Sports journalism is a form of writing that reports on sporting topics and competitions. Sports journalism is the essential element of many news media organizations. While the sports department within some newspapers has been mockingly called the toy department, because sports journalists do not concern themselves with the'serious' topics covered by the news desk, sports coverage has grown in importance as sport has grown in wealth and influence; some media organizations are devoted to sports reporting — newspapers and magazines such as L'Equipe in France, La Gazzetta dello Sport in Italy, Marca in Spain, the defunct Sporting Life in Britain, American Sports Illustrated and Sporting News. Sports. Major League Baseball gave print journalists a special role in its games, they were named official scorers and kept statistics that were considered part of the official record of league. Active sportswriters were removed from this role in 1980. Although their statistical judgment calls could not affect the outcome of a game in progress, the awarding of errors and wins/saves were seen as powerful influences on pitching staff selections and play lists when coach decisions seemed unusual.
The removal of writers, who could benefit fiscally from sensational sports stories, was done to remove this perception of a conflict of interest, to increase statistics volume and accuracy. Sports stories transcend the games themselves and take on socio-political significance: Jackie Robinson breaking the color barrier in baseball is an example of this. Modern controversies regarding the hyper-compensation of top athletes, the use of anabolic steroids and other, banned performance-enhancing drugs, the cost to local and national governments to build sports venues and related infrastructure for Olympic Games demonstrates how sports can intrude on to the news pages. Sportswriters face more deadline pressure than other reporters because sporting events tend to occur late in the day and closer to the deadlines many organizations must observe, yet they are expected to use the same tools as news journalists, to uphold the same professional and ethical standards. They must take care not to show bias for any team.
The tradition of sports reporting attracting some of the finest writers in journalism can be traced to the coverage of sport in Victorian England, where several modern sports – such as association football, cricket and rugby – were first organized and codified into something resembling what we would recognize today. Andrew Warwick has suggested that The Boat Race provided the first mass spectator event for journalistic coverage; the Race, an annual rowing event between the University of Cambridge and University of Oxford, has been held annually from 1856. Cricket because of its esteemed place in society, has attracted the most elegant of writers; the Manchester Guardian, in the first half of the 20th century, employed Neville Cardus as its cricket correspondent as well as its music critic. Cardus was knighted for his services to journalism. One of his successors, John Arlott, who became a worldwide favorite because of his radio commentaries on the BBC, was known for his poetry; the first London Olympic Games in 1908 attracted such widespread public interest that many newspapers assigned their best-known writers to the event.
The Daily Mail had Sir Arthur Conan Doyle at the White City Stadium to cover the finish of the Marathon. Such was the drama of that race, in which Dorando Pietri collapsed within sight of the finishing line when leading, that Conan Doyle led a public subscription campaign to see the gallant Italian, having been denied the gold medal through his disqualification, awarded a special silver cup, presented by Queen Alexandra, and the public imagination was so well caught by the event that annual races in Boston and London, at future Olympics, were henceforward staged over the same, 26-mile, 385-yard distance used for the 1908 Olympic Marathon, the official length of the event worldwide to this day. The London race, called the Polytechnic Marathon and staged over the 1908 Olympic route from outside the royal residence at Windsor Castle to White City, was first sponsored by the Sporting Life, which in those Edwardian times was a daily newspaper which sought to cover all sporting events, rather than just a betting paper for horse racing and greyhounds that it became in the years after the Second World War.
The rise of the radio made sports journalism more focused on the live coverage of the sporting events. The first sports reporter in Great Britain, one of the first sports reporters in the World, was an English writer Edgar Wallace, who made a report on The Derby on June 6, 1923 for the British Broadcasting Company. In France, L'Auto, the predecessor of L'Equipe, had played an influential part in the sporting fabric of society when it announced in 1903 that it would stage an annual bicycle race around the country; the Tour de France was born, sports journalism's role in its foundation is still reflected today in the leading rider wearing a yellow jersey - the color of the paper on which L'Auto was published. After the Second World War, the sports sections of British national daily and Sunday newspapers continued to expand, to the point where many paper
Green-Wood Cemetery is a cemetery in Brooklyn, New York City, founded in 1838 as a rural cemetery. Like other early rural cemeteries, Green-Wood was founded in a time of rapid urbanization when churchyards in New York City were becoming overcrowded. Located in Greenwood Heights, the cemetery lies several blocks southwest of Prospect Park, between Park Slope, Windsor Terrace, Borough Park and Sunset Park; the architecture critic Paul Goldberger, quoting The New York Times from 1866, observed that "it is the ambition of the New Yorker to live upon the Fifth Avenue, to take his airings in the Park, to sleep with his fathers in Green-wood". The gates of the cemetery were designated a New York City landmark in 1966, the Weir Greenhouse, used as a visitor's center, in 1982; the cemetery was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1997 and was granted National Historic Landmark status in 2006 by the U. S. Department of the Interior; the Fort Hamilton Parkway Gate and the cemetery's chapel were designated as landmarks by New York City in 2016.
Described as "Brooklyn's first public park by default long before Prospect Park was created", Green-Wood Cemetery was so popular that it inspired a competition to design Central Park in Manhattan, as well as Prospect Park nearby. Less inspired by Pére Lachaise Cemetery in Paris, which at the time retained the axial formality of Alexandre Théodore Brongniart's original design, than by opened Mount Auburn Cemetery in Cambridge, where a cemetery in a naturalistic park-like landscape in the English manner was first established, Green-Wood was able to take advantage of the varied topography provided by glacial moraines. Battle Hill, the highest point in Brooklyn, is on cemetery grounds, rising 200 feet above sea level, it was the site of an important action during the Battle of Long Island on August 27, 1776. A Revolutionary War monument by Frederick Ruckstull, Altar to Liberty: Minerva, was erected there in 1920. From this height, the bronze Minerva statue gazes towards the Statue of Liberty across New York Harbor.
Green-Wood Cemetery contains 7000 trees spread out over 478 acres. The rolling hills and dales, several ponds and an on-site chapel provide an environment that still draws visitors. In 2017 it received 280,000 visitors. There are several famous monuments located there, including a statue of DeWitt Clinton, a memorial erected by James Brown, president of Brown Brothers bank and the Collins Line, to the six members of his family lost in the SS Arctic disaster of 1854; this incorporates a sculpture of the ship, half-submerged by the waves, as well as a Civil War Memorial. During the Civil War, Green-Wood Cemetery created the "Soldiers' Lot" for free veterans' burials; the gates were designed by Richard Upjohn in Gothic Revival style. The main entrance to the cemetery was built in 1861-65 of Belleville, New Jersey brownstone; the sculptured groups on Nova Scotia limestone panels depicting biblical scenes of death and resurrection from the New Testament including Lazarus, The Widow's Son, Jesus' Resurrection over the gateways are the work of sculptor John M. Moffitt.
A Designated Landmarks of New York plaque was erected on it in 1958 by the New York Community Trust, it was designated an official New York City landmark in 1966. Several wooden shelters were built, including one in a Gothic Revival style, one resembling an Italian villa, another resembling a Swiss chalet. A descendent colony of monk parakeets that are believed to have escaped their containers while in transit now nests in the spires of the gate, as well as other areas in Brooklyn; the cemetery was the idea of a Brooklyn social leader. The Pierrepont papers deposited at the Brooklyn Historical Society contain material about the organizing of Green-Wood Cemetery, it was a popular tourist destination in the 1850s, by the early 1860s it was drawing annual crowds second in size only to Niagara Falls. Most famous New Yorkers who died during the second half of the nineteenth century were buried there. On December 5, 1876, the Brooklyn Theater Fire claimed the lives of at least 278 individuals, with some accounts reporting over 300 dead.
Out of that total, 103 unidentified victims were interred in a common grave at Green-Wood Cemetery. An obelisk near the main entrance at Fifth Avenue and 25th Street marks the burial site. More than two dozen identified victims were interred individually in separate sections at the Cemetery of the Evergreens in Brooklyn. Buried at the cemetery are 6 British Commonwealth service personnel whose graves are registered by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission, 3 from World War I and 3 from World War II, among the latter being Leading Aircraftsman Remsen Taylor Williams, Royal Canadian Air Force, buried in the Steinway Vault. Green-Wood has remained non-sectarian, but was considered a Christian burial place for white Anglo-Saxon Protestants of good repute. One early regulation was that no one executed for a crime, or dying in jail, could be buried there. Although he died in the Ludlow Street Jail, the family of the infamous "Boss" Tweed managed to circumvent this rule; the cemetery's chapel was completed in 1911.
It was designed by the architectural firm of Warren and Wetmore, who designed Grand Central Terminal, the Commodore Hotel, the Yale Club and many other buildings. The chapel is a reduced version of the upper sections of Christopher Wren's Tom Tower at Christ Church College in Oxford. Green-Wood's landscape architect David Bates Douglass modeled his two subsequently designed garden cemeteries upon Green-Wood: Albany Rural Cemetery, located in Menands, New York, Mount Hermon Cemetery, in Q
Base on balls
A base on balls known as a walk, occurs in baseball when a batter receives four pitches that the umpire calls balls, is in turn awarded first base without the possibility of being called out. The base on balls is defined in Section 2.00 of baseball's Official Rules, further detail is given in 6.08. It is, considered a faux pas for a professional player to walk to first base; the term "base on balls" distinguishes a walk from the other manners in which a batter can be awarded first base without liability to be put out. Though a base on balls, catcher's interference, or a batter hit by a pitched ball all result in the batter being awarded a base, the term "walk" refers only to a base on balls, not the other methods of reaching base without the bat touching the ball. An important difference is that for a hit batter or catcher's interference, the ball is dead and no one may advance unless forced. A batter who draws a base on balls is said to have been "walked" by the pitcher; when the batter is walked, runners advance one base without liability to be put out only if forced to vacate their base to allow the batter to take first base.
If a batter draws a walk with the bases loaded, all preceding runners are forced to advance, including the runner on third base, forced to home plate to score a run. Receiving a base on balls does not count as a hit or an at bat for a batter but does count as a time on base and a plate appearance. Therefore, a base on balls does not affect a player's batting average, but it can increase his on-base percentage. A hit by pitch is not counted statistically as a walk, though the effect is the same, with the batter receiving a free pass to first base. One exception is. On a HBP, any runners attempting to steal on the play must return to their original base unless forced to the next base anyway; when a walk occurs, the ball is still live: any runner not forced to advance may attempt to advance at his own risk, which might occur on a steal play, passed ball, or wild pitch. Because a ball is live when a base on balls occurs, runners on base forced to advance one base may attempt to advance beyond one base, at their own risk.
The batter-runner himself may attempt to advance at his own risk. Rule 6.08 addresses this matter as well. An attempt to advance an additional base beyond the base awarded might occur when ball four is a passed ball or a wild pitch. In 1880, the National League changed the rules so that eight balls instead of nine were required for a walk. In 1884, the National League changed the rules. In 1886, the American Association changed the rules so that six balls instead of seven were required for a walk. In 1887, the National League and American Association agreed to abide by some uniform rule changes and decreased the number of balls required for a walk to five. In 1889, the National League and the American Association decreased the number of balls required for a walk to four. In 2017, Major League Baseball approved a rule change allowing for a batter to be walked intentionally by having the defending bench signal to the Umpire; the move was met with some controversy. A subset of the base on balls, an intentional base on balls or intentional walk is when the pitcher deliberately pitches the ball away from the batter in order to issue a base on balls.
As with any other walk, an intentional walk entitles the batter to first base without liability to be put out, entitles any runners to advance if forced. Intentional walks are a strategic defensive maneuver done to bypass one hitter for one the defensive team believes is less to initiate a run-scoring play. Teams commonly use intentional walks to set up a double play or force out situation for the next batter. Intentional walks do carry risks, however, they carry an obvious, inherent risk: they give the offensive team another runner on base, without any effort on their part, who could score a run. They may carry additional risks. An intentional walk is signaled by the catcher standing and extending one arm to the side away from the batter; the pitcher pitches the ball to that side several feet outside from home plate outside the reach of the batter. A ball pitched in this manner is called an intentional ball and counts as a ball in the pitcher's pitch count. In order to count as an intentional ball, the ball must be pitched, i.e. the pitcher's foot must be on the pitcher's rubber, the catcher must be in the catcher's box, the batter must be in the batter's box appearing ready to take a pitch at the time the ball is thrown.
An intentional walk may be signaled at any time during the batter's turn at the plate. Only walks issued by the catcher signaling as described above are recorded as intentional walks. Another risk taken by the defensive team in issuing a base on balls is that since intentional balls must be pitched in a legal manner, they can become wild pitches or passed balls. A baserunner can attempt
Sir Edwin Chadwick KCB was an English social reformer, noted for his leadership in reforming the Poor Laws in England and instituting major reforms in urban sanitation and public health. A disciple of Utilitarian philosopher Jeremy Bentham, he was most active between 1832 and 1854. Chadwick pioneered the use of scientific surveys to identify all phases of a complex social problem, pioneered the use of systematic long-term inspection programmes to make sure the reforms operated as planned. Edwin Chadwick was born on 24 January 1800 at Manchester, his mother died. His father, James Chadwick, tutored the scientist John Dalton in music and botany and was considered to be an advanced liberal politician, thus exposing young Edwin to political and social ideas, his grandfather, Andrew Chadwick, had been a close friend of the Methodist theologian John Wesley. He began his education at a small school in Lancashire and moved to a boarding school in Stockport, where he studied until he was 10; when his family moved to London in 1810, Chadwick continued his education with the help of private tutors, his father and a great deal of self-teaching.
His father remarried in the early 1820s. At 18, Chadwick decided to pursue a career in law and undertook an apprenticeship at an attorney's office. In 1823, he enrolled in law school at The Temple in London. On 26 November 1830 he was called to the bar. Called to the bar without independent means, he sought to support himself by literary work such as his work on Applied Science and its Place in Democracy, his essays in the Westminster Review on different methods of applying scientific knowledge to the practice of government, he became friends with two of the leading philosophers of the day, John Stuart Mill and Jeremy Bentham. Bentham left him a large legacy, he became acquaintances with Thomas Southwood Smith, Neil Arnott and James Kay-Shuttleworth, all doctors. From his exposure to social reform and under the influence of his friends, he began to devote his efforts to sanitary reform. In 1832, Chadwick began on his path to make improvements with sanitary and health conditions. In 1832, he was employed by the Royal Commission appointed to inquire into the operation of the Poor Law, in 1833, he was made a full member of that commission.
Chadwick and Nassau William Senior drafted the famous report of 1834, recommending the reform of the old law. Under the 1834 system, individual parishes were formed into Poor Law Unions, each Poor Law Union was to have a union workhouse. Chadwick favoured a more centralised system of administration than the one adopted, he felt the Poor Law reform of 1834 should have provided for the management of poor law relief by salaried officers controlled from a central board, with the boards of guardians acting as inspectors. In 1834, he was appointed secretary to the Poor Law commissioners. Unwilling to administer an act of which he was the author in any way other than as he thought best, he found it hard to get along with his superiors; the disagreement, among others, contributed to the dissolution of the Poor Law Commission in 1847. His chief contribution to political controversy was his belief in entrusting certain departments of local affairs to trained and selected experts instead of to representatives, elected on the principle of local self-government.
Following a serious outbreak of typhus in 1838, Chadwick convinced the Poor Law Board that an enquiry was required, this was carried out by his doctor friends Arnot and Southwood Smith, assisted by another doctor from Manchester, James Kay Shuttleworth. This was the first time in British history that doctors were employed to look at the conditions which might contribute to ill health in the population. Chadwick sent questionnaires to every Poor Law Union, talked to surveyors, prison governors, police officers and factory inspectors to obtain additional data about the lives of the poor, he edited the information himself, prepared it for publication. His Report on The Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Population of Great Britain, begun in 1839 and published in 1842, was researched and published at his own expense, became the best-selling publication produced by the Stationery Office to date. A supplementary report was published in 1843, he employed John Roe, the surveyor for the district of Holborn and Finsbury who had invented the egg-shaped sewer, to conduct experiments on the most efficient ways to construct drains, the results of which were incorporated into the report, the summary included eight points, including the absolute necessity of better water supplies and of a drainage system to remove waste, as ways to diminish premature mortality.
Evidence given by Dr Dyce Guthrie convinced Chadwick that every house should have a permanent water supply, rather than the intermittent supplies from standpipes that were provided. The report caught the public imagination, the government had to set up a Health of Towns Commission to consider the issues and recommend legislation, its chairman was the Duke of Baccleuch, there were thirteen members, including the engineers Robert Stephenson and William Cubitt. Chadwick acted as secretary in an unofficial capacity, seems to have dominated the proceedings; the Commission took evidence from Robert Thom, who had designed a water supply system for Greenock, Thomas Wicksteed, the engineer for the East London Waterworks Company, Thomas Hawksley from the Trent Waterworks, Nottingham. These confirmed his ideas about constant water
The English people are a nation and an ethnic group native to England who speak the English language. The English identity is of early medieval origin, when they were known in Old English as the Angelcynn, their ethnonym is derived from the Angles, one of the Germanic peoples who migrated to Great Britain around the 5th century AD. England is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, the majority of people living there are British citizens; the English descend from two main historical population groups – the earlier Celtic Britons and the Germanic tribes who settled in Britain following the withdrawal of the Romans: the Angles, Saxons and Frisians. Collectively known as the Anglo-Saxons, they founded what was to become the Kingdom of England by the early 10th century, in response to the invasion and minor settlement of Danes beginning in the late 9th century; this was followed by the Norman Conquest and limited settlement of Anglo-Normans in England in the latter 11th century. In the Acts of Union 1707, the Kingdom of England was succeeded by the Kingdom of Great Britain.
Over the years, English customs and identity have become closely aligned with British customs and identity in general. Today many English people have recent forebears from other parts of the United Kingdom, while some are descended from more recent immigrants from other European countries and from the Commonwealth; the English people are the source of the English language, the Westminster system, the common law system and numerous major sports such as cricket, rugby union, rugby league and tennis. These and other English cultural characteristics have spread worldwide, in part as a result of the former British Empire; the concept of an'English nation' has become popular after the devolution process in Scotland and Northern Ireland resulted in the four nations having semi-independent political and legal systems. Although England itself has no devolved government, the 1990s witnessed a rise in English self-consciousness; this is linked to the expressions of national self-awareness of the other British nations of Wales and Scotland – which take their most solid form in the new devolved political arrangements within the United Kingdom – and the waning of a shared British national identity with the growing distance between the end of the British Empire and the present.
Many recent immigrants to England have assumed a British identity, while others have developed dual or mixed identities. Use of the word "English" to describe Britons from ethnic minorities in England is complicated by most non-white people in England identifying as British rather than English. In their 2004 Annual Population Survey, the Office for National Statistics compared the ethnic identities of British people with their perceived national identity, they found that while 58% of white people in England described their nationality as "English", the vast majority of non-white people called themselves "British". It is unclear. In the 2001 UK census, respondents were invited to state their ethnicity, but while there were tick boxes for'Irish' and for'Scottish', there were none for'English', or'Welsh', who were subsumed into the general heading'White British'. Following complaints about this, the 2011 census was changed to "allow respondents to record their English, Scottish, Northern Irish, Irish or other identity."
Another complication in defining the English is a common tendency for the words "English" and "British" to be used interchangeably outside the UK. In his study of English identity, Krishan Kumar describes a common slip of the tongue in which people say "English, I mean British", he notes that this slip is made only by the English themselves and by foreigners: "Non-English members of the United Kingdom say'British' when they mean'English'". Kumar suggests that although this blurring is a sign of England's dominant position with the UK, it is "problematic for the English when it comes to conceiving of their national identity, it tells of the difficulty that most English people have of distinguishing themselves, in a collective way, from the other inhabitants of the British Isles". In 1965, the historian A. J. P. Taylor wrote, "When the Oxford History of England was launched a generation ago, "England" was still an all-embracing word, it meant indiscriminately Wales. Foreigners indeed continue to do so.
Bonar Law, by origin a Scotch Canadian, was not ashamed to describe himself as "Prime Minister of England" Now terms have become more rigorous. The use of "England" except for a geographic area brings protests from the Scotch."However, although Taylor believed this blurring effect was dying out, in his book The Isles, Norman Davies lists numerous examples in history books of "British" still being used to mean "English" and vice versa. In December 2010, Matthew Parris in The Spectator, analysing the use of "English" over "British", argued that English identity, rather than growing, had existed all along but has been unmasked from behind a veneer of Britishness. David Reich's laboratory found that 90% of Britain's Neolithic gene pool was overturned by a population from North Continental Europe characterized by the Bell Beaker culture around 1200BC who carried a large amount of Yamnaya ancestry from the Pontic-Caspian Steppe, including the R1b Haplogroup; this population lacked genetic affinity to other Bell Beaker populations, such as the Iberian Bell Beakers, but appeared to be an offshoot of the Corded Ware single grave people
Richmond is the capital of the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States. It is the center of the Greater Richmond Region. Richmond was incorporated in 1742 and has been an independent city since 1871; as of the 2010 census, the city's population was 204,214. The Richmond Metropolitan Area has a population of 1,260,029, the third-most populous metro in the state. Richmond is located at the fall line of the James River, 44 miles west of Williamsburg, 66 miles east of Charlottesville, 100 miles east of Lynchburg and 90 miles south of Washington, D. C. Surrounded by Henrico and Chesterfield counties, the city is located at the intersections of Interstate 95 and Interstate 64, encircled by Interstate 295, Virginia State Route 150 and Virginia State Route 288. Major suburbs include Midlothian to the southwest, Chesterfield to the south, Varina to the southeast, Sandston to the east, Glen Allen to the north and west, Short Pump to the west and Mechanicsville to the northeast; the site of Richmond had been an important village of the Powhatan Confederacy, was settled by English colonists from Jamestown in 1609, in 1610–1611.
The present city of Richmond was founded in 1737. It became Dominion of Virginia in 1780, replacing Williamsburg. During the Revolutionary War period, several notable events occurred in the city, including Patrick Henry's "Give me liberty or give me death" speech in 1775 at St. John's Church, the passage of the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom written by Thomas Jefferson. During the American Civil War, Richmond served as the second and permanent capital of the Confederate States of America; the city entered the 20th century with one of the world's first successful electric streetcar systems. The Jackson Ward neighborhood is a national hub of African-American culture. Richmond's economy is driven by law and government, with federal and local governmental agencies, as well as notable legal and banking firms, located in the downtown area; the city is home to both the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit, one of 13 United States courts of appeals, the Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond, one of 12 Federal Reserve Banks.
Dominion Energy and WestRock, Fortune 500 companies, are headquartered in the city, with others in the metropolitan area. After the first permanent English-speaking settlement was established in April 1607, at Jamestown, Captain Christopher Newport led explorers northwest up the James River, to an area, inhabited by Powhatan Native Americans; the earliest European settlement in the Central Virginia area was in 1611 at Henricus, where the Falling Creek empties into the James River. In 1619, early Virginia Company settlers struggling to establish viable moneymaking industries established the Falling Creek Ironworks. After decades of territorial conflicts with native tribes, the Falls of the James became more to white settlement in the late 1600s and early 1700s. In 1737, planter William Byrd II commissioned Major William Mayo to lay out the original town grid. Byrd named the city "Richmond" after the English town of Richmond near London, because the view of the James River was strikingly similar to the view of the River Thames from Richmond Hill in England, where he had spent time during his youth.
The settlement was laid out in April 1737, was incorporated as a town in 1742. In 1775, Patrick Henry delivered his famous "Give me Liberty or Give me Death" speech in St. John's Church in Richmond, crucial for deciding Virginia's participation in the First Continental Congress and setting the course for revolution and independence. On April 18, 1780, the state capital was moved from the colonial capital of Williamsburg to Richmond, to provide a more centralized location for Virginia's increasing westerly population, as well as to isolate the capital from British attack; the latter motive proved to be in vain, in 1781, under the command of Benedict Arnold, Richmond was burned by British troops, causing Governor Thomas Jefferson to flee as the Virginia militia, led by Sampson Mathews, defended the city. Richmond recovered from the war, by 1782 was once again a thriving city. In 1786, the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom was passed at the temporary capitol in Richmond, providing the basis for the separation of church and state, a key element in the development of the freedom of religion in the United States.
A permanent home for the new government, the Greek Revival style of the Virginia State Capitol building, was designed by Thomas Jefferson with the assistance of Charles-Louis Clérisseau, was completed in 1788. After the American Revolutionary War, Richmond emerged as an important industrial center. To facilitate the transfer of cargo from the flat-bottomed James River bateaux above the fall line to the ocean-faring ships below, an enterprising George Washington helped design the James River and Kanawha Canal from Westham east to Richmond, in the 18th century to bypass Richmond's rapids on the upper James River with the intent of providing a water route across the Appalachian Mountains to the Kanawha River flowing westward into the Ohio eventually to the Mississippi River; the legacy of the canal boatmen is represented by the figure in the center of the city flag. As a result of this and ample access to hydropower due to the falls, Richmond became home to some of the largest manufacturing facilities in the country, including iron works and flour mills, the largest facilities of their kind in The South.
The resistance to the s
A journalist is a person who collects, writes, or distributes news or other current information to the public. A journalist's work is called journalism. A journalist can specialize in certain issues. However, most journalists tend to specialize, by cooperating with other journalists, produce journals that span many topics. For example, a sports journalist covers news within the world of sports, but this journalist may be a part of a newspaper that covers many different topics. A reporter is a type of journalist who researches and reports on information in order to present in sources, conduct interviews, engage in research, make reports; the information-gathering part of a journalist's job is sometimes called reporting, in contrast to the production part of the job such as writing articles. Reporters may split their time between working in a newsroom and going out to witness events or interviewing people. Reporters may be assigned a specific area of coverage. Depending on the context, the term journalist may include various types of editors, editorial writers and visual journalists, such as photojournalists.
Journalism has developed a variety of standards. While objectivity and a lack of bias are of primary concern and importance, more liberal types of journalism, such as advocacy journalism and activism, intentionally adopt a non-objective viewpoint; this has become more prevalent with the advent of social media and blogs, as well as other platforms that are used to manipulate or sway social and political opinions and policies. These platforms project extreme bias, as "sources" are not always held accountable or considered necessary in order to produce a written, televised, or otherwise "published" end product. Matthew C. Nisbet, who has written on science communication, has defined a "knowledge journalist" as a public intellectual who, like Walter Lippmann, David Brooks, Fareed Zakaria, Naomi Klein, Michael Pollan, Thomas Friedman, Andrew Revkin, sees their role as researching complicated issues of fact or science which most laymen would not have the time or access to information to research themselves communicating an accurate and understandable version to the public as a teacher and policy advisor.
In his best-known books, Public Opinion and The Phantom Public, Lippmann argued that most individuals lacked the capacity and motivation to follow and analyze news of the many complex policy questions that troubled society. Nor did they directly experience most social problems, or have direct access to expert insights; these limitations were made worse by a news media that tended to over-simplify issues and to reinforce stereotypes, partisan viewpoints, prejudices. As a consequence, Lippmann believed that the public needed journalists like himself who could serve as expert analysts, guiding “citizens to a deeper understanding of what was important.” In 2018, the United States Department of Labor's Occupational Outlook Handbook reported that employment for the category, "reporters and broadcast news analysts," will decline 9 percent between 2016 and 2026. Journalists sometimes expose themselves to danger when reporting in areas of armed conflict or in states that do not respect the freedom of the press.
Organizations such as the Committee to Protect Journalists and Reporters Without Borders publish reports on press freedom and advocate for journalistic freedom. As of November 2011, the Committee to Protect Journalists reports that 887 journalists have been killed worldwide since 1992 by murder, crossfire or combat, or on dangerous assignment; the "ten deadliest countries" for journalists since 1992 have been Iraq, Russia, Mexico, Pakistan, Somalia and Sri Lanka. The Committee to Protect Journalists reports that as of December 1, 2010, 145 journalists were jailed worldwide for journalistic activities. Current numbers are higher; the ten countries with the largest number of currently-imprisoned journalists are Turkey, Iran, Burma, Vietnam, Cuba and Sudan. Apart from the physical harm, journalists are harmed psychologically; this applies to war reporters, but their editorial offices at home do not know how to deal appropriately with the reporters they expose to danger. Hence, a systematic and sustainable way of psychological support for traumatized journalists is needed.
However, only little and fragmented support programs exist so far. The Newseum in Washington, D. C. is home to the Journalists Memorial, which lists the names of over 2,100 journalists from around the world who were killed in the line of duty. The relationship between a professional journalist and a source can be rather complex, a source can sometimes impact the direction of the article written by the journalist; the article'A Compromised Fourth Estate' uses Herbert Gans' metaphor to capture their relationship. He uses a dance metaphor'The Tango' to illustrate the co-operative nature of their interactions "It takes two to tango". Herbert suggests that the source leads but journalists object to this notion for two reasons: It signals source supremacy in news making, it offends journalists' professional culture, which emphasizes editorial autonomy. This dance metaphor helps showcase consensus within the relationship but the article describe the common relation between the two "A relationship with sources, too cozy is compromising of journalists’ integrity and risks becoming collusive.
Journalists have favored a