Henry Harley "Hap" Arnold was an American general officer holding the ranks of General of the Army and General of the Air Force. Arnold was an aviation pioneer, Chief of the Air Corps, Commanding General of the U. S. Army Air Forces, the only U. S. Air Force general to hold five-star rank, the only officer to hold a five-star rank in two different U. S. military services. Arnold was the founder of Project RAND, which evolved into one of the world's largest non-profit global policy think tanks, the RAND Corporation, one of the founders of Pan American World Airways. Instructed in flying by the Wright Brothers, Arnold was one of the first military pilots worldwide, one of the first three rated pilots in the history of the United States Air Force, he overcame a fear of flying that resulted from his experiences with early flight, supervised the expansion of the Air Service during World War I, became a protégé of General Billy Mitchell. Arnold rose to command the Army Air Forces prior to the American entry into World War II and directed its hundred-fold expansion from an organization of little more than 20,000 men and 800 first-line combat aircraft into the largest and most powerful air force in the world.
An advocate of technological research and development, his tenure saw the development of the intercontinental bomber, the jet fighter, the extensive use of radar, global airlift and atomic warfare as mainstays of modern air power. Arnold's most used nickname, "Hap," was short for "Happy," attributed variously to work associates when he moonlighted as a silent film stunt pilot in October 1911, or to his wife, who began using the nickname in her correspondence in 1931 following the death of Arnold's mother, he was called Harley by his family during his youth, "Sunny" by both his mother and wife. Arnold was known to his West Point classmates as "Pewt" or "Benny". By his immediate subordinates and headquarters staff he was referred to as "The Chief." Born June 25, 1886, in Gladwyne, Arnold was the son of Dr. Herbert Alonzo Arnold, a strong-willed physician and a member of the prominent political and military Arnold Family, his mother was Anna Louise Harley, from a "Dunker" farm family and the first female in her family to attend high school.
Arnold had strong Mennonite ties through both families. However, unlike her husband, "Gangy" Arnold was "fun-loving and prone to laughter," and not rigid in her beliefs; when Arnold was eleven, his father responded to the Spanish–American War by serving as a surgeon in the Pennsylvania National Guard, of which he remained a member for the next 24 years. Arnold attended Lower Merion High School in Ardmore, graduating in 1903; the athletic fields at Lower Merion are named after him. Arnold had no intention of attending West Point but took the entrance examination after his older brother Thomas defied their father and refused to do so. Arnold placed second on the list and received a delayed appointment when the nominated cadet confessed to being married, prohibited by academy regulations. Arnold entered the United States Military Academy at West Point as a "Juliette", having just turned 17, his cadet career was spent as a "clean sleeve". At the academy he helped found the "Black Hand", a group of cadet pranksters, led it during his first class year.
He played second-team running back for the varsity football team, was a shot putter on the track and field team, excelled at polo. Arnold's academic standing varied between the middle and the lower end of his class, with his better scores in mathematics and science, he wanted assignment to the Cavalry but an inconsistent demerit record and a cumulative general merit class standing of 66th out of 111 cadets resulted in his being commissioned on June 14, 1907, as a second lieutenant, Infantry. He protested the assignment, but was persuaded to accept a commission in the 29th Infantry, at the time stationed in the Philippines. Arnold arrived in Manila on December 7, 1907. Arnold disliked infantry troop duties and volunteered to assist Captain Arthur S. Cowan of the 20th Infantry, on temporary assignment in the Philippines mapping the island of Luzon. Cowan returned to the United States following completion of the cartography detail, transferred to the Signal Corps, was assigned to recruit two lieutenants to become pilots.
Cowan contacted Arnold, who cabled his interest in transferring to the Signal Corps but heard nothing in reply for two years. In June 1909, the 29th Infantry relocated to Fort Jay, New York, en route to his new duty station by way of Paris, Arnold saw his first airplane in flight, piloted by Louis Blériot. In 1911, Arnold applied for transfer to the Ordnance Department because it offered an immediate promotion to first lieutenant. While awaiting the results of the required competitive examination, he learned that his interest in aeronautics had not been forgotten. Arnold sent a letter requesting a transfer to the Signal Corps and on April 21, 1911, received Special Order 95, detailing him and 2nd Lt. Thomas DeWitt Milling of the 15th Cavalry, to Dayton, for a course in flight instruction at the Wright brothers' aviation school at Simms Station, Ohio. While individually instructed, they were part of the school's May 1911 class that included three civilians and Lt. John Rodgers of the United States Navy.
Beginning instruction on May 3 with Arthur L. Welsh, Arnold made his first solo flight May 13 after three hours and forty-eight minutes of flight in 28 lessons. On May 14, he and M
The 1996 Pittsburgh Pirates season was the 115th season of the franchise. This was their 27th season at Three Rivers Stadium; the Pirates finished fifth and last in the National League Central with a record of 73–89. December 28, 1995: Charlie Hayes was signed as a free agent by the Pirates. February 2, 1996: Dale Sveum was signed as a free agent by the Pirates. February 4, 1996: Danny Darwin was signed as a free agent by the Pirates. February 17, 1996: Zane Smith was signed as a free agent by the Pirates. Batting Pitching 1996 Major League Baseball All-Star Game Jason Kendall, C, Reserve April 27, 1996: Joe Boever was selected off waivers by the Pirates from the Detroit Tigers. May 15, 1996: Jacob Brumfield was traded by the Pirates to the Toronto Blue Jays for D. J. Boston. June 4, 1996: Kris Benson was drafted by the Pirates in the 1st round. Player signed August 11, 1996. July 6, 1996: Zane Smith was released by the Pirates. July 23, 1996: Danny Darwin was traded by the Pirates to the Houston Astros for Rich Loiselle.
August 28, 1996: Denny Neagle was traded by the Pirates to the Atlanta Braves for Ron Wright, Corey Pointer and a player to be named later. The Braves completed the deal by sending Jason Schmidt to the Pirates on August 30. August 30, 1996: Charlie Hayes was traded by the Pirates to the New York Yankees for a player to be named later; the Yankees completed the deal by sending Chris Corn to the Pirates on August 31. 1996 Pittsburgh Pirates at Baseball Reference 1996 Pittsburgh Pirates at Baseball Almanac Johnson, Lloyd. The Encyclopedia of Minor League Baseball. Durham, North Carolina: Baseball America. ISBN 978-1-932391-17-6
Richard Douglas P. Jones is a British musicologist and editor, known for his work as a Bach scholar. After graduating from the University of Oxford, he has taught at Cardiff University and Sheffield University. Jones prepared the two-volume Urtext edition of the Six Sonatas for Violin and Harpsichord, BWV 1014–1019 published by Oxford University Press in 1993. Jones has edited; this scholarly edition was the winner of the Music Retailers Association's Standard Publication Award for 1994. In 1997 he was appointed editor of piano examination pieces for the Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music. Jones translated Alfred Dürr's standard work on Bach's cantatas to English. Dürr, Alfred. P.. The Cantatas of J. S. Bach: With Their Librettos in German-English Parallel Text. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199297764. Jones wrote The Creative Development of J. S. Bach in two volumes, published in 2007 and 2013 by Oxford University Press. David Ledbetter notes in a review of volume I for Early Music that the book is focused on the "composer's creative development", while comparable works do not look at it, Christoph Wolff providing biographical details, David Schulenberg providing commentaries on individual keyboard pieces, Peter Williams looking at organ works in the order of the BWV catalogue, Alfred Dürr at the cantatas following the liturgical year.
Ledbetter summarises: "Anybody wishing to get to grips with the music of Bach will be well advised to equip themselves with this survey as their starting point." A review of volume II by Peter Smaill compares "outstanding musical analysis" of the "all-embracing study of Bach's musical creativity, year by year" to the biography in three volumes by Philipp Spitta. The Creative Development of Johann Sebastian Bach, Volume I: 1695–1717: Music to Delight the Spirit. Oxford University Press. 2007. ISBN 978-0-19-816440-1; the Creative Development of Johann Sebastian Bach, Volume II: 1717–1750: Music to Delight the Spirit. Oxford University Press. 2013. ISBN 978-0-19-969628-4. Author: Jones, Richard D. P. Bach Bibliography Search:'Richard Douglas Jones' Leipzig University