St James's Palace
St James's Palace is the most senior royal palace in the United Kingdom. Located in the City of Westminster, although no longer the principal residence of the monarch, it is the ceremonial meeting place of the Accession Council and the London residence of several minor members of the royal family. Built by King Henry VIII on the site of a leper hospital dedicated to Saint James the Less, the palace was secondary in importance to the Palace of Whitehall for most Tudor and Stuart monarchs; the palace increased in importance during the reigns of the early Georgian monarchy, but was displaced by Buckingham Palace in the late-18th and early-19th centuries. After decades of being used for only formal occasions, the move was formalised by Queen Victoria in 1837. Today the palace houses a number of official offices and collections and all ambassadors and high commissioners to the United Kingdom are still accredited to the Court of St James's; the palace's Chapel Royal is still used for functions of the British royal family.
Built between 1531 and 1536 in red-brick, the palace's architecture is Tudor in style. A fire in 1809 destroyed parts of the structure, including the monarch's private apartments, which were never replaced; some 17th-century interiors survive. The palace was commissioned by Henry VIII, on the site of a former leper hospital dedicated to Saint James the Less; the new palace, secondary in the king's interest to Henry's Whitehall Palace, was constructed between 1531 and 1536 as a smaller residence to escape formal court life. Much smaller than the nearby Whitehall, St James's was arranged around a number of courtyards, including the Colour Court, the Ambassador's Court and the Friary Court; the most recognisable feature is the north gatehouse. It is decorated with the initials H. A. for Henry and his second wife, Anne Boleyn. Henry constructed the palace in red brick, with detail picked out in darker brick; the palace was remodelled in 1544, with ceilings painted by Hans Holbein, was described as a "pleasant royal house".
Two of Henry VIII's children died at Saint James's, Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Richmond and Somerset and Mary I. Elizabeth I resided at the palace, is said to have spent the night there while waiting for the Spanish Armada to sail up the Channel. In 1638, Charles I gave the palace to Marie de Medici, the mother of his wife Henrietta Maria. Marie remained in the palace for three years, but the residence of a Catholic former queen of France proved unpopular with parliament and she was soon asked to leave for Cologne. Charles I spent his final night at St James's before his execution. Oliver Cromwell took it over, turned it into barracks during the English Commonwealth period. Charles II, James II, Mary II and Anne were all born at the palace; the palace was restored by Charles II following the demise of the Commonwealth, laying out St James's Park at the same time. It became the principal residence of the monarch in London in 1698, during the reign of William III and Mary II after Whitehall Palace was destroyed by fire, became the administrative centre of the monarchy, a role it retains.
The first two monarchs of the House of Hanover used St James's Palace as their principal London residence. George I and George II both housed their mistresses, the Duchess of Kendal and the Countess of Suffolk at the palace. In 1757, George II donated the Palace library to the British Museum. In 1809, a fire destroyed part of the palace, including the monarch's private apartments at the south east corner; these apartments were not replaced, leaving the Queen's Chapel in isolation, Marlborough Road now runs between the two buildings. George III found St James's unsuitable; the Tudor palace was regarded too cramped for his ever-growing family. In 1762 George purchased Buckingham House – the predecessor to Buckingham Palace – for his queen, Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz The royal family began spending the majority of their time at Buckingham House, with St James's used for only the most formal of occasions. In the late 18th century, George III refurbished the state apartments but neglected the living quarters.
Queen Victoria formalised the move in 1837, ending St James's status as the primary residence of the monarch. It was where Victoria married her husband, Prince Albert, in 1840, where, eighteen years Victoria and Albert's eldest child, Princess Victoria, married her husband, Prince Frederick of Prussia. For most of the time of the personal union between Great Britain and the Electorate of Hanover from 1714 until 1837 the ministers of the German Chancery were working in two small rooms within St James's Palace; the Second Round Table Conference, pertaining to Indian independence, was held at the palace. On 12 June 1941, Representatives of the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, the Union of South Africa, of the exiled governments of Belgium, Greece, Netherlands, Norway and Yugoslavia, as well as General de Gaulle of France and signed the Declaration of St James's Palace, the first of six treaties signed that established the United Nations and composed the Charter of the United Nations. St James's Palace is still a working palace, the Royal Court is still formally based there, despit
John Erskine, Earl of Mar (1558–1634)
John Erskine, Earl of Mar was a Scottish politician, the only son of another John Erskine. He is regarded as both the 2nd earl. John Erskine was born in 1558. Together with King James VI of Scotland he was educated by George Buchanan. After attaining his majority he was nominally the guardian of the young king, about seven years his junior, who lived with him at Stirling, he married his first wife, Anne Drummond in October 1580. Anne was the daughter of Hon. Lilias Ruthven, their marriage was cut short by Anne's early death in 1587, but the marriage did produce John's son and heir, John Erskine. He was concerned in the seizure of James VI in 1582. Leaving his hiding-place the Earl of Mar seized Stirling Castle, whereupon James marched against him, he took refuge in England. Queen Elizabeth I interceded for him, but in vain, after some futile communications between the governments of England and Scotland the Earl of Mar and his friends gathered an army, entered the presence of the king at Stirling, were soon in supreme authority.
The Earl of Mar was restored to his titles. Henceforward he stood high in the royal favor, his great achievement was the recovery of the Mar estates, alienated by the Crown during the long period that his family had been out of possession, including Kildrummy, the seat of the earldom. In December 1592 he married his second wife Marie Stewart, daughter of Esmé Stewart, 1st Duke of Lennox at Holyroodhouse; the marriage was intended to be held at Dalkeith Palace but was delayed by Mar's illness, the match was opposed by many because Mary was a Catholic. Their daughter, Lady Mary Erskine, married 5th Earl Marischal. In 1601, the earl was sent as envoy to London. Subsequently and the King continued a secret correspondence with Robert Cecil. After the Union of the Crowns, having joined the English privy council, the Earl of Mar was created Lord Cardross in 1610. In January 1608, Henry Howard, 1st Earl of Northampton wrote to Mar asking for recipe that would restore his favour with Anne of Denmark. Mar died at Stirling on 14 December 1634.
John, his only son by his first wife, succeeded to his earldom.
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes appearing in elective republics. Alternative terms for "dynasty" may include "family" and "clan", among others; the longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, otherwise known as the Yamato dynasty, whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "noble house", which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital" etc. depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of numerous nations and civilizations, such as Ancient Egypt and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties; as such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which a family reigned, to describe events and artifacts of that period. The word "dynasty" itself is dropped from such adjectival references; until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty: that is, to expand the wealth and power of his family members.
Prior to the 20th century, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. In nations where it was permitted, succession through a daughter established a new dynasty in her husband's ruling house; this has changed in some places in Europe, where succession law and convention have maintained dynasties de jure through a female. For instance, the House of Windsor will be maintained through the children of Queen Elizabeth II, as it did with the monarchy of the Netherlands, whose dynasty remained the House of Orange-Nassau through three successive queens regnant; the earliest such example among major European monarchies was in the Russian Empire in the 18th century, where the name of the House of Romanov was maintained through Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna. In Limpopo Province of South Africa, Balobedu determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mother's dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
Less a monarchy has alternated or been rotated, in a multi-dynastic system – that is, the most senior living members of parallel dynasties, at any point in time, constitute the line of succession. Not all feudal states or monarchies were/are ruled by dynasties. Throughout history, there were monarchs. Dynasties ruling subnational monarchies do not possess sovereign rights; the word "dynasty" is sometimes used informally for people who are not rulers but are, for example, members of a family with influence and power in other areas, such as a series of successive owners of a major company. It is extended to unrelated people, such as major poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team; the word "dynasty" derives from Latin dynastia, which comes from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to "power", "dominion", "rule" itself. It was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, "power" or "ability", from dýnamai, "to be able". A ruler from a dynasty is sometimes referred to as a "dynast", but this term is used to describe any member of a reigning family who retains a right to succeed to a throne.
For example, King Edward VIII ceased to be a dynast of the House of Windsor following his abdication. In historical and monarchist references to reigning families, a "dynast" is a family member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchy's rules still in force. For example, after the 1914 assassinations of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his morganatic wife Duchess Sophie von Hohenberg, their son Duke Maximilian was bypassed for the Austro-Hungarian throne because he was not a Habsburg dynast. Since the abolition of the Austrian monarchy, Duke Maximilian and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position; the term "dynast" is sometimes used only to refer to agnatic descendants of a realm's monarchs, sometimes to include those who hold succession rights through cognatic royal descent. The term can therefore describe distinct sets of people. For example, David Armstrong-Jones, 2nd Earl of Snowdon, a nephew of Queen Elizabeth II through her sister Princess Margaret, is in the line of succession to the British crown.
On the other hand, the German aristocrat Prince Ernst August of Hanover, a male-line descendant of King George III of the United Kingdom, possesses no legal British name, titles or styles. He was born in the line of succession to the British throne and was bound by Britain's Royal Marriages Act 1772 until it was repealed when the Succession to the Crown Act 2013 took effect on 26 March 2015. Thus, he requested and obtained formal permission from Queen Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco in 1999. Yet, a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time, stipulating that dynasts who
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
David Murray (poet)
Sir David Murray of Gorthy was an officer in the household of Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, in England from 1603 to 1612, poet. A member of the Scottish Murray family, David's father, Robert Murray, was the Laird of Abercairney, near Crieff. David had an older brother and younger brothers, Mungo of Craigie, John Minister of Dunfermline and Leith, Andrew and James, his two sisters were Nicola, who married Robert Douglas of Spott Lord Belhaven, Prince Henry's Stable Master, Anne, who married William Moncrieff of Moncrieff. William Murray, David's elder brother, was brought up at Stirling Castle with the young James VI of Scotland. Annabel Murray, Countess of Mar, who shared responsibility for the King at Stirling, was the aunt of their father; the London "Water Poet" John Taylor made a point of visiting his great friend William during his Pennyles Pilgimage to Scotland in 1618. David left no heirs. David was educated at St Salvator's College at St Andrews University, but did not graduate as Master of Arts.
Before James VI of Scotland became King of England, David Murray was a servant of Prince Henry at Stirling Castle. Murray went to the Netherlands in September 1600 carrying a letter of recommendation from his six-year-old master, his yearly fee 600 marks Scots as a Gentleman of the Prince's Bedchamber was fixed 30 June 1602, by the order of the Privy Council of Scotland. His portrait is now displayed in the Scottish National Portrait Gallery. After the Union of the Crowns, Prince Henry and his household arrived in London at the end of June 1603. David Murray received a "free gift" of £200 from the exchequer. In England, Murray was the keeper of the Prince's privy purse, managing a yearly allowance of 1,000 marks, he made payments to artists and craftsmen who worked for Prince Henry including the painter Robert Peake, the ship-designer Phineas Pett, the architect Inigo Jones, the Edinburgh jeweller George Heriot. He became Gentleman of the Robes and Master of the Wardrobe, he was knighted as Sir David Murray of Gorthy at Greenwich Palace on 18 May 1605.
John Hawkins wrote that Murray was "the only man in whom he had put choise trust." When Arbella Stuart wrote to Prince Henry on 18 October 1605, she mentioned that David Murray and Adam Newton would be her intercessors in her suit to the Prince for aid.. Murray installed a model of a ship made by Phineas Pett for the Prince in a private room in the long gallery at Richmond Palace in November 1607. In 1609, Murray laid out £1,986 for pearls bought in London for the Prince's costume during the Christmas festivities and the Barriers tournament. In March 1610, Murray organised for Robert Cecil, Earl of Salisbury, to show some pictures to the Prince, with the assistance of the Earl of Arundel; the historian Roy Strong see this incidents as part of the inception of the Prince's interest in European fine-art, Murray's responsibilities came to include the Prince's cabinet of curiosities of medals and coins. In Scotland, David's younger brother, Minister of Leith, was imprisoned in Edinburgh Castle in 1608 for a Presbyterian sermon, banished to Nithsdale.
In 1612, William Cecil, Lord Roos, wrote to David Murray that as a Puritan himself he had objected to the proposal for the Prince to marry the Catholic infanta Maria, daughter of Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy. Roos pointed out. A marriage with the Medici was proposed; as part of these marriage negotiations Cosimo II de' Medici had sent to Prince Henry a gift of statuettes by Giambologna. Murray accompanied the Prince in the Long Gallery at Richmond when he received these gifts on 26 June 1612. While Prince Henry was in his final illness and delirious, according to the account of Charles Cornwallis, on 5 November 1612, the anniversary of the Gunpowder plot, it was noted that he called out, "David, David." When Murray came to Prince's bedside he only said, "I would say somewhat, but I cannot utter it." Henry asked Murray to burn some letters kept in a cabinet in his closet. At the Prince's funeral, Murray rode in the chariot that served as a hearse, at the Prince's feet as Master of his Wardrobe.
In the summer of 1615, David Murray received part payment of the sum of £10,022 fourteen shillings threepence halfpenny owed to him for his expenses as keeper of the Prince's wardrobe and privy purse. John Smethwick published Murray's volume of poetry, the Tragicall Death of Sophonisba, by David Murray, Scoto-Brittaine, together with twenty-six sonnets to fair Coelia or Caelia; the work was prefaced by two sonnets comparing Prince Henry to an eagle, three sonnets addressed to Murray himself by his cousin John Murray, Michael Drayton and Simon Grahame. The sonnets for "my fair Caelia" were dedicated to Lord Dingwall. Murray's sonnets, like those of William Alexander of Menstrie are anglicised in vocabulary and grammar, but some employ an interlinked form used by the Castalian poets who worked for King James in Scotland the 1580s. Smethick's volume included the Complaint of the Shepherd Harpalus, a sonnet eulogy for Cecily Wemyss, Lady of Tullibardine, epitaphs for his cousins David and Adam Murray.
Verses from the Complaint of Harpalus were printed as a broadsheet song by H. G. in 1625, the heirs of
Monarchy of the United Kingdom
The monarchy of the United Kingdom referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas territories. The current monarch and head of state is Queen Elizabeth II, who ascended the throne in 1952; the monarch and their immediate family undertake various official, ceremonial and representational duties. As the monarchy is constitutional, the monarch is limited to non-partisan functions such as bestowing honours and appointing the Prime Minister; the monarch is commander-in-chief of the British Armed Forces. Though the ultimate executive authority over the government is still formally by and through the monarch's royal prerogative, these powers may only be used according to laws enacted in Parliament and, in practice, within the constraints of convention and precedent; the British monarchy traces its origins from the petty kingdoms of early medieval Scotland and Anglo-Saxon England, which consolidated into the kingdoms of England and Scotland by the 10th century.
England was conquered by the Normans in 1066, after which Wales too came under control of Anglo-Normans. The process was completed in the 13th century when the Principality of Wales became a client state of the English kingdom. Meanwhile, Magna Carta began a process of reducing the English monarch's political powers. From 1603, the English and Scottish kingdoms were ruled by a single sovereign. From 1649 to 1660, the tradition of monarchy was broken by the republican Commonwealth of England, which followed the Wars of the Three Kingdoms; the Act of Settlement 1701 excluded Roman Catholics, or those who married them, from succession to the English throne. In 1707, the kingdoms of England and Scotland were merged to create the Kingdom of Great Britain, in 1801, the Kingdom of Ireland joined to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland; the British monarch was the nominal head of the vast British Empire, which covered a quarter of the world's surface at its greatest extent in 1921. In the early 1920s the Balfour Declaration recognised the evolution of the Dominions of the Empire into separate, self-governing countries within a Commonwealth of Nations.
After the Second World War, the vast majority of British colonies and territories became independent bringing the Empire to an end. George VI and his successor, Elizabeth II, adopted the title Head of the Commonwealth as a symbol of the free association of its independent member states; the United Kingdom and fifteen other independent sovereign states that share the same person as their monarch are called Commonwealth realms. Although the monarch is shared, each country is sovereign and independent of the others, the monarch has a different and official national title and style for each realm. In the uncodified Constitution of the United Kingdom, the monarch is the head of state; the Queen's image is used to signify British sovereignty and government authority—her profile, for instance, appearing on currency, her portrait in government buildings. The sovereign is further both mentioned in and the subject of songs, loyal toasts, salutes. "God Save the Queen" is the British national anthem. Oaths of allegiance are made to her lawful successors.
The monarch takes little direct part in government. The decisions to exercise sovereign powers are delegated from the monarch, either by statute or by convention, to ministers or officers of the Crown, or other public bodies, exclusive of the monarch personally, thus the acts of state done in the name of the Crown, such as Crown Appointments if performed by the monarch, such as the Queen's Speech and the State Opening of Parliament, depend upon decisions made elsewhere: Legislative power is exercised by the Queen-in-Parliament, by and with the advice and consent of Parliament, the House of Lords and the House of Commons. Executive power is exercised by Her Majesty's Government, which comprises ministers the prime minister and the Cabinet, technically a committee of the Privy Council, they have the direction of the Armed Forces of the Crown, the Civil Service and other Crown Servants such as the Diplomatic and Secret Services. Judicial power is vested in the various judiciaries of the United Kingdom, who by constitution and statute have judicial independence of the Government.
The Church of England, of which the monarch is the head, has its own legislative and executive structures. Powers independent of government are granted to other public bodies by statute or Statutory Instrument such as an Order in Council, Royal Commission or otherwise; the sovereign's role as a constitutional monarch is limited to non-partisan functions, such as granting honours. This role has been recognised since the 19th century; the constitutional writer Walter Bagehot identified the monarchy in 1867 as the "dignified part" rather than the "efficient part" of government. Whenever necessary, the monarch is responsible for appointing a new prime minister. In accordance with unwritten constitutional conventions, the sovereign must appoint an individual who commands the support of the House of Commons the leader of the party or coalition that has a majority in that House; the prime minister takes office by attending the monarch in private audience, after "kissing hands" that appointment is effective without any other f
Robert Peake the Elder
Robert Peake the Elder was an English painter active in the part of Elizabeth I's reign and for most of the reign of James I. In 1604, he was appointed picture maker to the heir to Prince Henry. Peake is called "the elder", to distinguish him from his son, the painter and print seller William Peake and from his grandson, Sir Robert Peake, who followed his father into the family print-selling business. Peake was the only English-born painter of a group of four artists whose workshops were connected; the others were De Critz, Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger, the miniature painter Isaac Oliver. Between 1590 and about 1625, they specialised in brilliantly coloured, full-length "costume pieces" that are unique to England at this time, it is not always possible to attribute authorship between Peake, De Critz and their assistants with certainty. Peake was born to a Lincolnshire family in about 1551, he began his training on 30 April 1565 under Laurence Woodham, who lived at the sign of "The Key" in Goldsmith's Row, Westcheap.
He was apprenticed, three years after the miniaturist Nicholas Hilliard, to the Goldsmiths’ Company in London. He became a freeman of the company on 20 May 1576, his son William followed in his father's footsteps as a freeman of the Goldsmiths' Company and a portrait painter. Peake's training would have been similar to that of John de Critz and Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger, who may have been pupils of the Flemish artist Lucas de Heere. Peake is first heard of professionally in 1576 in the pay of the Office of the Revels, the department that oversaw court festivities for Elizabeth I; when Peake began practising as a portrait painter is uncertain. According to art historian Roy Strong, he was "well established" in London by the late 1580s, with a "fashionable clientele". Payments made to him. A signed portrait from 1593, known as the "Military Commander", shows Peake's early style. Other portraits have been grouped with it on the basis of similar lettering, its three-quarter-length portrait format is typical of the time.
In 1607, after the death of Leonard Fryer, Peake was appointed serjeant-painter to King James I, sharing the office with John De Critz, who had held the post since 1603. The role entailed the painting of original portraits and their reproduction as new versions, to be given as gifts or sent to foreign courts, as well as the copying and restoring of portraits by other painters in the royal collection. In addition to copying and restoring portraits, the serjeant-painters undertook decorative tasks, such as the painting of banners and stage scenery. Parchment rolls of the Office of the Works record that De Critz oversaw the decorating of royal houses and palaces. Since Peake's work is not recorded there, it seems as if De Critz took responsibility for the more decorative tasks, while Peake continued his work as a royal portrait painter; however and Paul Isackson painted the cabins and armorials on the ship the Prince Royal in 1611. In 1610, Peake was described as "painter to Prince Henry", the sixteen-year-old prince, gathering around him a significant cultural salon.
Peake commissioned a translation of Books I-V of Sebastiano Serlio's Architettura, which he dedicated to the prince in 1611. Scholars have deduced from payments made to Peake that his position as painter to Prince Henry led to his appointment as serjeant-painter to the king; the payments were listed by the Prince's household officer Sir David Murray as disbursements from the Privy Purse to "Mr Peck". On 14 October 1608, Peake was paid £7 for "pictures made by His Highness’ command". At about the same time, Isaac Oliver was paid £5.10s.0d. for each of three miniatures of the prince. Murray's accounts reveal, that the prince was paying more for tennis balls than for any picture. Peake is listed in Sir David Murray's accounts for the period between 1 October 1610 and 6 November 1612, drawn up to the day on which Henry, Prince of Wales, died of typhoid fever, at the age of eighteen: "To Mr Peake for pictures and frames £12. Peake is listed in the accounts for Henry's funeral under "Artificers and officers of the Works" as "Mr Peake the elder painter".
For the occasion, he was allotted seven yards of mourning cloth, plus four for a servant. Listed is "Mr Peake the younger painter", meaning Robert's son William, allotted four yards of mourning cloth. After the prince's death, Peake moved on to the household of Henry's brother, Duke of York, the future Charles I of England; the accounts for 1616, which call Peake the prince's painter, record that he was paid £35 for "three several pictures of his Highness". On 10 July 1613, he was paid £13.6s.8d. By the vice-chancellor of the University of Cambridge, "in full satisfaction for Prince Charles his picture", for a full-length portrait, still in the Cambridge University Library. Peake died in 1619 in mid-October; until recently, it was believed that Peake died later. Erna Auerbach, Tudor Artists, London, 1954, p. 148, put his death for example. The catalogue for The Age of Charles I exhibition at the Tate Gallery in 1972, p. 89, suggested Peake was active as late as 1635. His will was proved on the 16th.
The date of his burial is unknown because the Great Fire of London dest