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Henry Home, Lord Kames

Henry Home, Lord Kames was a Scottish advocate, philosopher and agricultural improver. A central figure of the Scottish Enlightenment, a founding member of the Philosophical Society of Edinburgh, active in the Select Society, he acted as patron to some of the most influential thinkers of the Scottish Enlightenment, including the philosopher David Hume, the economist Adam Smith, the writer James Boswell, the chemical philosopher William Cullen, the naturalist John Walker, he was born at Kames House, between Eccles and Birgham, the son of George Home of Kames. He was educated at home by a private tutor until the age of 16. In 1712 he was apprenticed as a lawyer under a Writer to the Signet in Edinburgh, was called to the Scottish bar as an advocate bar in 1724, he soon acquired reputation by a number of publications on the civil and Scottish law, was one of the leaders of the Scottish Enlightenment. In 1752, he was "raised to the bench". Home was on the panel of judges in the Joseph Knight case which ruled that there could be no slavery in Scotland.

His address in 1775 is shown as New Street on the Canongate. Cassell's clarifies that this was a fine mansion at the head of the street, on its east side, facing onto the Canongate, he is buried in the Home-Drummond plot at Kincardine-in-Menteith just west of Blair Drummond. Home wrote much about the importance of property to society. In his Essay Upon Several Subjects Concerning British Antiquities, written just after the Jacobite rising of 1745, he showed that the politics of Scotland were based not on loyalty to Kings, as the Jacobites had said, but on the royal land grants that lay at the base of feudalism, the system whereby the sovereign maintained "an immediate hold of the persons and property of his subjects". In Historical Law Tracts Home described an four-stage model of social evolution that became "a way of organizing the history of Western civilization"; the first stage was that of the hunter-gatherer, wherein families avoided each other as competitors for the same food. The second was that of the herder of domestic animals, which encouraged the formation of larger groups but did not result in what Home considered a true society.

No laws were needed at these early stages except those given by the head of the family, clan, or tribe. Agriculture was the third stage, wherein new occupations such as "plowman, blacksmith, stonemason" made "the industry of individuals profitable to others as well as to themselves", a new complexity of relationships and obligations required laws and law enforcers. A fourth stage evolved with the development of market towns and seaports, "commercial society", bringing yet more laws and complexity but providing more benefit. Lord Kames could see these stages within Scotland itself, with the pastoral Highlands, the agricultural Lowlands, the "polite" commercial towns of Glasgow and Edinburgh, in the Western Isles a remaining culture of rude huts where fishermen and gatherers of seaweed eked out their subsistence living. Home was a polygenist, he believed. In his book Sketches of the History of Man, in 1774, Home claimed that the environment, climate, or state of society could not account for racial differences, so that the races must have come from distinct, separate stocks.

The above studies created the genre of the story of civilization and defined the fields of anthropology and sociology and therefore the modern study of history for two hundred years. In the popular book Elements of Criticism Home interrogated the notion of fixed or arbitrary rules of literary composition, endeavoured to establish a new theory based on the principles of human nature; the late eighteenth-century tradition of sentimental writing was associated with his notion that'the genuine rules of criticism are all of them derived from the human heart. Prof Neil Rhodes has argued that Lord Kames played a significant role in the development of English as an academic discipline in the Scottish Universities, he enjoyed intelligent conversation and cultivated a large number of intellectual associates, among them John Home, David Hume and James Boswell.. Lord Monboddo was a frequent debater of Kames, although these two had a fiercely competitive and adversarial relationship, he was married to Agatha Drummond of Blair Drummond.

Their children included George Drummond-Home. Remarkable Decisions of the Court of Session Essays upon Several Subjects in Law Essay Upon Several Subjects Concerning British Antiquities Essays on the Principles of Morality and Natural Religion He advocates the doctrine of philosophical necessity. Historical Law-Tracts Principles of Equity Introduction to the Art of Thinking Elements of Criticism Published by two Scottish booksellers, Andrew Millar and Alexander Kincaid. Sketches of the History of Man Gentleman Farmer Loose Thoughts on Education George Anderson This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Rines, George Edwin, ed.. "Home, Henry". Encyclopedia Americana. Works by Henry Home, Lord Kames at Project Gutenberg Henry Home, Lord Kames at James Boswell – a Guide

Hadwiger number

In graph theory, the Hadwiger number of an undirected graph G is the size of the largest complete graph that can be obtained by contracting edges of G. Equivalently, the Hadwiger number h is the largest number k for which the complete graph Kk is a minor of G, a smaller graph obtained from G by edge contractions and vertex and edge deletions; the Hadwiger number is known as the contraction clique number of G or the homomorphism degree of G. It is named after Hugo Hadwiger, who introduced it in 1943 in conjunction with the Hadwiger conjecture, which states that the Hadwiger number is always at least as large as the chromatic number of G; the graphs that have Hadwiger number at most four have been characterized by Wagner. The graphs with any finite bound on the Hadwiger number are sparse, have small chromatic number. Determining the Hadwiger number of a graph is NP-hard but fixed-parameter tractable. A graph G has Hadwiger number at most two if and only if it is a forest, for a three-vertex complete minor can only be formed by contracting a cycle in G.

A graph has Hadwiger number at most three if and only if its treewidth is at most two, true if and only if each of its biconnected components is a series-parallel graph. Wagner's theorem, which characterizes the planar graphs by their forbidden minors, implies that the planar graphs have Hadwiger number at most four. In the same paper that proved this theorem, Wagner characterized the graphs with Hadwiger number at most four more precisely: they are graphs that can be formed by clique-sum operations that combine planar graphs with the eight-vertex Wagner graph; the graphs with Hadwiger number at most five include the apex graphs and the linklessly embeddable graphs, both of which have the complete graph K6 among their forbidden minors. Every graph with n vertices and Hadwiger number k has O edges; this bound is tight: for every k, there exist graphs with Hadwiger number k that have Ω edges. If a graph G has Hadwiger number k all of its subgraphs have Hadwiger number at most k, it follows that G must have degeneracy O. Therefore, the graphs with bounded Hadwiger number are sparse graphs.

The Hadwiger conjecture states that the Hadwiger number is always at least as large as the chromatic number of G. That is, every graph with Hadwiger number k should have a graph coloring with at most k colors; the case k = 4 is equivalent to the four color theorem on colorings of planar graphs, the conjecture has been proven for k ≤ 5, but remains unproven for larger values of k. Because of their low degeneracy, the graphs with Hadwiger number at most k can be colored by a greedy coloring algorithm using O colors. Testing whether the Hadwiger number of a given graph is at least a given value k is NP-complete, from which it follows that determining the Hadwiger number is NP-hard. However, the problem is fixed-parameter tractable: there is an algorithm for finding the largest clique minor in an amount of time that depends only polynomially on the size of the graph, but exponentially in h. Additionally, polynomial time algorithms can approximate the Hadwiger number more than the best polynomial-time approximation to the size of the largest complete subgraph.

The achromatic number of a graph G is the size of the largest clique that can be formed by contracting a family of independent sets in G. Uncountable clique minors in infinite graphs may be characterized in terms of havens, which formalize the evasion strategies for certain pursuit-evasion games: if the Hadwiger number is uncountable it equals the largest order of a haven in the graph; every graph with Hadwiger number k has at most n2O cliques. Halin defines a class of graph parameters that he calls S-functions, which include the Hadwiger number; these functions from graphs to integers are required to be zero on graphs with no edges, to be minor-monotone, to increase by one when a new vertex is added, adjacent to all previous vertices, to take the larger value from the two subgraphs on either side of a clique separator. The set of all such functions forms a complete lattice under the operations of elementwise minimization and maximization; the bottom element in this lattice is the Hadwiger number, the top element is the treewidth


Qaimoh is a block, a town and a notified area committee in Kulgam District in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, India. It is four miles to six miles to the north of Kulgam District, it is 55 km to the south of Srinagar city. Qaimoh is one of the largest blocks in Kashmir. Kashmir is the land of saints and Munis and Qaimoh Block, being part of the Kashmir Valley, is no exception; this place belongs to Sheikh-Ul-Alam, which has enchanting environs. Sheikh-Ul-Alam was buried in Chari Sharief, he had spent most of his life in Qaimoh. Qaimoh is the only town in the district that has facilities such as Tehsil, post offices, higher secondary schools, national, J&K, pnb and state banks, revenue departments, police stations and many other facilities. Most of the population is horticulture dependent. Qaimoh is known for exporting and importing of horticultural plants like apples, pears, plum etc to and from Himachal Pradesh. People from this block are well known for their business skills. However, the literacy rate is quite low.

Qaimoh is a place. The soil is said to be fertile in this part of the valley but the place always has a threat of floods. River Vishew has damaged the crops of the village many a time. Qaimoh is situated on the bank of River Vishao which has its origin from the lake of KousarNag some 25 kilometers away from the waterfall of Aharabal. Children bathe in this river during the summer season while the elderly people shelter under the shade of the trees; some popular areas are Thakurpora and Nai Basti. A road via Ashmuji village to Kulgam Town gives a best view of this river

Andrew O'Connor (sculptor)

Andrew O'Connor was an American-Irish sculptor whose work is represented in museums in America, Ireland and France. O'Connor was born in Worcester and died in Dublin, Ireland. For a time he was in the London studio of the painter, John Singer Sargent, worked for the architects, McKim and White in America and with the sculptor Daniel Chester French. Settling in Paris in the early years of the 20th century, he exhibited annually at the Paris Salon. In 1906 he was the first foreign sculptor to win the Second Class medal for his statue of General Henry Ware Lawton, now in Garfield Park in Indianapolis. In 1928 he achieved a similar distinction by being awarded the Gold Medal for his Tristan and Iseult, a marble group now in the Brooklyn Museum. A number of his plaster casts are in the Hugh Lane Municipal Gallery and there are works in Tate Britain, the Walters Art Museum, the Corcoran Gallery of Art, the Metropolitan Museum of Art and the Musée d'Art Moderne, Paris. O'Connor was involved in a minor controversy in 1909 when he was commissioned to design a statue for Commodore John Barry, of the American Revolutionary-era navy.

O'Connor's first design was heatedly attacked by Irish-American groups. He submitted a second version, but it too was rejected, the sculptor John J. Boyle received the commission. Vanderbilt Memorial Doors, St Bartholomew's Church, New York City, 1901–03 General Henry Ware Lawton, Garfield Park, Indiana, 1906 Lew Wallace, National Statuary Hall Collection, U. S. Capitol, Washington, D. C. 1910 Governor John Albert Johnson, Minnesota State Capitol, St. Paul, 1912 1898 Soldier, Spanish–American War Memorial, Wheaton Square, Massachusetts, 1917; the model for O'Connor's statue was Vincent Schofield Wickham. Abraham Lincoln, Illinois State Capitol, Springfield, 1918 The Victims, Merrion Square, Ireland, c. 1923. Intended for a World War I Memorial in Washington, D. C. it depicts a standing mother mourning a dead soldier. A copy of Kneeling Wife is at the Tate Britain. Lafayette Monument, Mount Vernon Place, Maryland, 1924 Christ the King, Dún Laoghaire, Ireland, 1926 Tristan and Iseult, Brooklyn Museum, New York City, 1928 Bust of Abraham Lincoln, Royal Exchange, United Kingdom, 1930 Seated Abraham Lincoln, Fort Lincoln Cemetery, Maryland, 1931.

The statue was commissioned for the Rhode Island Statehouse, but the project was abandoned during the Depression

Wizardry IV: The Return of Werdna

Wizardry IV: The Return of Werdna is the fourth scenario in the Wizardry series of role-playing video games. It was published in 1987 by Inc.. The Return of Werdna is drastically different from the trilogy. Rather than continuing the adventures of the player's party from the previous three games, The Return of Werdna's protagonist is Werdna, the evil wizard, defeated in the end of Wizardry: Proving Grounds of the Mad Overlord and imprisoned at the bottom of his dungeon forever; the game begins at the bottom of a 10-level dungeon. Most of Werdna's powers are depleted, must be recovered throughout the game; the initial goal is to climb to the top of the dungeon, reclaiming Werdna's full power along the way. Each level has one or more pentagrams at specific points; the pentagrams have three purposes: The first time a pentagram is discovered in a level, Werdna's strength increases, a portion of his powers are restored. This only happens once per level; the second purpose is. The higher the level, the stronger the monsters available.

There is no cost to summoning monsters, but only three parties of monsters may be summoned at a time, any existing monsters will be replaced by the summoned ones. The third purpose is that pentagrams refresh Werdna's spellcasting capacity. Instead of fighting monsters, the player fights against the heroes from the past three Wizardry games. Players of the first three games who sent their character disks to Sir-Tech might have their characters present in Wizardry IV; the release of Wizardry IV was delayed for years, did not occur until late 1987. Sir-Tech was so confident that it would release the game in time for Christmas 1984 that it told inCider to announce it as available in the November 1984 issue; the company listed the game with a price in a 1985 catalog, but Computer Gaming World advised "I wouldn't send any money off for it yet. In 1986 Robert Woodhead attributed the delay in "certain'un-named' products" at Sir-Tech to the time required to port them to UCSD p-System. "The Return of Werdna" is considered an difficult game.

Computer Gaming World stated, "This game was designed expressly for the expert Wizardry player." Knowledge of the first game of the series is vital to completing Wizardry IV. It is unforgiving of mistakes and bad luck as its predecessor trilogy, but unlike the trilogy, there are no experience points for defeating enemies, therefore no reward for surviving difficult battles, or opportunities to grow stronger at the player's pace; the only way a player may grow stronger is to fight their way through the current level, find a pentagram on the next level, no matter how overwhelmingly difficult the foes on the current level may be. Some of these foes include ninjas capable of killing Werdna with a critical hit, mages with area-effect spells that can wipe out entire parties of monsters, thieves who can steal items that are critical to completing the game, clerics capable of resurrecting Werdna's fallen adversaries. Like the previous trilogy, mapping out levels is vital to avoid becoming lost, but the difficulty of mapping out levels is increased exponentially.

While the previous games included occasional traps that could throw the player's maps off, such as dark areas, pits and rotating floors, these traps and many more are abundant in "The Return of Werdna". An early level contains a minefield, with an invisible safe path that can only be discovered through exhaustive trial and error. Another level is a series of identical intersecting pathways, with rotating floor tiles on each intersection. At the top of the dungeon is the Cosmic Cube, a 3D maze consisting of dozens of rooms, connected by passageways, chutes and teleporters, all of which have their own unique tricks and mapping difficulties. In addition, some of the most deadly foes in the game roam the cosmic cube, because it contains the final pentagram, no further strengthening is possible. Another major example that hinders unfamiliar players is the impossible task of exiting the first room; the only way out is a hidden door which may be revealed by casting a "light" spell called "Milwa". The only way to do this is to recruit a group of Priests.

This seemingly-simple task is made unintuitive due to the lack of any evidence that there is a door to begin with. There is no suggestion in the context of the game as to what Milwa or any other Cleric spell name means. To a player unfamiliar with these earlier Wizardry titles, it would seem that the Clerics cast a useless spell. Furthermore, the Milwa/Light spell expires, meaning that there is a limited time to find the door once the spell is cast; the Return of Werdna had an unusual form of copy protection. No attempt was made to prevent copying of the game disks


Onecept is an album by saxophonist David S. Ware, recorded in 2009 and released on the AUM Fidelity label. In his review for AllMusic, Thom Jurek said "Ware's development as a player is no longer reliant on his physicality -- though he still possesses it in abundance. Rather, it's his centering on that collective voice, which offers so many dimensions and textures to explore, where he expresses his creativity and mastery of his horns. Onecept is an exciting next step in Ware's musical evolution". PopMatters review stated "these nine songs are the rare glimpse of three jazz musicians lifting the sound way above their heads and pushing it through the ceiling. It’s a stretch to call it jazz. It’s just…music"; the All About Jazz review noted "Even after half a century playing the saxophone, for Ware the journey continues—and his cohorts are right there with him". The JazzTimes review by Michael J. West commented "David S. Ware could never be accused of following trends. If saxophone-led trios are all the rage, his release of a sax/bass/drums album feels coincidental.

Either way, Onecept is among the best of that recent lot". All compositions by David S. Ware "Book of Krittika" - 7:53 "Wheel of Life" - 6:31 "Celestial" - 6:24 "Desire Worlds" - 6:56 "Astral Earth" - 14:54 "Savaka" - 4:35 "Bardo" - 6:43 "Anagami" - 6:50 "Vata" - 4:27 "Virtue" - 6:47 Bonus track on vinyl release "Gnavah" - 9:06 Bonus track on vinyl release David S. Ware – tenor saxophone, saxello William Parkerbass Warren Smithdrums, percussion