Rancho La Brea
Rancho La Brea was a 4,439-acre Mexican land grant in present-day Los Angeles County, California given in 1828 to Antonio Jose Rocha and Nemisio Dominguez by José Antonio Carrillo, the Alcalde of Los Angeles. Rancho La Brea consisted of one square league of land of what is now Wilshire's Miracle Mile and parts of West Hollywood; the grant included the famous La Brea Tar Pits. The title awarded by the Alcalde in 1828 was confirmed by José María de Echeandía, Governor of Alta California. With the cession of California to the United States after the Mexican–American War, the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo provided that the land grants would be honored; as required by the Land Act of 1851, a claim was filed by Antonio José Rocha, José Jorge Rocha, Josefa de la Merced de Jordan with the Public Land Commission in 1852, but was rejected in 1860. As a lawyer and surveyor, Henry Hancock worked for the Rocha family to aid them with their efforts to prove their claim to Rancho La Brea; the Rochas won their claim.
The grant included the famous La Brea Tar Pits. As happened to other rancheros, the claimants' legal expenses left. In 1860, Antonio José Rocha's son, José Jorge Rocha, deeded Rancho La Brea to Henry Hancock. Hancock paid $20,000 for the Mexican grants with his profits from the sale of gold he had found in a rich placer mine, he engaged in the commercial development of the tar deposits on Rancho La Brea. He shipped considerable quantities to San Francisco by schooner. After Hancock's death in 1883, it was owned by Ida Hancock Ross. Most of Rancho La Brea was subdivided and developed by his surviving son, Captain George Allan Hancock, he owned the Rancho La Brea Oil Company and donated 23 acres of Hancock Park to Los Angeles County in 1924 to preserve and exhibit the fossils exhumed from Rancho La Brea. The La Brea Tar Pits within the Park are a now registered National Natural Landmark. Arthur Gilmore started a dairy farm. Drilling for water, he struck oil; this find. Arthur's son Earl Gilmore built Gilmore Stadium next to Gilmore Field.
Ranchos of California List of Ranchos of California Map of old Spanish and Mexican ranchos in Los Angeles County
George Allan Hancock
George Allan Hancock was the owner of the Rancho La Brea Oil Company. He inherited Rancho La Brea, including the La Brea Tar Pits, he developed Hancock Park, Los Angeles. He was vice president of the Los Angeles Hibernian Bank, treasurer of the Los Angeles Symphony Association, president of the Automobile Association of Southern California, he owned the Santa Maria Valley Railroad, established Rosemary Farm, developed the Santa Maria Ice and Cold Storage Plant. Captain G. Allan Hancock was born in San Francisco, California, on July 26, 1875, he was the son of Ida Haraszthy Hancock. His maternal grandfather was Count Agoston Haraszthy, the "Father of California Viticulture". Hancock received his early education in the primary schools and at Brewer's Military Academy in San Mateo, which he attended during 1888 and 1889. In 1890, he enrolled as a student at the Belmont School in California. Hancock was eight years old when his father died in 1884, he continued in the management and operation of La Brea ranch until he was 25.
Hancock married Genevieve Deane Mullen in Los Angeles on November 27, 1901. They had two children: Rosemary Genevieve Hancock, it was at this period. Rancho La Brea was one of the localities. In 1900, Ida Hancock granted a 20-year lease to the Salt Lake Oil Company for 1,000 acres of Rancho La Brea. Hancock turned his attention to petroleum production. In 1907, after spending three years studying the industry, he urged his mother to allow him enough capital to sink a well on a portion of the property that had not been leased to oil operators. With the assistance of William Orcutt, Hancock drilled 71 wells near the family's ranch house; every well-produced oil and the Rancho La Brea Oil Company was born. The family's finances improved with the beginning of oil pumping; the wells produced millions of barrels annually, resulting in the family becoming wealthy. With that wealth, Hancock thus began a life of philanthropy. Hancock died on May 31, 1965, of a heart attack in California, his bequests continued his long-time support of numerous causes.
Hancock was interested in music and played the cello in the Los Angeles Symphony Orchestra. Hancock was a member of the Bohemian Club, the California Club, the Los Angeles Athletic Club, the Gamut Club, the Uplifters, the Knights of Columbus and a number of yacht clubs. Hancock donated seven million dollars to the University of Southern California and founded the Allan Hancock Foundation at U. S. C. In 1931 he had the motor vessel Velero III, 193 feet in length overall, built at Craig Shipbuilding, Long Beach, with the intention of using the vessel for both business and research; the vessel was used for private oceanographic research and exploration, making trips to the Galápagos Islands, before being donated to the University of Southern California and purchased for war use by the Navy on December 15, 1941 and being commissioned as the USS Chalcedony. On a trip to the Galápagos Captain Hancock would attempt to identify two bodies found on Marchena Island and check on a colony of German "Back to nature" enthusiasts on Floreana Island known as Charles Island.
The Allan Hancock College in Santa Maria, California, is named after him. Hancock Park, Los Angeles, California Santa Maria Public Airport Southern Cross Notables of the West Vol. II. Press Reference Library International News Service, pp. 67, 1915. Hancock Memorial Museum Capt. G. Allan Hancock -- The College's Namesake
Bath, New Hampshire
Bath is a town in Grafton County, New Hampshire, United States. The population was 1,077 at the 2010 census. Now a tourist destination and bedroom community for Littleton, the town is noted for its historic architecture, including the Brick Store and three covered bridges. Bath includes part of the district known as Mountain Lakes; the town was granted to the Rev. Andrew Gardner and 61 others on September 10, 1761 by Governor Benning Wentworth, who named it for William Pulteney, 1st Earl of Bath, it was first settled in 1765 by John Herriman from Massachusetts. But the terms of the original grant were unfulfilled, so Bath was regranted on March 29, 1769 by Governor John Wentworth; the first census, taken in 1790, recorded 493 residents. Situated at the head of navigation on the Connecticut River, shielded from strong winds by the Green Mountains to the west and White Mountains to the east, Bath soon developed into "...one of the busiest and most prosperous villages in northern New Hampshire." Intervales provided excellent alluvial soil for agriculture, the Ammonoosuc and Wild Ammonoosuc rivers supplied water power for mills.
The population reached 1,627 in 1830. A vein of copper was mined; the White Mountains Railroad up the Ammonoosuc River Valley opened August 1, 1853, shipping Bath's lumber, potatoes and wood pulp. By 1859, the town had two sawmills. Other industries would include a woolen mill, creamery and two starch factories. A disastrous fire swept through Bath village on 1 February 1872, destroying the Congregational church, Bath Hotel and several dwelling houses; the church was rebuilt in 1873. By 1874, Bath was served by the Boston and Montreal and White Mountains Railroad, but nearby Woodsville developed into a major railroad junction, the region's commercial center shifted there. By 1886, once thriving Bath was described as in decay, but this economic dormancy of the Victorian era preserved much early architecture in the village in the Federal and Greek Revival styles. The Brick Store, built in 1824, is today the oldest continuously operating general store in the United States; the Moses P. Payson Mansion, designed by Alexander Parris, once dominated the town center.
But fire and neglect took a heavy toll. More fortunate is Bath's Upper Village, a cluster of Federal style houses based on the handbook designs of architect Asher Benjamin. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 38.6 square miles, of which 37.7 square miles is land and 0.9 square miles is water, comprising 2.31% of the town. The highest points in Bath are a trio of knobs on Gardner Mountain, all found near the northernmost point in town and all measuring greater than 1,980 feet above sea level; the Connecticut River forms the western boundary of the town. Bath lies within the Connecticut River watershed. Geologically, Bath is located at the northernmost extent of former Lake Hitchcock, a post-glacial lake that shaped the Connecticut River valley from this point south to Middletown, Connecticut; the town is crossed by U. S. Route 302 and New Hampshire Route 112; the village of Swiftwater is located near the town's boundary with Haverhill. As of the census of 2000, there were 893 people, 350 households, 253 families residing in the town.
The population density was 23.4 people per square mile. There were 450 housing units at an average density of 11.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 99.33% White, 0.22% African American, 0.22% Native American, 0.22% from two or more races. There were 350 households out of which 29.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.4% were married couples living together, 6.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.7% were non-families. 21.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 2.96. In the town, the population was spread out with 24.3% under the age of 18, 6.7% from 18 to 24, 24.2% from 25 to 44, 29.2% from 45 to 64, 15.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.1 males. The median income for a household in the town was $43,088, the median income for a family was $47,000.
Males had a median income of $27,679 versus $22,167 for females. The per capita income for the town was $17,916. About 2.8% of families and 5.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 1.5% of those under age 18 and 5.5% of those age 65 or over. Bath's three covered bridges Ammonoosuc Rail Trail, between Woodsville and Littleton Timothy Bedel, mill owner, military commander Raymond S. Burton, longest-serving Executive Councilor in New Hampshire history Henry Hancock and land surveyor Harry Hibbard, US congressman James Hutchins Johnson, US congressman Patti Page, singer E. Carleton Sprague, former New York state senator Town of Bath official website Bath Public Library New Hampshire Economic and Labor Market Information Bureau Profile
Union (American Civil War)
During the American Civil War, the Union known as the North, referred to the United States of America and to the national government of President Abraham Lincoln and the 20 free states, as well as 4 border and slave states that supported it. The Union was opposed by 11 southern slave states that formed the Confederate States of America known as "the Confederacy" or "the South". All of the Union's states provided soldiers for the United States Army, though the border areas sent tens of thousands of soldiers south into the Confederacy; the Border states were essential as a supply base for the Union invasion of the Confederacy, Lincoln realized he could not win the war without control of them Maryland, which lay north of the national capital of Washington, D. C.. The Northeast and upper Midwest provided the industrial resources for a mechanized war producing large quantities of munitions and supplies, as well as financing for the war; the Midwest provided soldiers, horses, financial support, training camps.
Army hospitals were set up across the Union. Most states had Republican Party governors who energetically supported the war effort and suppressed anti-war subversion in 1863–64; the Democratic Party supported the war at the beginning in 1861 but by 1862, was split between the War Democrats and the anti-war element led by the "Copperheads". The Democrats made major electoral gains in 1862 in state elections, most notably in New York, they lost ground in 1863 in Ohio. In 1864, the Republicans campaigned under the National Union Party banner, which attracted many War Democrats and soldiers and scored a landslide victory for Lincoln and his entire ticket against opposition candidate George B. McClellan, former General-in-Chief of the Union Army and its eastern Army of the Potomac; the war years were quite prosperous except where serious fighting and guerrilla warfare took place along the southern border. Prosperity was stimulated by heavy government spending and the creation of an new national banking system.
The Union states invested a great deal of money and effort in organizing psychological and social support for soldiers' wives and orphans, for the soldiers themselves. Most soldiers were volunteers, although after 1862 many volunteered in order to escape the draft and to take advantage of generous cash bounties on offer from states and localities. Draft resistance was notable in some larger cities New York City with its massive anti-draft riots of July 1863 and in some remote districts such as the coal mining areas of Pennsylvania. In the context of the American Civil War, the Union is sometimes referred to as "the North", both and now, as opposed to the Confederacy, "the South"; the Union never recognized the legitimacy of the Confederacy's secession and maintained at all times that it remained a part of the United States of America. In foreign affairs the Union was the only side recognized by all other nations, none of which recognized the Confederate government; the term "Union" occurs in the first governing document of the United States, the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union.
The subsequent Constitution of 1787 was issued and ratified in the name not of the states, but of "We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union...". Union, for the United States of America, is repeated in such clauses as the Admission to the Union clause in Article IV, Section 3. Before the war started, the phrase "preserve the Union" was commonplace, a "union of states" had been used to refer to the entire United States of America. Using the term "Union" to apply to the non-secessionist side carried a connotation of legitimacy as the continuation of the pre-existing political entity. Confederates saw the Union states as being opposed to slavery referring to them as abolitionists, as in reference to the U. S. Navy as the "Abolition fleet" and the U. S. Army as the "Abolition forces". Unlike the Confederacy, the Union had a large industrialized and urbanized area, more advanced commercial and financial systems than the rural South. Additionally, the Union states had a manpower advantage of 5 to 2 at the start of the war.
Year by year, the Confederacy shrank and lost control of increasing quantities of resources and population. Meanwhile, the Union turned its growing potential advantage into a much stronger military force. However, much of the Union strength had to be used to garrison conquered areas, to protect railroads and other vital points; the Union's great advantages in population and industry would prove to be vital long-term factors in its victory over the Confederacy, but it took the Union a long while to mobilize these resources. The attack on Fort Sumter rallied the North to the defense of American nationalism. Historian, Allan Nevins, says: The thunderclap of Sumter produced a startling crystallization of Northern sentiment... Anger swept the land. From every side came news of mass meetings, resolutions, tenders of business support, the muster of companies and regiments, the determined action of governors and legislatures. McClintock states: At the time, Northerners were right to wonder at the near unanimity that so followed long months of bitterness and discord.
It would not last throughout the protracted war to come – or through the year – but in that moment of unity was laid bare the common Northern nationalism hidden by the fierce battles more typical of the political arena." Historian Michael Smith, argues that, as the war grou
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, with about 6,700 undergraduate students and about 15,250 postgraduate students. Established in 1636 and named for its first benefactor, clergyman John Harvard, Harvard is the United States' oldest institution of higher learning, its history and wealth have made it one of the world's most prestigious universities; the Harvard Corporation is its first chartered corporation. Although never formally affiliated with any denomination, the early College trained Congregational and Unitarian clergy, its curriculum and student body were secularized during the 18th century, by the 19th century, Harvard had emerged as the central cultural establishment among Boston elites. Following the American Civil War, President Charles W. Eliot's long tenure transformed the college and affiliated professional schools into a modern research university. A. Lawrence Lowell, who followed Eliot, further reformed the undergraduate curriculum and undertook aggressive expansion of Harvard's land holdings and physical plant.
James Bryant Conant led the university through the Great Depression and World War II and began to reform the curriculum and liberalize admissions after the war. The undergraduate college became coeducational after its 1977 merger with Radcliffe College; the university is organized into eleven separate academic units—ten faculties and the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study—with campuses throughout the Boston metropolitan area: its 209-acre main campus is centered on Harvard Yard in Cambridge 3 miles northwest of Boston. Harvard's endowment is worth $39.2 billion, making it the largest of any academic institution. Harvard is a large residential research university; the nominal cost of attendance is high, but the university's large endowment allows it to offer generous financial aid packages. The Harvard Library is the world's largest academic and private library system, comprising 79 individual libraries holding over 18 million items; the University is cited as one of the world's top tertiary institutions by various organizations.
Harvard's alumni include eight U. S. presidents, more than thirty foreign heads of state, 62 living billionaires, 359 Rhodes Scholars, 242 Marshall Scholars. As of October 2018, 158 Nobel laureates, 18 Fields Medalists, 14 Turing Award winners have been affiliated as students, faculty, or researchers. In addition, Harvard students and alumni have won 10 Academy Awards, 48 Pulitzer Prizes and 108 Olympic medals, have founded a large number of companies worldwide. Harvard was established in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1638, it acquired British North America's first known printing press. In 1639, it was named Harvard College after deceased clergyman John Harvard, an alumnus of the University of Cambridge, who had left the school £779 and his scholar's library of some 400 volumes; the charter creating the Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650. A 1643 publication gave the school's purpose as "to advance learning and perpetuate it to posterity, dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches when our present ministers shall lie in the dust".
It offered a classic curriculum on the English university model—many leaders in the colony had attended the University of Cambridge—but conformed to the tenets of Puritanism. It was never affiliated with any particular denomination, but many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Congregational and Unitarian churches; the leading Boston divine Increase Mather served as president from 1685 to 1701. In 1708, John Leverett became the first president, not a clergyman, marking a turning of the college from Puritanism and toward intellectual independence. Throughout the 18th century, Enlightenment ideas of the power of reason and free will became widespread among Congregational ministers, putting those ministers and their congregations in tension with more traditionalist, Calvinist parties; when the Hollis Professor of Divinity David Tappan died in 1803 and the president of Harvard Joseph Willard died a year in 1804, a struggle broke out over their replacements. Henry Ware was elected to the chair in 1805, the liberal Samuel Webber was appointed to the presidency of Harvard two years which signaled the changing of the tide from the dominance of traditional ideas at Harvard to the dominance of liberal, Arminian ideas.
In 1846, the natural history lectures of Louis Agassiz were acclaimed both in New York and on the campus at Harvard College. Agassiz's approach was distinctly idealist and posited Americans' "participation in the Divine Nature" and the possibility of understanding "intellectual existences". Agassiz's perspective on science combined observation with intuition and the assumption that a person can grasp the "divine plan" in all phenomena; when it came to explaining life-forms, Agassiz resorted to matters of shape based on a presumed archetype for his evidence. This dual view of knowledge was in concert with the teachings of Common Sense Realism derived from Scottish philosophers Thomas Reid and Dugald Stewart, whose works were part of the Harvard curriculum at the time; the popularity of Agassiz's efforts to "soar with Plato" also derived from other writings to which Harvard students
San Francisco the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural and financial center of Northern California. San Francisco is the 13th-most populous city in the United States, the fourth-most populous in California, with 884,363 residents as of 2017, it covers an area of about 46.89 square miles at the north end of the San Francisco Peninsula in the San Francisco Bay Area, making it the second-most densely populated large US city, the fifth-most densely populated U. S. county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. San Francisco is part of the fifth-most populous primary statistical area in the United States, the San Jose–San Francisco–Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area; as of 2017, it was the seventh-highest income county in the United States, with a per capita personal income of $119,868. As of 2015, San Francisco proper had a GDP of $154.2 billion, a GDP per capita of $177,968. The San Francisco CSA was the country's third-largest urban economy as of 2017, with a GDP of $907 billion.
Of the 500+ primary statistical areas in the US, the San Francisco CSA had among the highest GDP per capita in 2017, at $93,938. San Francisco was ranked 14th in the world and third in the United States on the Global Financial Centres Index as of September 2018. San Francisco was founded on June 29, 1776, when colonists from Spain established Presidio of San Francisco at the Golden Gate and Mission San Francisco de Asís a few miles away, all named for St. Francis of Assisi; the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856. San Francisco's status as the West Coast's largest city peaked between 1870 and 1900, when around 25% of California's population resided in the city proper. After three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a major port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater.
It became the birthplace of the United Nations in 1945. After the war, the confluence of returning servicemen, significant immigration, liberalizing attitudes, along with the rise of the "hippie" counterculture, the Sexual Revolution, the Peace Movement growing from opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War, other factors led to the Summer of Love and the gay rights movement, cementing San Francisco as a center of liberal activism in the United States. Politically, the city votes along liberal Democratic Party lines. A popular tourist destination, San Francisco is known for its cool summers, steep rolling hills, eclectic mix of architecture, landmarks, including the Golden Gate Bridge, cable cars, the former Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary, Fisherman's Wharf, its Chinatown district. San Francisco is the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Gap Inc. Fitbit, Salesforce.com, Reddit, Inc. Dolby, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Pinterest, Uber, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation and Weather Underground.
It is home to a number of educational and cultural institutions, such as the University of San Francisco, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco State University, the De Young Museum, the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, the California Academy of Sciences. As of 2019, San Francisco is the highest rated American city on world liveability rankings; the earliest archaeological evidence of human habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. The Yelamu group of the Ohlone people resided in a few small villages when an overland Spanish exploration party, led by Don Gaspar de Portolà, arrived on November 2, 1769, the first documented European visit to San Francisco Bay. Seven years on March 28, 1776, the Spanish established the Presidio of San Francisco, followed by a mission, Mission San Francisco de Asís, established by the Spanish explorer Juan Bautista de Anza. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the area became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the mission system ended, its lands became privatized.
In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, near a boat anchorage around what is today Portsmouth Square. Together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7, 1846, during the Mexican–American War, Captain John B. Montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, Mexico ceded the territory to the United States at the end of the war. Despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography; the California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers. With their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849; the promise of great wealth was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor.
Some of these 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships and hotels.
Quartermaster is a military or naval term, the meaning of which depends on the country and service. In land armies, a quartermaster is a senior soldier who supervises stores and distributes supplies and provisions. In many navies, a quartermaster is a non-commissioned officer rank; the term appears to derive from the title of the Quartiermeister. This term meant "master of quarters". Alternatively, it could have been derived from "master of the quarterdeck" where the helmsman and captain controlled the ship; the term's first use in English was as a naval term, which entered English in the 15th century via the equivalent French and Dutch naval titles quartier-maître and kwartier-meester, respectively. The term began to refer to army officers in English around 1600. For land armies, the term was first coined in Germany as Quartiermeister and denoted a court official with the duty of preparing the monarch's sleeping quarters. In the 17th century, it started to be used in various militaries in the sense of organizing supplies.
In the British Army, the quartermaster is the officer in a battalion or regiment responsible for supply. By longstanding tradition, he or she is always commissioned from the ranks and holds the rank of captain or major; some units have a technical quartermaster, in charge of technical stores. The quartermaster is assisted by a staff of storemen; the QM, RQMS and storemen are drawn from the regiment or corps in which they work, not from the Royal Logistic Corps, responsible for issuing and transporting supplies to them. Units which specialize in supply are known as "supply" units, not "quartermaster" units, their personnel as "log specs". From at least the English Civil War period until 1813, the quartermaster was the senior NCO in a British cavalry troop. In that year, the position was replaced by the new appointment of troop sergeant major, with the cavalry adopting commissioned, regimental quartermasters as described above. From Royal Canadian Ordnance Corps standing orders: For many centuries – indeed as long as there have been organized military units – the appointment of quartermaster has been significant in armies.
Until recent times, the British Army invariably rewarded an outstanding RSM by appointing him quartermaster of his battalion, thus ensuring the unit an experienced officer who knew the unit and would prove difficult to mislead or beguile. As the complexities of the Army and its material increased, an officer with greater professional technical knowledge of the problems that surround stores management was required for the Quartermaster's duties. Under authority of Canadian Army Order 201 – 16 dated 8 February 1954, the Royal Canadian Ordnance Corps assumed these responsibilities and undertook to train and provide unit quartermasters and staff for all corps of the Canadian Army except the Royal Canadian Corps of Signals, Royal Canadian Army Medical Corps and Royal Canadian Dental Corps. In recent years, the quartermaster has been a specially trained officer of the Royal Canadian Logistics Service, though CFR officers have been known to accept regimental appointments such as quartermaster; the quartermaster was responsible for intelligence operations in the Imperial Russian Army.
In the United States Army, the term is used to describe all supply personnel and units that are part of the quartermaster corps. In the Swiss Army, a quartermaster is an officer in charge with the coordination of the Kommissariatsdienst of a battalion and brigade/division, his function is more a control and supervision function: a staff officer for the respective commander. The Qm has a direct subordinate at company level: it is the company quartermaster sergeant; the company quartermaster sergeant is known since the 18th century as Fourier or Einheits-Fourier and has the rank equivalent of a senior non-commissioned-officer like the company sergeant major and they are ranked OR-7 in the senior NCO's category. For technical questions, the QMS is subordinated to the Qm officer; the tasks of resupply are assigned at company level to the two SNCO's. The QMS is the material executor of the Qm tasks at company level and for the command chain together with the CSM, directly subordinated to the company commander as staff NCOs.
The Fourier is the substitute of the chief sergeant major, if considering the command platoon by itself. In the IDF, the battalion quartermaster is the commander of the battalions support company, known as the battalion headquarters company. In the standing army he is a captain, but the role is a major's role. In the reserve army he is a major. While most of the staff officers are directly under the command of the battalion commander, the quartermaster has a lieutenant, a logistics officer and a junior ordnance officer und