forbes Expedition of 1758. During the eight years of its existence as a garrison, Fort Ligonier was never taken by an enemy, it served as a post of passage to the new Fort Pitt, during Pontiac's War of 1763, was a vital link in the British communication and supply lines. It was attacked twice and besieged by the Native Americans, prior to the decisive victory at Bushy Run in August of that year; the fort was decommissioned from active service in 1766. Today, there is a museum next to the reconstructed fort. Inside the museum there are artifacts from the battle. An individual can take a guided tour of the fort, on Fort Ligonier Days, the fort's cannons are fired. French victories over George Washington and Edward Braddock in 1754–55 wrested from Britain control of the strategic forks of the Ohio River. By 1758, General John Forbes was assigned the daunting task of seizing Fort Duquesne, the French citadel at the forks.
He ordered construction of a new road across Pennsylvania, guarded by a chain of fortifications, the final link being the "Post at Loyalhanna," fifty miles from his objective. The fort was constructed in September 1758. By late October, George Washington had arrived at Loyalhanna, but not before the defeat of a British force at Fort Duquesne on September 14, the successful defense of Loyalhanna from a French attack on October 12. Outnumbered and losers in Indian diplomacy, the French abandoned Fort Duquesne, which Forbes occupied on November 25, he designated the site "Pittsburgh" in honor of Secretary of State William Pitt. Forbes named Loyalhanna "Fort Ligonier" after his superior, Sir John Ligonier, commander-in-chief in Great Britain. August 10, 1758—Colonel Bouquet ordered Major James Grant to build a road from Bedford to Ligonier. August 15, 1758—Col. Bouquet sent Ensign Charles Rohr, engineer for General Forbes, to the future site of Fort Ligonier to select a location for a storehouse there.
August 20, 1758—Col. Bouquet sent Major Grant, Col. James Burd and 1,500 men to the site to begin construction. Grant was in overall charge of men. August 21, 1758—Ensign Rohr picked the exact location for the fort. August 22, 1758—Col. Bouquet ordered Col. Burd's men and some artillerymen to build a 120-foot storehouse for supplies and a hospital. August 27, 1758—Burd and Rhor reported the location of a superior site to Ligonier, nine miles to the west; when told of the new site, Forbes directed that work continue on Fort Ligonier, since construction had begun. August 29, 1758—Col. Burd and troops arrived at Fort Ligonier and built trenches around the fort. September 1, 1758—Bouquet sent 100 men to entrench the "Grants Paradise" location south of Latrobe, Pennsylvania. September 9, 1758—Major Grant left Fort Ligonier with troops and headed west to Fort Duquesne. On September 15, he approached within five miles of Fort Duquesne before being beaten by the French, when his deliberate plan to lure out and ambush the fort's defenders went badly wrong.
Bouquet arrived at Fort Ligonier with troops and wrote to Sinclair about the conditions of the fort and supplies, including wagons. October 12, 1758—While the fort was still under construction, the Battle of Fort Ligonier was fought; the French forces attempted to attack again at nightfall, but were forced to retreat by mortar fire from the fort. November 12, 1758—The command of Col. Forbes ran across another squad of De Vitri's French troops lurking around Fort Ligonier; the British attacked, taking three prisoners. One of the prisoners turned out to be an Englishman, taken from his home in Lancaster County by anti-British Native Americans, his information concerning the weak condition of Fort Duquesne was corroborated by that of the French prisoners. Forbes therefore resolved to push forward to capture Fort Duquesne. November 12, 1758—Units led by George Washington and Lieutenant Colonel George Mercer accidentally engaged each other in heavy fog and at night. Two officers and 38 men were wounded.
November 1758—4,000 troops encamped at the fort, making Ligonier the second-largest community in Pennsylvania. November 25, 1758—Forbes captured Fort Duquesne. March 1766—Fort Ligonier was abandoned after the conclusion of the French and Indian War. "The Frontier Forts of Western Pennsylvania," Albert, George Dallas, C. M. Busch, state printer, Harrisburg, 1896. Plan of the fort, pg. 208B. William M. Fowler, Jr. Empires at War: The French and Indian War and the Struggle for North America, 1754–1763. Pennsylvania's Burton K. Kummerow, Christine H. O'Toole, R. Scott Stephenson. Fort Ligonier official website National Register nomination documentation
Fort Bedford was a French and Indian War-era British military fortification located at the present site of Bedford, Pennsylvania. The fort was a star-shaped log fortress erected in the summer of 1758. Fort Bedford was constructed during the French and Indian War by British troops under the command of Colonel Henry Bouquet by order of General John Forbes; the fort was one of a string of British forts and blockhouses designed to protect British supply lines on the Forbes Road, a pioneer trail built by the British during their invasion of the Ohio Country and campaign against the French garrison at Fort Duquesne, modern day Pittsburgh. After General Edward Braddock's campaign to take the forks of the Ohio River ended in disaster, General Forbes was placed in command of a new expedition to capture the strategic point guarded by Fort Duquesne. Forbes vowed not to make the same mistakes as his predecessor. Braddock had led a small invasion force launched from western Maryland, his poorly defended lines of communication were soon compromised.
Forbes intended to launch a large invasion from eastern Pennsylvania by hacking a new pioneer wagon road over the Allegheny Mountains. His plan called for a string of forts and blockhouses to guard the supply road from hostile bands of Native Americans. After constructing Fort Juniata Crossing near present Breezewood, Colonel Bouquet began planning Fort Bedford as the next step towards the Ohio Country. Bouquet chose a spot adjacent to the Juniata River west of a strategic gap in the mountains called "the narrows". Keeping with the overall plan, the new site was about one day's march from the previous fort. After being referred to as the "camp at Raystown", the new encampment was dubbed Fort Bedford in honor of the Duke of Bedford. Bouquet searched the area for some time to find a site, both defensible and had access to fresh water. Since he could find no spot in the area with both these characteristics, the builders placed the fort on a high spot and devised an innovative fortified elevated gallery that provided access to and water from the Juniata River.
It is believed that Fort Bedford was the only fort constructed in America with this arrangement. The exact location of the fort has been lost to history. Several archaeological digs have failed to yield any solid evidence of the fort's site. Using period documents, historians believe it was located somewhere along what is now East Pitt Street in the Borough of Bedford; the fort was a log star-shaped fortress with five bastions. The walls enclosed an area of 1.45 acres. The main gate was located on the south side of the structure and was protected by an earthen ravelin; the north side, which faced the river, featured the unique gallery to the riverbank. The non-river sides were protected by a ditch estimated at between 9 feet in depth. Fort Bedford has been described as the "Grand Central Station of the Forbes campaign" during the French and Indian War, it was used as a staging ground and central storage area for the British Army's push westward towards the French garrisons. Colonel Bouquet and General Forbes used it as their headquarters for portions of the campaign.
After the bulk of the army moved westward, the fort was garrisoned by about 800 men. The fort saw little action during the war and was used as a forward supply base; as the French and Indian War wound down in the frontier, the fort's garrison was moved to other forts. Captain Lewis Ourry, in command of the fort at the outbreak of Pontiac's War, listed just twelve Royal Americans on his roster to guard the fort and more than 90 local families. Despite the weakness of the garrison, the fort was not directly attacked by native warriors. Instead they raided several local settlements and attacked supply trains bound for the fort hoping to starve out the garrison; the arrival of reinforcements under Colonel Bouquet in July 1763 ended most of the local raiding. Details of the fort during the inter-war years are controversial; the British Army abandoned the fort sometime during this period. According to the autobiography of James Smith, leader of a colonial movement known as the "Black Boys", he and his men captured the fort in 1769.
This incident is documented only in Smith's autobiography, so it may be a tall tale, although historian Gregory Evans Dowd notes that there is some corroborating evidence, that some other historians believe the tale to be true. Smith called this the first British fort to fall in the era of the American Revolution; the incident was portrayed in the 1939 Hollywood film Allegheny Uprising, starring John Wayne as James Smith. The fort was garrisoned by the Patriot-sympathizing Bedford County militia during the Revolutionary War; the fort guarded the frontier settlers against raids by British-allied native bands. After the American War of Independence ended, the treaties of the 1780s such as the Treaty of Fort Stanwix and the Treaty of Fort McIntosh reduced the fear of Indian raids in the area of the fort. Sometime during this period, the fort was demolished. George Washington stopped at the town of Bedford while leading troops into Western Pennsylvania to put down the Whiskey Rebellion in 1794. Records of the army's stay at that time seem to indicate that the fort had been razed.
A reconstruction of the log blockhouse was built on the site in 1958 in honor of the fort's 200th anniversary. It is a museum operated by The Bedford Heritage Trust. Fort Bedford, Pennsylvania 2016-01-04 Fort Bedford Historical Marker 2016-01-04 Fort Bedford Museum official site Fort Bedford Time Line Fort Bedford park