Sir Charles Spencer Chaplin was an English comic actor and composer who rose to fame in the era of silent film. He became a worldwide icon through his screen persona, "The Tramp", is considered one of the most important figures in the history of the film industry, his career spanned more than 75 years, from childhood in the Victorian era until a year before his death in 1977, encompassed both adulation and controversy. Chaplin's childhood in London was one of poverty and hardship, as his father was absent and his mother struggled financially, he was sent to a workhouse twice before the age of nine; when he was 14, his mother was committed to a mental asylum. Chaplin began performing at an early age, touring music halls and working as a stage actor and comedian. At 19, he was signed to the prestigious Fred Karno company, he began appearing in 1914 for Keystone Studios. He soon formed a large fan base, he directed his own films and continued to hone his craft as he moved to the Essanay and First National corporations.
By 1918, he was one of the best-known figures in the world. In 1919, Chaplin co-founded the distribution company United Artists which gave him complete control over his films, his first feature-length film was The Kid, followed by A Woman of Paris, The Gold Rush, The Circus. He refused to move to sound films in the 1930s, instead producing City Lights and Modern Times without dialogue, he became political, his next film The Great Dictator satirized Adolf Hitler. The 1940s were a decade marked with controversy for Chaplin, his popularity declined rapidly, he was accused of communist sympathies, while he created scandal through his involvement in a paternity suit and his marriages to much younger women. An FBI investigation was opened, Chaplin was forced to leave the United States and settle in Switzerland, he abandoned the Tramp in his films, which include Monsieur Verdoux, Limelight, A King in New York, A Countess from Hong Kong. Chaplin wrote, produced, starred in, composed the music for most of his films.
He was a perfectionist, his financial independence enabled him to spend years on the development and production of a picture. His films are characterized by slapstick combined with pathos, typified in the Tramp's struggles against adversity. Many contain political themes, as well as autobiographical elements, he received an Honorary Academy Award for "the incalculable effect he has had in making motion pictures the art form of this century" in 1972, as part of a renewed appreciation for his work. He continues to be held in high regard, with The Gold Rush, City Lights, Modern Times, The Great Dictator ranked on lists of the greatest films of all time. Charles Spencer Chaplin was born on 16 April 1889 to Charles Chaplin Sr.. There is no official record of his birth, although Chaplin believed he was born at East Street, Walworth, in South London, his mother and father had married four years at which time Charles Sr. became the legal guardian of Hannah's illegitimate son, Sydney John Hill. At the time of his birth, Chaplin's parents were both music hall entertainers.
Hannah, the daughter of a shoemaker, had a brief and unsuccessful career under the stage name Lily Harley, while Charles Sr. a butcher's son, was a popular singer. Although they never divorced, Chaplin's parents were estranged by around 1891; the following year, Hannah gave birth to a third son – George Wheeler Dryden – fathered by the music hall entertainer Leo Dryden. The child was taken by Dryden at six months old, did not re-enter Chaplin's life for 30 years. Chaplin's childhood was fraught with poverty and hardship, making his eventual trajectory "the most dramatic of all the rags to riches stories told" according to his authorised biographer David Robinson. Chaplin's early years were spent with his mother and brother Sydney in the London district of Kennington; as the situation deteriorated, Chaplin was sent to Lambeth Workhouse. The council housed him at the Central London District School for paupers, which Chaplin remembered as "a forlorn existence", he was reunited with his mother 18 months before Hannah was forced to readmit her family to the workhouse in July 1898.
The boys were promptly sent to another institution for destitute children. In September 1898, Hannah was committed to Cane Hill mental asylum – she had developed a psychosis brought on by an infection of syphilis and malnutrition. For the two months she was there and his brother Sydney were sent to live with their father, whom the young boys scarcely knew. Charles Sr. was by a severe alcoholic, life there was bad enough to provoke a visit from the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children. Chaplin's father died two years at 38 years old, from cirrhosis of the liver. Hannah entered a period of remission but, in May 1903, became ill again. Chaplin 14, had the task of taking his mother to the infirmary, from where she was sent back to Cane Hill, he lived alone for several days, searching for food and sleeping rough, until Sydney – who had enrolled in the Navy two years earlier – returned. Hannah was released from the asylum eight months but in March 1905, her illness returned, this time permanently.
"There was nothing we could do but accept poor mother's fate", Chaplin wrote, a
Errol Leslie Thomson Flynn was an Australian-born American actor during the Golden Age of Hollywood. Considered the natural successor to Douglas Fairbanks, he achieved worldwide fame for his romantic swashbuckler roles in Hollywood films, as well as frequent partnerships with Olivia de Havilland, he was best known for his role as Robin Hood in The Adventures of Robin Hood. His other famous roles included the eponymous lead in Captain Blood, Major Geoffrey Vickers in The Charge of the Light Brigade, as well as a number of Westerns, such as Dodge City, Santa Fe Trail and San Antonio. Errol Leslie Flynn was born on 20 June 1909 in Battery Point, a suburb of Hobart, Australia, his father, Theodore Thomson Flynn, was a lecturer and professor of biology at the University of Tasmania. His mother was born Lily Mary Young, but shortly after marrying Theodore at St John's Church of England, Sydney, on 23 January 1909, she changed her first name to Marelle. Flynn described his mother's family as "seafaring folk" and this appears to be where his lifelong interest in boats and the sea originated.
Both of his parents were Australian-born of Irish and Scottish descent. Despite Flynn's claims, the evidence indicates that he was not descended from any of the Bounty mutineers. Flynn received his early schooling in Hobart, he made one of his first appearances as a performer in 1918, aged nine, when he served as a page boy to Enid Lyons in a queen carnival. In her memoirs, Lyons recalled Flynn as "a dashing figure—a handsome boy of nine with a fearless, somewhat haughty expression showing that sang-froid for which he was to become famous throughout the civilized world", she further noted: "Unfortunately Errol at the age of nine did not yet possess that magic for extracting money from the public which so distinguished his career as an actor. Our cause gained no apparent advantage from his presence in my entourage. From 1923-25, Flynn was educated at the South West London College, a private boarding school in Barnes, London. In 1926, he returned to Australia to attend Sydney Church of England Grammar School, where he was the classmate of a future Australian prime minister, John Gorton.
His formal education ended with his expulsion from Shore for theft, although he claimed it was for a sexual encounter with the school's laundress. After being dismissed from a job as a junior clerk with a Sydney shipping company for pilfering petty cash, he went to Papua New Guinea at the age of eighteen, seeking his fortune in tobacco planting and metals mining, he spent the next five years oscillating between New Sydney. In January 1931, Flynn became engaged to Naomi Campbell-Dibbs, the youngest daughter of Robert and Emily Hamlyn Campbell-Dibbs of Temora and Bowral, New South Wales, they did not marry. Australian filmmaker Charles Chauvel was making a film about the mutiny on the Bounty, In the Wake of the Bounty, a combination of dramatic re-enactments of the mutiny and a documentary on present-day Pitcairn Island. Chauvel was looking for someone to play the role of Fletcher Christian. There are different stories. According to one, Chauvel saw his picture in an article about a yacht wreck involving Flynn.
The most popular account is. The film was not a strong success at the box office, but it was the lead role and seemed to ignite Flynn's interest in acting. In late 1933 he went to Britain to pursue a career in acting. Flynn got work as an extra in a film, I Adore You, produced by Irving Asher for Warner Bros. Flynn soon secured a job with the Northampton Repertory Company at the town's Royal Theatre, where he worked and received his training as a professional actor for seven months. Northampton is home to an art-house cinema named after the Errol Flynn Filmhouse, he performed at the 1934 Malvern Festival and in Glasgow, in London's West End. In 1934 Flynn was dismissed from Northampton Rep. after he threw a female stage manager down a stairwell. He returned to London. Asher cast him as the lead in Murder at Monte Carlo, a "quota quickie" made by Warner Brothers at their Teddington Studios in Middlesex; the movie was not seen, but Asher was enthusiastic about Flynn's performance and cabled Warner Bros. in Hollywood, recommending him for a contract.
Executives agreed, Flynn was sent out to Los Angeles. On the ship from London, Flynn met Lili Damita, an actress five years his senior whose contacts proved valuable when Flynn arrived in Los Angeles. Warner Bros. publicity described him as an "Irish leading man of the London stage."His first appearance was a small role in The Case of the Curious Bride. Flynn had one as a corpse and one in flashback, his next part was bigger, in Don't Bet on Blondes, a B-picture screwball comedy. Warner Bros. were preparing a big budget swashbuckler, Captain Blood, based on the novel by Rafael Sabatini and directed by Michael Curtiz. They intended to cast Robert Donat, but he turned down the role. Warners considered a number of other actors, including Leslie Howard and James Cagney, conducted screen tests of those they had under contract, like Flynn; the tests were impressive and Warners cast Flynn in the lead, opposite Olivia de Havilland. The resulting film was a magnificent success for both the studio and Flynn, a new Hollywood star was born.
The budget for Captain Blood w
Jack Oakie was an American actor, starring in films, but working on stage and television. He portrayed Napaloni in Chaplin's The Great Dictator, receiving a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor. Jack Oakie was born in Sedalia, Missouri, at 522 W. Seventh St, his father, James Madison Offield, was a grain dealer, his mother, Evelyn Offield, was a psychology teacher. When he was 5, the Offield family moved to Muskogee, the source of his "Oakie" nickname, his adopted first name, was the name of the first character he played on stage. Young Lewis/Jack grew up in Oklahoma but lived for periods of time with his grandmother in Kansas City, Missouri. While there he attended Woodland Elementary and made spending money as a paperboy for The Kansas City Star, he recalled years that he made good money selling "extras" in November 1916 during the presidential election campaign that resulted Woodrow Wilson being re-elected. Oakie worked as a runner on Wall Street and narrowly escaped being killed in the Wall Street bombing of September 16, 1920.
While in New York, he started appearing in amateur theatre as a mimic and a comedian making his professional debut on Broadway in 1923 as a chorus boy in a production of Little Nellie Kelly by George M. Cohan. Oakie worked in various musicals and comedies on Broadway from 1923 to 1927, when he moved to Hollywood to work in movies at the end of the silent film era. Oakie appeared in five silent films during 1927 and 1928; as the age of the "talkies" began, he signed with Paramount Pictures in 1927. He made his first talking film, The Dummy, in 1929; when his contract with Paramount ended in 1934, Oakie decided to freelance. He was remarkably successful, appearing in 87 films, most made in the 1940s. In the film Too Much Harmony, the part of Oakie's on-screen mother was played by his real mother, Mary Evelyn Offield. During the 1930s, he was known as "The World's Oldest Freshman", as a result of appearing in numerous films with a collegiate theme, he was known for refusing to wear screen make-up of any kind, the frequent use of double-take in his comedy.
Oakie was quoted as saying of his studio career: Oakie portrayed Benzino Napaloni, the boisterous dictator of Bacteria, in Charlie Chaplin's The Great Dictator, for which he received an Oscar nomination for Best Supporting Actor. This role was a broad parody of the fascist dictator of Italy, Benito Mussolini in power. Not being limited by a film studio contract, Oakie branched into radio and had his own radio show between 1936 and 1938. Late in his career he appeared in various episodes of a number of television shows, including The Real McCoys, Breaking Point, Daniel Boone, Bonanza. Oakie was married twice, his first marriage to Venita Varden in 1936 ended in 1938 when Venita got an interlocutory decree of divorce. They reconciled, but divorced in 1944. Oakie's second marriage was to actress Victoria Horne in 1950, with whom he lived at "Oakridge" until his death in 1978. Jack Oakie died on January 23, 1978, in Los Angeles, California, at the age of 74 from an aortic aneurysm, his remains were interred at Glendale, in Los Angeles County.
Jack and Victoria Oakie lived their entire married life at "Oakridge", their 11-acre estate at 18650 Devonshire Street in Northridge, a suburb of Los Angeles in the San Fernando Valley. They acquired the former "Marwyck" estate of actress Barbara Stanwyck in 1950. Stanwyck commissioned the original residence designed by Paul Williams. Oakie planted a citrus orchard and bred Afghan Hounds, at one time having up to 100 dogs on the property. Victoria Oakie continued to live there after her husband's death and bequeathed the estate to the University of Southern California, which sold it to developers. After two failed attempts to develop the property, Oakridge was acquired by the City of Los Angeles in December, 2009. Oakridge is considered to be one of the last remnants of the large Northridge equestrian estates, famed for former thoroughbred breeding; the city plans to use the property as a community event center. The Paul Williams house and the grounds are Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument #484.
In 1981, the "Jack Oakie Lecture on Comedy in Film" was established as an annual event of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. At the inaugural presentation, Oakie was described as "a master of comic timing and a beloved figure in the industry."Jack Oakie's star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame is at 6752 Hollywood Boulevard, his hand and footprints can be found at Grauman's Chinese Theater in Hollywood. A small display celebrating the comedy and fame of Jack Oakie is at Motion Picture & Television Country House and Hospital in Woodland Hills, California. There is a plaque in the ground in front of the home where he was born in Missouri. Jack Oakie is mentioned in the Coen Brothers film Barton Fink as the favorite actor of Charlie, a character played by John Goodman. Jack Oakie. Jack Oakie's Double Takes. Strawberry Hill Press. ISBN 0-89407-019-3. Autobiography published posthumously by Oakie's widow on January 1, 1980. 240 pages. Victoria Horne Oakie. "Dear Jack": Hollywood birthday reminiscences to Jack Oakie.
Strawberry Hill Press. ISBN 978-0-89407-113-3. Letters of congratulation and reminiscence sent from 150 celebrities to Jack Oakie in celebration of his 70th birthd
Gresham’s School is an independent coeducational boarding school in Holt in Norfolk, England. Gresham's School is one of the top 30 International Baccalaureate schools in England; the school was founded in 1555 by Sir John Gresham as a free grammar school for forty boys, following King Henry VIII's dissolution of the Augustinian priory at Beeston Regis. The founder left the school's endowments in the hands of the Worshipful Company of Fishmongers of the City of London, who are still the school's trustees. In the 1890s, an increase in the rental income of property in the City of London led to a major expansion of the school, which built many new buildings on land it owned on the eastern edge of Holt, including several new boarding houses as well as new teaching buildings and chapel. Gresham's began to admit girls in the early 1970s and is now co-educational; as well as its senior school, it operates a preparatory and a Nursery and Pre-Prep school, the latter now in the Old School House, the original senior school.
Altogether, the three schools teach about eight hundred children. Gresham's School at Holt was founded by Sir John Gresham by letters patent of 1555, during the reign of Queen Mary I. For its home he gave the school his house at Holt, which he had bought in 1546 from his elder brother Sir William Gresham; the founding of Gresham's was connected to King Henry VIII's suppression of the Priory of Augustinian canons at Beeston Regis in June 1539. The priory, established in 1216, had operated a school which John Gresham and his brothers attended, but the school came to an end with the priory, leaving no provision for education in the vicinity of Holt; the new school opened and was granted a Royal Charter in 1562. By the letters patent of 1555, the school was called in full'The Free Grammar School of Sir John Gresham, knight and alderman of London'; the founder endowed Gresham's generously, placing its property in trust with the Worshipful Company of Fishmongers of London, full estate records dating from the school's foundation are held at the Guildhall Library.
Sir John Gresham's endowments included his freehold property in Holt and Letheringsett, his wood and land called Prior's Grove, his manors of Pereers and Holt Hales, "with all and singular to the same belonging, situate in Holt, Letheringsett, Kellinge, Semlingham, Stodrye and West Wickham, in the said county of Norfolk", tenements called'The White Hind' and'The Peacock' in the parish of St Giles's Without, Cripplegate, in the City of London. Close links with the Fishmongers' Company continue to this day. By his Will of 1601, Leonard Smith, a fishmonger of London, left £120 and all his goods to establish a fellowship at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge and in 1604'Mr Smith's Fellowship' was confirmed by the college, with the provision that "scholars from the Grammar School of Holt, in Norfolk" were to have preference; the school library contains the Foundation Library, a collection of books and manuscripts provided at the school's establishment in 1555 and later. On Christmas Day 1650, the Reverend Thomas Cooper, MA, a former usher of Gresham's, was hanged for his part in a Royalist rebellion on behalf of Charles II.
His body was left hanging on a gibbet in Holt's Market Place. For three hundred and fifty years, the school was based in what is now called the Old School House, or "OSH", the former manor house of Holt overlooking the Market Place in the town centre. In 1708, the school escaped a major fire which destroyed most of the rest of the mediaeval town of Holt; this resulted in most of the buildings now to be seen in the town centre belonging to the 18th century. In 1729, the Fishmongers' Company presented the school with "...a valuable and useful library, not only of the best editions of the Classics and Lexicographers, but with some books of Antiquities and Geography, together with a suitable pair of globes". By the 18th century, references to fish were hard to find in the court minutes of the Fishmongers' Company, the company's main business had become managing its extensive property and administering its charities and trusts, such as the school at Holt and St Peter's Hospital, an almshouse at Newington in Surrey.
For the period 1704 to 1750, the Rev. Charles Linnell has analysed the'Status of fathers of boys at Holt Grammar School' in his Gresham's School History and Register: "Sons of gentlemen 10%, clergy 30%, professional men 5%, tradesmen 20%, plebeian 15%, unknown 20%". One of the school's 18th century heads was John Holmes, appointed at the age of twenty-seven, a prolific writer of educational textbooks who led the school between 1730 and his death in 1760. In the 19th century, boys were required to attend services at the Holt parish church, in November 1815 a boy called Charles Loynes was "expelled for non-attendance at church". In 1823, the expenditure of the Fishmongers' Company on the school was £367, of which £158-10s-0d was for the Master's salary and gratuities, £80 for the Usher's salary and lodging, £52-11s-6d for repairs, £22-12s-6d for taxes, £15-15s-6d for poor rates, £12-10s-0d for coals, £9-13s-4d for two-thirds of the cost of the school books, £6-6s-0d for a School Feast which took place in June.
In 1836, the'Wardens and Commonalty of the Art and Mystery of Fishmongers of the City of London' held an insurance policy for'Other property or occupiers: Free Grammar School Holt Norfolk' with the Sun Fire Office. In his History of the Twelve Great Livery Companies of London, William Herbert says of the school: GRESHAM'S. - At Holt, in Norfolk. For fifty free scholars, chosen from the town of Holt and neighbourhood, admitted at six and seven years old; the nomination is in the Fishmongers' Company, in whom is left the patrona
Santa Monica, California
Santa Monica is a beachfront city in western Los Angeles County, United States. Situated on Santa Monica Bay, it is bordered on three sides by the city of Los Angeles – Pacific Palisades to the north, Brentwood on the northeast, West Los Angeles on the east, Mar Vista on the southeast, Venice on the south; the Census Bureau population for Santa Monica in 2010 was 89,736. Due in part to an agreeable climate, Santa Monica became a famed resort town by the early 20th century; the city has experienced a boom since the late 1980s through the revitalization of its downtown core, significant job growth and increased tourism. The Santa Monica Pier and Pacific Park remain popular destinations. Santa Monica was long inhabited by the Tongva people. Santa Monica was called Kecheek in the Tongva language; the first non-indigenous group to set foot in the area was the party of explorer Gaspar de Portolà, who camped near the present-day intersection of Barrington and Ohio Avenues on August 3, 1769. Named after the Christian saint Monica, there are two different accounts of how the city's name came to be.
One says it was named in honor of the feast day of Saint Monica, but her feast day is May 4. Another version says it was named by Juan Crespí on account of a pair of springs, the Kuruvungna Springs, that were reminiscent of the tears Saint Monica shed over her son's early impiety. In Los Angeles, several battles were fought by the Californios. Following the Mexican–American War, Mexico signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which gave Mexicans and Californios living in state certain unalienable rights. US government sovereignty in California began on February 2, 1848. In the 1870s the Los Angeles and Independence Railroad, connected Santa Monica with Los Angeles, a wharf out into the bay; the first town hall was a modest 1873 brick building a beer hall, now part of the Santa Monica Hostel. It is Santa Monica's oldest extant structure. By 1885, the town's first hotel was the Santa Monica Hotel. Amusement piers became enormously popular in the first decades of the 20th century and the extensive Pacific Electric Railroad brought people to the city's beaches from across the Greater Los Angeles Area.
Around the start of the 20th century, a growing population of Asian Americans lived in and around Santa Monica and Venice. A Japanese fishing village was near the Long Wharf while small numbers of Chinese lived or worked in Santa Monica and Venice; the two ethnic minorities were viewed differently by White Americans who were well-disposed towards the Japanese but condescending towards the Chinese. The Japanese village fishermen were an integral economic part of the Santa Monica Bay community. Donald Wills Douglas, Sr. built a plant in 1922 at Clover Field for the Douglas Aircraft Company. In 1924, four Douglas-built planes took off from Clover Field to attempt the first aerial circumnavigation of the world. Two planes returned after covering 27,553 miles in 175 days, were greeted on their return September 23, 1924, by a crowd of 200,000; the Douglas Company kept facilities in the city until the 1960s. The Great Depression hit Santa Monica deeply. One report gives citywide employment in 1933 of just 1,000.
Hotels and office building owners went bankrupt. In the 1930s, corruption infected Santa Monica; the federal Works Project Administration helped build several buildings, most notably City Hall. The main Post Office and Barnum Hall were among other WPA projects. Douglas's business grew astronomically with the onset of World War II, employing as many as 44,000 people in 1943. To defend against air attack, set designers from the Warner Brothers Studios prepared elaborate camouflage that disguised the factory and airfield; the RAND Corporation began as a project of the Douglas Company in 1945, spun off into an independent think tank on May 14, 1948. RAND acquired a 15-acre campus between the Civic Center and the pier entrance; the completion of the Santa Monica Freeway in 1966 brought the promise of new prosperity, though at the cost of decimating the Pico neighborhood, a leading African American enclave on the Westside. Beach volleyball is believed to have been developed by Duke Kahanamoku in Santa Monica during the 1920s.
The Santa Monica Looff Hippodrome is a National Historic Landmark. It sits on the Santa Monica Pier, built in 1909; the La Monica Ballroom on the pier was once the largest ballroom in the US and the source for many New Year's Eve national network broadcasts. The Santa Monica Civic Auditorium was an important music venue for several decades and hosted the Academy Awards in the 1960s. McCabe's Guitar Shop is a leading acoustic performance space as well as retail outlet. Bergamot Station is a city-owned art gallery compound; the city is home to the California Heritage Museum and the Angels Attic dollhouse and toy museum. The New West Symphony is the resident orchestra of Barnum Hall, they are resident orchestra of the Oxnard Performing Arts Center and the Thousand Oaks Civic Arts Plaza. Santa Monica has three main shopping districts: Montana Avenue on the north side, the Downtown District in the city's core, Main Street on the south end; each has personality. Montana Avenue is a stretch of luxury boutique stores and small offices that features more upscale shopping.
The Main Street district offers an eclectic mix of clothing and other specialty retail. The Downtown District is the home of the Third Street Promenade, a major outdoor pedestrian-on
The Sea Hawk (1940 film)
The Sea Hawk is a 1940 American black-and-white swashbuckling adventure film from Warner Bros. that stars Errol Flynn as an English privateer who defends his nation's interests on the eve of the Spanish Armada. The film was the tenth collaboration between director Michael Curtiz, its screenplay was written by Seton I. Miller; the rousing musical score by Erich Wolfgang Korngold is recognized as a high point in his career. The film was both an adventure and a period piece about Elizabethan England's struggles with Spain, however, it was meant as a deliberately pro-British propaganda film meant to both build morale during World War II, as well as influence the American public into having a more pro-British outlook. King Philip was seen as "an obvious" "allegorical Hitler".. Colorized versions of The Sea Hawk were broadcast on American television and distributed on VHS tape in 1986. Only the black-and-white edited version and the restored/uncut version, have been released in the DVD format. No plans have been announced to release the colorized version on DVD.
King Philip II of Spain declares his intention to destroy the first step to world conquest. He sends Don Álvarez as his ambassador to allay the suspicions of Queen Elizabeth I about the great armada he is building to invade England. In England, some of the Queen's ministers plead with her to build a fleet, which she hesitates to do in order to spare the purses of her subjects; the ambassador's ship is captured en route to England by the Albatross and her captain, Geoffrey Thorpe. Don Álvarez and his niece, Doña María, are transported to England. Thorpe is enchanted by Doña María and gallantly returns her plundered jewels, her detestation of him softens. Don Álvarez complains about his treatment; the "Sea Hawks", a group of English privateers who loot Spanish ships for "reparations" appear before the Queen, who scolds them for their piratical attacks and for endangering the peace with Spain. Captain Thorpe proposes in private a plan to seize a large caravan of Spanish gold in the New World and bring it back to England.
The Queen allows Thorpe to proceed. Suspicious, Lord Wolfingham, one of the Queen's ministers and a secret Spanish collaborator, sends a spy to try to discover where the Albatross is heading. Upon visiting the chartmaker responsible for drawing the charts for Thorpe's next voyage, Don Álvarez and Lord Wolfingham determine that he is sailing to the Isthmus of Panama and order Don Álvarez's Spanish captain to sail ahead to set up an ambush; when the Albatross reaches its destination, the ship is spotted by a native who reports it to the Spanish governor. Thorpe's crew seizes the caravan, but are driven into the swamps. Thorpe and a few other survivors return to their ship, they are taken to Spain, tried by the Inquisition, sentenced to life imprisonment as galley slaves. In England, Don Álvarez informs the Queen of Thorpe's fate; the Queen and Don Álvarez exchange heated words, she expels him from her court. On a Spanish galley, Thorpe meets an Englishman named Abbott, captured trying to uncover evidence of the Armada's true purpose.
Through cunning, the prisoners take over the ship during the night. They board another ship in the harbor. Thorpe and his men sail back to England with the plans. Upon reaching port, Thorpe tries to warn the Queen. A carriage bringing Don Álvarez to the ship which, unknown to him, Thorpe has captured brings his niece. Don Álvarez boards the ship and is held prisoner, while Captain Thorpe, dressed in the uniform of a Spanish courtier, sneaks into the carriage carrying Doña María, who has decided to stay in England and wait for Thorpe's return; the two declare their love for each other, María helps Thorpe to sneak into the palace. However, Lord Wolfingham's spy spots Thorpe and alerts the castle guards to stop the carriage and take Thorpe prisoner. Thorpe enters the Queen's residence, fending off guards all the while. Thorpe runs into Lord Wolfingham and kills the traitor in a swordfight. With Doña María's assistance, Thorpe reaches the Queen and provides proof of King Philip's intentions. Elizabeth knights Thorpe and declares her intention to build a great fleet to oppose the Spanish threat.
The film was announced in June 1936 and would star Errol Flynn coming off his success with Captain Blood. Planned as an adaptation of Rafael Sabatini's 1915 novel The Sea Hawk, the film used an different story inspired by the exploits of Sir Francis Drake, unlike the 1924 silent film adaptation, faithful to Sabatini's plot. Adaptations of the novel were written by Richard Neville and Delmer Daves before Seton I Miller wrote a new story called Beggars of the Sea based on Sir Francis Drake. Sabatini's name was still used in promotional materials however as it was felt it had commercial value. Howard Koch reworked Miller's script while still keeping the basic structure and story; the speech the Queen gives at the close of the film was meant to inspire the viewing British audience, in the grip of the Second World War. Suggestions that it w
Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury
Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury, was an English statesman noted for his skillful direction of the government during the Union of the Crowns, as Tudor England gave way to Stuart rule. Salisbury served as the Secretary of State of England and Lord High Treasurer, succeeding his father as Queen Elizabeth I's Lord Privy Seal and remaining in power during the first nine years of King James I's reign until his death; the principal discoverer of the Gunpowder Plot of 1605, Salisbury remains a controversial historic figure as it is still debated at what point he first learned of the plot and to what extent he acted as an agent provocateur. Cecil was the younger son of William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley by his second wife, Mildred Cooke, eldest daughter of Sir Anthony Cooke of Gidea, Essex, his elder half-brother was Thomas Cecil, 1st Earl of Exeter, philosopher Francis Bacon was his first cousin. Robert Cecil was 5 ft 4 in tall, had scoliosis, was hunchbacked. Living in an age which attached much importance to physical beauty in both sexes, he endured much ridicule as a result: Queen Elizabeth I of England called him "my pygmy", King James I of England nicknamed him "my little beagle".
Nonetheless, his father recognised that it was Robert rather than his half-brother Thomas who had inherited his own political genius. Cecil did not take a degree, he attended "disputations" at the Sorbonne. In 1584, he sat for the first time in the House of Commons, representing his birthplace, the borough of Westminster, he was a backbencher, never making a speech until 1593, after having been appointed a Privy Councillor. In 1589, Cecil married Elizabeth Brooke, the daughter of William Brooke, 10th Baron Cobham by his second wife, Frances Newton, her brothers Henry 11th Lord Cobham and Sir George Brooke were arrested by Cecil for their involvement in the "Main" and "Bye" plots. Sir George Brooke, her younger brother, was executed at Winchester on 5 December 1603 for high treason, their son and heir, William Cecil, was born in Westminster on 28 March 1591, baptised in St Clement Danes on 11 April. His wife Elizabeth died, they had one daughter, Lady Frances Cecil, who married Henry Clifford, 5th Earl of Cumberland.
Cecil became an MP, elected to represent Westminster in 1584 and 1586 and Hertfordshire in 1589, 1593, 1597 and 1601. He was made a Privy Councillor in 1593 and was leader of the Council by 1597. Following the death of Sir Francis Walsingham in 1590, Burghley acted as Secretary of State, while Cecil took on an heavy work-load, he was appointed to the Privy Council in 1591. He became the leading minister after the death of his father in 1598, serving both Queen Elizabeth and King James as Secretary of State. Cecil fell into dispute with Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, only prevailed at Court upon the latter's poor campaign against the Irish rebels during the Nine Years War in 1599, he was in a position to orchestrate the smooth succession of King James, maintaining a secret correspondence with him. Essex's unsuccessful rebellion in 1601, which resulted in his final downfall and death, was aimed at Cecil, to be removed from power and impeached. Whether Essex intended that Cecil should die is unclear.
It is to Cecil's credit that the Queen at his urging, treated the rebels with a degree of mercy, unusual in that age. Essex himself and four of his closest allies were executed, but the great majority of his followers were spared: Essex's denunciation of his sister Penelope, Lady Rich as the ringleader of the rebellion was tactfully ignored; this clemency mourned him deeply. Cecil, who had never been popular, now became a much hated figure. In ballads like Essex's Last Good Night, Cecil was viciously attacked. Cecil was extensively involved in matters of state security; as the son of Queen Elizabeth's principal minister and a protégé of Sir Francis Walsingham, he was trained by them in spycraft as a matter of course. The "Rainbow portrait" of Queen Elizabeth, decorated with eyes and ears, may relate to this role. Cecil, like his father admired the Queen, whom he famously described as being "more than a man, but less than a woman". Despite his careful preparations for the succession, he regarded the Queen's death as a misfortune to be postponed as long as possible.
During her last illness, when Elizabeth would sit motionless on cushions for hours on end, Cecil boldly told her that she must go to bed. Elizabeth roused herself one last time to snap at him: "Must is not a word to be used to princes, little man... your late father were he here would never had dared to speak such a word to me". Sir Robert Cecil had promoted James as successor to Elizabeth, the new monarch expressed his gratitude elevating Cecil to the peerage. Cecil served as both the third chancellor of Trinity College and chancellor of the University of Cambridge, between 1601 and 1612. In 1603, his brothers-in-law, Henry Brooke, Lord Cobham and Sir George Brooke, along with Sir Walter Raleigh, were implicated in both the Bye Plot and the Main Plot, an attempt to remove King James I from the throne and replace him with his first cousin, Lady Arbella Stuart. Cecil was one of the judges who tried them for treason: at Raleigh's trial, Cecil was the only judge who appeared to have some doubts about his guilt (which is still a matter of debate, although the prevailing view now is that Raleigh was involved in the Plot