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Henry Grey, 3rd Earl Grey

Henry George Grey, 3rd Earl Grey, known as Viscount Howick from 1807 until 1845, was an English statesman. Grey was the eldest son of Prime Minister Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey, by his wife The Honorable Mary Ponsonby, daughter of William Ponsonby, 1st Baron Ponsonby, he entered parliament in 1826, under the title of Viscount Howick, as Whig member for Winchelsea, briefly for Higham Ferrers before settling for a northern constituency. Northumberland in 1831 was followed by North Northumberland after the Great Reform Act 1832, he remained in the parliaments dominated by his party and by Lord Melbourne as Prime Minister. On the accession of the Whigs to power in 1830, when his father became prime minister, he was made Under-Secretary of State for War and the Colonies; this gave him responsibility for Britain's colonial possessions and laid the foundation of his intimate acquaintance with colonial questions. He belonged at the time to the more advanced party of colonial reformers, sharing the views of Edward Gibbon Wakefield on questions of land and emigration, resigned in 1834 from dissatisfaction that slave emancipation was made gradual instead of immediate.

In 1835 he entered Lord Melbourne's cabinet as Secretary at War, effected some valuable administrative reforms by suppressing malpractices detrimental to the troops in India. After the partial reconstruction of the ministry in 1839, he again resigned, disapproving of the more advanced views of some of his colleagues; these repeated resignations gave him a reputation for crotchetiness, which he did not decrease by his disposition to embarrass his old colleagues by his action on free trade questions in the session of 1841. After being returned unopposed at the first three general elections in Northern division of Northumberland, Howick was defeated at the 1841 general election, he returned to the Commons after a few months absence, when he was elected for the borough of Sunderland at by-election in September 1841. During the exile of the Liberals from power he went still farther on the path of free trade, anticipated Lord John Russell's declaration against the corn laws. When, on Sir Robert Peel's resignation in December 1845, Lord John Russell was called upon to form a ministry, who had become Earl Grey by the death of his father in the preceding July, refused to enter the new cabinet if Lord Palmerston were foreign secretary.

He was censured for perverseness, when in the following July he accepted Lord Palmerston as a colleague without remonstrance. His conduct afforded Lord John Russell an escape from an embarrassing situation. Becoming colonial secretary in 1846, he found himself everywhere confronted with arduous problems, which in the main he encountered with success, his administration formed an epoch. He was the first minister to proclaim that the colonies were to be governed for their own benefit and not for the mother countries; the concession by which colonies were allowed to tax imports from the mother-country ad libitum was not his. In the West Indies he suppressed; the least successful part of his administration was his treatment of the convict question at the Cape of Good Hope, which seemed an exception to his rule that the colonies were to be governed for their own benefit and in accordance with their own wishes, subjected him to a humiliating defeat. In 1848 Grey was elected to the New South Wales Legislative Council representing the City of Melbourne despite never visiting the colony.

This election was a protest against rule from Sydney and in 1850 Grey introduced the Australian Colonies Government Act which separated the district from New South Wales to become the colony of Victoria. After his retirement he wrote a history and defence of his colonial policy in the form of letters to Lord John Russell, he resigned with his colleagues in 1852. No room was found for him in the Coalition Cabinet of 1853, although during the Crimean struggle public opinion pointed to him as the fittest man as minister for war, he never again held office. During the remainder of his long life he exercised a vigilant criticism on public affairs. In 1858 he wrote a work on parliamentary reform. In his latter years he was a frequent contributor of weighty letters to The Times on land, tithes and other public questions, his principal parliamentary appearances were when he moved for a committee on Irish affairs in 1866, when in 1878 he passionately opposed the policy of the Beaconsfield cabinet in India.

He supported Lord Beaconsfield at the dissolution, regarding William Ewart Gladstone's accession to power with much greater alarm. He was a determined opponent of Gladstone's Home rule policy. Lord Grey married on 9 August 1832, to Maria, daughter of Sir Joseph Copley, 3rd Baronet of Sprotborough, they had no children. She died in September 1879. Lord Grey survived her by fifteen years and died on 9 October 1894, aged 91, he was succeeded in the earldom by Albert Grey. The suburb of Howick in Auckland, New Zealand, is named after the earl. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Earl Grey image of the

John Doyle (rugby league)

John Doyle is a former professional rugby league footballer who played for the North Queensland Cowboys and the Sydney Roosters in the NRL. Born in Rockhampton, Queensland. Doyle was educated at North Rockhampton State High School. John played junior rugby league for Yeppoon Seagulls. After retiring from football to live in Queensland, he signed a 1-year deal at the end of the 2005 season after Ricky Stuart contacted him to play with the Sydney Roosters in the National Rugby League, he signed for another year with the Sydney Roosters, however in late February during training camp he had decided to retire due to ongoing knee problems. Played three games for Queensland Played 74 first grade games Rep honours: 3 games Qld 2001-02 Junior clubs: Yeppoon Seagulls FG debut: North Queensland v Hunter Mariners, Breakers Stadium, 22/03/97 Player stats – John Doyle Queensland Rugby League

International Tennis Club of Washington

The International Tennis Club of Washington plays real tennis on Prince's Court at the Regency Sport and Health Club in McLean, Virginia, 6 miles from Washington, D. C. Dedicated on October 11, 1997, Prince's is the only new real tennis venue to be constructed in the United States since the Racquet Club of Chicago was built in 1923; the court, named after financial supporter and club co-founder Frederick H. Prince, features an 18 foot high main wall made of plate glass giving spectators an unrivalled view of play. Unusual features of the court include a large gong hung in the last gallery; the head professional at Prince's Court is Ivan Ronaldson, whose father was head professional at Hampton Court Palace. The assistant professional is Phil Shannon. Prince's Club Official website: International Tennis Club of Washington

USS Manitowoc (LST-1180)

USS Manitowoc was the second ship of the Newport-class tank landing ships which replaced the traditional bow door-design tank landing ships in service with the United States Navy. Manitowoc was constructed by the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard in Philadelphia and launched in 1969 and entered service in 1970. Manitowoc was deployed to Vietnam during the Vietnam War, was part of American peacekeeping efforts in Beirut, Lebanon in 1982–1983 and was part of the force sent to invade Grenada in 1983. In the early 1990s, the ship took part in operations in the Gulf War before being decommissioned in 1993; the ship was acquired on loan by the Republic of China Navy in 1995 and underwent a refit at Newport News Shipbuilding before being recommissioned into the ROCN in 1997 as ROCS Chung Ho. In 2000, the ROCN acquired the ship outright as part of the Security Assistance Program; the ship remains in service. Manitowoc was the second of the Newport class which were designed to meet the goal put forward by the United States amphibious forces to have a tank landing ship capable of over 20 knots.

However, the traditional bow door form for LSTs would not be capable. Therefore, the designers of the Newport class came up with a design of a traditional ship hull with a 112-foot aluminum ramp slung over the bow supported by two derrick arms; the 34-long-ton ramp was capable of sustaining loads up to 75 long tons. This made the Newport class the first to depart from the standard LST design, developed in early World War II. Manitowoc had a displacement of 4,793 long tons when light and 8,342 long tons at full load; the LST was 522 feet 4 inches long overall and 562 ft over the derrick arms which protruded past the bow. The vessel had a beam of 69 ft 6 in, a draft forward of 11 ft 5 in and 17 ft 5 in at the stern at full load. Manitowoc was fitted with six General Motors 16-645-ES diesel engines turning two shafts, three to each shaft; the system was rated at 16,500 brake horsepower and gave the ship a maximum speed of 22 knots for short periods and could only sustain 20 knots for an extended length of time.

The LST carried 1,750 long tons of diesel fuel for a range of 2,500 nautical miles at the cruising speed of 14 knots. The ship was equipped with a bow thruster to allow for better maneuvering near causeways and to hold position while offshore during the unloading of amphibious vehicles; the Newport class were larger and faster than previous LSTs and were able to transport tanks, heavy vehicles and engineer groups and supplies that were too large for helicopters or smaller landing craft to carry. The LSTs have a ramp forward of the superstructure that connects the lower tank deck with the main deck and a passage large enough to allow access to the parking area amidships; the vessels are equipped with a stern gate to allow the unloading of amphibious vehicles directly into the water or to unload onto a utility landing craft or pier. At either end of the tank deck there is a 30 ft turntable that permits vehicles to turn around without having to reverse; the Newport class has the capacity for 500 long tons of vehicles, 19,000 sq ft of cargo area and could carry up to 431 troops.

The vessels have davits for four vehicle and personnel landing craft and could carry four pontoon causeway sections along the sides of the hull. Manitowoc was armed with four Mark 33 3-inch /50 caliber guns in two twin turrets; the vessel was equipped with two Mk 63 gun control fire systems for the 3-inch guns, but these were removed in 1977–1978. The ship had SPS-10 surface search radar. Atop the stern gate, the vessels mounted a helicopter deck, they had a maximum complement of 213 including 11 officers. Ordered as part of the second group in Fiscal Year 1966, the LST was laid down at Philadelphia Naval Shipyard in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on 27 February 1967; the ship was named Manitowoc after the county in Wisconsin on 21 March 1967. The vessel was launched on 4 January 1969 and sponsored by the wife of U. S. Senator Gaylord Nelson of Wisconsin. Manitowoc was commissioned on 24 January 1970. Manitowoc conducted two deployments off Vietnam in 1972 during the Vietnam War, she carried troops to Lebanon in 1982 and 1983 during the U.

S. participation in the Beirut Multinational Peacekeeping Force. In route to Lebanon in October 1983 she participated in Operation Urgent Fury, the invasion of Grenada as part of Amphibious Squadron Four. On 25 October Manitowoc and Fort Snelling, a Thomaston-class dock landing ship, were unexpectedly ordered to transit to the western shore of the island to open a second front on the enemy forces. A beachhead at Grand Mal Bay near the capital city was secured by 13 amphibious landing craft carrying a company of marines which were launched from the LST. Manitowoc participated in the Gulf War before decommissioning on 30 June 1993. Manitowoc was leased by the Republic of China Navy on 1 July 1995 and sent to Newport News Shipbuilding for a refit. There the vessel's main armament of 3-inch guns were removed and replaced with two twin Bofors 40 mm /60 gun mounts. Cheng Feng III electronic countermeasures, WD 2A electronic warfare support measures and SPS-67 surface search radar; the LST was renamed Chung Ho and recommissioned into the ROCN on 8 May 1997.

The ship was acquired by the Republic of China outright through the Security Assistance Program on 29 September 2000. The vessel was struck from the United States Naval Vessel Register on 23 July 2002. Blackman, Raymond V. B. ed.. Jane's Fighting Ships 1972–73. London: Sampson Low, Marston & C

Equitable Life Assurance Society v Hyman

Equitable Life Assurance Society v Hyman UKHL 39 is an English contract law case, concerning implied terms. Equitable Life issued ‘with profits’ life assurance policies, which are a way of saving for retirement. If policy holders took benefits as a taxable annuity they got tax exemptions on the premiums, they could choose to have their annuity at a "guaranteed annual rate" that would be fixed, or a "current annuity rate" that would fluctuate according to the market. The choice did not affect the premium. From 1993 the current annuity fell below the guaranteed one. Article 65 of the Equitable Life's Articles of Association said the directors could, at their discretion, vary bonuses and the company had relied on this since its foundation; the directors of Equitable Life decided they would reduce the level of terminal bonuses for GAR policyholders, from the higher figure shown on the GAR policyholders' annual bonus notices, to a lower figure so as to equalise the benefits so far as possible i.e. the policy proceeds with the higher terminal bonus times the CAR rate equalled the policy proceeds with lower terminal bonus times the GAR rate.

The Equitable's Annual Regulatory Returns, submitted each year to the regulatory authorities had set out this practice since the 1993. The Equitable's Annual Regulatory Returns had been scrutinized each year by the regulatory authorities and nothing adverse had been said by the regulatory authorities about the Equitable's Differential Terminal Bonus Policy. In 1998, because the GAR policyholders received a lower terminal bonus than they expected certain GAR policyholders complained. Mr Hyman was a representative policyholder. At no point, were the GAR policyholders paid less per annum than their guaranteed fund times guaranteed annuity rate; the House of Lords unanimously agreed that there was an implied term in the Articles of Association such that the directors of Equitable Life could not exercise their discretion in the way they had because it defeated the reasonable expectations of the GAR policyholders as exemplified by Equitable having quoted the higher terminal bonus on each GAR policyholders' annual bonus notice.

Although there was no express term in Equitable Life's constitution that constrained the discretion of the directors, it was necessary to imply such a term to uphold the policyholders' reasonable expectations. Lord Steyn gave the leading judgment. Lord Cooke added that the discretion could be struck down, no matter how broadly it was drafted, in the same way as happens in administrative law and private law; the result of the discretion would not be consistent with the purpose of the policy. Lords Slynn and Hobhouse concurred with both. £1.5b of annuities needed to be paid in full. Equitable Life collapsed after the case, because it was unable to meet its additional liability to GAR policyholders, had to sell assets and close to new business, it triggered an explosion of litigation and bitter recrimination among policyholders, auditors and the government. It must be said that this judgment is still somewhat controversial in legal circles and has been questioned: firstly, as it did not achieve fairness.

This arose because there were both pension policies containing "guaranteed annuity rates" and pension policies not containing "guaranteed annuity rates". It seems reasonable to assume that any judgement would have applied well to the GARs and non-GARs i.e. mutatis mutandis, the reasonable expectations of the non-GARs should not be infringed in order to pay for the "guaranteed annuity rates" of the GARs. In practice, the judgement resulted in a favouring of the GARs at the expense of the non-GARs. Equitable Life did not have enough money to meet the reasonable expectations of the GARs and the reasonable expectations of the non-GARs. Secondly, as Lord Steyn stated "..the directors of the Society resolved upon a differential policy, designed to deprive the relevant guarantees of any substantial value". However, one substantial value of the guaranteed annuity rates was to create a floor pension for the GARs which those policies without GARs did not have. In the case, for example, of market annuity rates at age 65 being 7.1% p.a. - not untypical of market annuity rates the time of the Hyman judgement - a typical guaranteed fund might have been £80,000 and a typical terminal bonus might have been £5,000.

Thus the floor pension would therefore have been £9,376 p.a. whereas the corresponding non-GAR pension would have been only £6,035 p.a.. Thus, as 9,376/6,035=1.55, the advantage of having a GAR would have been a 55% increase in the pension payable an

Richard A Neubauer

Richard Allen Neubauer, was a physician known for his work in the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Neubauer was born in Wilmington, Delaware, on January 16, 1924, he received his undergraduate education at the College of William and Mary, his medical degree in 1947 at the University of Virginia. After first practicing in Wilmington and Philadelphia, he established a practice in internal medicine in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, he was Chief of Staff and Director of Medical Development at the Cleveland Clinic there, which he had helped found under the earlier name of Beach Hospital. Neubauer obtained a hyperbaric oxygen chamber in the early 1970s, established and directed the Ocean Hyperbaric Neurologic Center in Lauderdale-by-the-Sea, Florida, he was an early user of hyperbaric oxygen therapy for multiple sclerosis, near drowning, cerebral palsy, traumatic brain injury, anoxic encephalopathy, coma and the treatment of mitochondrial diseases in children. Neubauer was the co-author with Morton Walker of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy, of Hyperbaric Oxygenation for Cerebral Palsy and the Brain-Injured Child: A Promising Treatment.

His most cited scientific article is "Hyperbaric Oxygenation As An Adjunct Therapy In Strokes Due To Thrombosis - A Review Of 122 Patients" by Neubauer RA, End E, Stroke. 1980 May-Jun. Neubauer was elected to the Royal Society of Medicine, was a founder of the American College of Hyperbaric Medicine and a member of the World Federation of Neurology Executive Committee on Underwater Medicine. List of publications from the United States National Library of Medicine