Vicksburg National Military Park
Vicksburg National Military Park preserves the site of the American Civil War Battle of Vicksburg, waged from March 29 to July 4, 1863. The park, located in Vicksburg, Mississippi commemorates the greater Vicksburg Campaign which led up to the battle. Reconstructed forts and trenches evoke memories of the 47-day siege that ended in the surrender of the city. Victory here and at Port Hudson, farther south in Louisiana, gave the Union control of the Mississippi River; the park includes 1,325 historic monuments and markers, 20 miles of historic trenches and earthworks, a 16-mile tour road, a 12.5-mile walking trail, two antebellum homes, 144 emplaced cannons, the restored gunboat USS Cairo, the Grant's Canal site, where the Union Army attempted to build a canal to let their ships bypass Confederate artillery fire. The Cairo known as the "Hardluck Ironclad," was the first U. S. ship in history to be sunk by a torpedo/mine. It was recovered from the Yazoo in 1964; the Illinois State Memorial has 47 steps, one for every day Vicksburg was besieged.
Battle of Chickasaw Bayou Battle of Arkansas Post Battle of Grand Gulf Battle of Snyder's Bluff Battle of Port Gibson Battle of Raymond Battle of Jackson Battle of Champion Hill Battle of Big Black River Bridge Siege of Vicksburg 8 The 116.28-acre Vicksburg National Cemetery, is within the park. It has 18,244 interments; the time period for Civil War interments was 1866 to 1874. The cemetery is not open to new interments; the cemetery has only one airman of Royal Australian Air Force buried during World War II. The remnants of Grant's Canal, a detached section of the military park, are located across from Vicksburg near Delta, Louisiana. Union Army Major General Ulysses S. Grant ordered the project, started on June 27, 1862, as part of his Vicksburg Campaign, with two goals in mind; the first was to alter the course of the Mississippi River in order to bypass the Confederate guns at Vicksburg. For various technical reasons the project failed to meet this goal; the river did change course by itself on April 26, 1876.
The project met its second goal, keeping troops occupied during the laborious maneuvering required to begin the Battle of Vicksburg. The national military park was established on February 21, 1899, to commemorate the siege and defense of Vicksburg; the park sprawls over 1,800 acres of land. The park and cemetery were transferred from the War Department to the National Park Service on August 10, 1933. Of the park's 1,736.47 acres, 1,729.63 acres are federally owned. In the late 1950s, a portion of the park was transferred to the city as a local park in exchange for closing local roads running through the remainder of the park, it allowed for the construction of Interstate 20. The monuments in land transferred to the city are still maintained by the NPS; as with all historic areas administered by the NPS, the park was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 15, 1966. Over half a million visitors visit the park every year. Michigan Memorial The National Parks: Index 2001-2003.
Washington: U. S. Department of the Interior. Cell Phone Audio Tour of Vicksburg 601-262-2100 Cell Phone Audio Tour of Vicksburg mp3 Official NPS website: Vicksburg National Military Park Main park map links: 32°20′39″N 90°51′6″W Grant's Canal map links: 32°19′14″N 90°56′0″W Vicksburg National Military Park, National Park Service at Google Cultural Institute
West Yorkshire is a metropolitan county in England. It is an inland and in relative terms upland county having eastward-draining valleys while taking in moors of the Pennines and has a population of 2.2 million. West Yorkshire came into existence as a metropolitan county in 1974 after the passage of the Local Government Act 1972. West Yorkshire consists of five metropolitan boroughs and is bordered by the counties of Derbyshire to the south, Greater Manchester to the south-west, Lancashire to the north-west, North Yorkshire to the north and east, South Yorkshire to the south and south-east. Remnants of strong coal and iron ore industries remain in the county, having attracted people over the centuries, this can be seen in the buildings and architecture. Leeds may become a terminus for a north-east limb of High Speed 2. Major railways and two major motorways traverse the county, which contains Leeds Bradford International Airport. West Yorkshire County Council was abolished in 1986 so its five districts became unitary authorities.
However, the metropolitan county, which covers an area of 2,029 square kilometres, continues to exist in law, as a geographic frame of reference. Since 1 April 2014 West Yorkshire has been a combined authority area, with the local authorities pooling together some functions over transport and regeneration as the West Yorkshire Combined Authority. West Yorkshire includes the West Yorkshire Urban Area, the biggest and most built-up urban area within the historic county boundaries of Yorkshire. West Yorkshire was formed as a metropolitan county in 1974, by the Local Government Act 1972, corresponds to the core of the historic West Riding of Yorkshire and the county boroughs of Bradford, Halifax, Huddersfield and Wakefield. West Yorkshire Metropolitan County Council inherited the use of West Riding County Hall at Wakefield, opened in 1898, from the West Riding County Council in 1974. Since 1987 it has been the headquarters of Wakefield City Council; the county had a two-tier structure of local government with a strategic-level county council and five districts providing most services.
In 1986, throughout England the metropolitan county councils were abolished. The functions of the county council were devolved to the boroughs. Organisations such as the West Yorkshire Metro continue to operate on this basis. Although the county council was abolished, West Yorkshire continues to form a metropolitan and ceremonial county with a Lord Lieutenant of West Yorkshire and a High Sheriff. Wakefield's Parish Church was raised to cathedral status in 1888 and after the elevation of Wakefield to diocese, Wakefield Council sought city status and this was granted in July 1888; however the industrial revolution, which changed West and South Yorkshire led to the growth of Leeds and Bradford, which became the area's two largest cities. Leeds was granted city status in 1893 and Bradford in 1897; the name of Leeds Town Hall reflects the fact that at its opening in 1858 Leeds was not yet a city, while Bradford renamed its Town Hall as City Hall in 1965. The county borders, going anticlockwise from the west: Lancashire, Greater Manchester, South Yorkshire and North Yorkshire.
It lies entirely on rocks of carboniferous age which form the southern Pennine fringes in the west and the Yorkshire coalfield further eastwards. In the extreme east of the metropolitan county there are younger deposits of magnesian limestone; the Bradford and Calderdale areas are dominated by the scenery of the eastern slopes of the Pennines, dropping from upland in the west down to the east, dissected by many steep-sided valleys. Large-scale industry, housing and commercial buildings of differing heights, transport routes and open countryside conjoin; the dense network of roads and railways and urban development, confined by valleys creates dramatic interplay of views between settlements and the surrounding hillsides, as shaped the first urban-rural juxtapositions of David Hockney. Where most rural the land crops up in the such rhymes and folklore as On Ilkley Moor Bah'Tat, date unknown, the early 19th century novels and poems of the Brontë family in and around Haworth and long-running light comedy-drama Last of the Summer Wine in the 20th century.
The carboniferous rocks of the Yorkshire coalfield further east have produced a rolling landscape with hills and broad valleys. In this landscape there is widespread evidence of former industrial activity. There are numerous derelict or converted mine buildings and landscaped former spoil heaps; the scenery is a mixture of built up areas, industrial land with some dereliction, farmed open country. Ribbon developments along transport routes including canal and rail are prominent features of the area although some remnants of the pre industrial landscape and semi-natural vegetation still survive. However, many areas are affected by urban fringe pressures creating fragmented and downgraded landscapes and present are urban influences from major cities, smaller industrial towns and former mining villages. In the magnesian limestone belt to the east of the Leeds and Wakefield areas is an elevated ridge with smoothly rolling scenery, dissected by dry valleys. Here, there is a large number of country houses and estates with parkland, estate woodlands and game coverts.
The rivers Aire and Calder drain the area, flowing from west to east. The table below outlines many of the co
Providence, Rhode Island
Providence is the capital and most populous city of the U. S. is one of the oldest cities in the United States. It was founded in 1636 by Roger Williams, a Reformed Baptist theologian and religious exile from the Massachusetts Bay Colony, he named the area in honor of "God's merciful Providence" which he believed was responsible for revealing such a haven for him and his followers. The city is situated at the mouth of the Providence River at the head of Narragansett Bay. Providence was one of the first cities in the country to industrialize and became noted for its textile manufacturing and subsequent machine tool and silverware industries. Today, the city of Providence is home to eight hospitals and seven institutions of higher learning which have shifted the city's economy into service industries, though it still retains some manufacturing activity; the city is the third most populous city in New England after Worcester, Massachusetts. Providence was one of the original Thirteen Colonies. Williams and his company were compelled to leave Massachusetts Bay Colony, Providence became a refuge for persecuted religious dissenters, as Williams himself had been exiled from Massachusetts.
The city was burned to the ground in March 1676 by the Narragansetts during King Philip's War, despite the good relations between Williams and the sachems with whom the United Colonies of New England were waging war. In the year, the Rhode Island legislature formally rebuked the other colonies for provoking the war. Providence residents were among the first Patriots to spill blood in the lead-up to the American Revolutionary War during the Gaspée Affair of 1772, Rhode Island was the first of the Thirteen Colonies to renounce its allegiance to the British Crown on May 4, 1776, it was the last of the Thirteen Colonies to ratify the United States Constitution on May 29, 1790, once assurances were made that a Bill of Rights would become part of the Constitution. Following the war, Providence was the country's ninth-largest city with 7,614 people; the economy shifted from maritime endeavors to manufacturing, in particular machinery, silverware and textiles. By the start of the 20th century, Providence hosted some of the largest manufacturing plants in the country, including Brown & Sharpe, Nicholson File, Gorham Manufacturing Company.
Providence residents ratified a city charter in 1831 as the population passed 17,000. The seat of city government was located in the Market House in Market Square from 1832 to 1878, the geographic and social center of the city; the city offices outgrew this building, the City Council resolved to create a permanent municipal building in 1845. The city offices moved into the Providence City Hall in 1878. During the American Civil War, local politics split over slavery as many had ties to Southern cotton and the slave trade. Despite ambivalence concerning the war, the number of military volunteers exceeded quota, the city's manufacturing proved invaluable to the Union. Providence thrived after the war, waves of immigrants brought the population from 54,595 in 1865 to 175,597 by 1900. By the early 1900s, Providence was one of the wealthiest cities in the United States. Immigrant labor powered one of the nation's largest industrial manufacturing centers. Providence was a major manufacturer of industrial products, from steam engines to precision tools to silverware and textiles.
Giant companies were based in or near Providence, such as Brown & Sharpe, the Corliss Steam Engine Company, Babcock & Wilcox, the Grinnell Corporation, the Gorham Manufacturing Company, Nicholson File, the Fruit of the Loom textile company. From 1975 until 1982, $606 million of local and national community development funds were invested throughout the city. In the 1990s, the city pushed for revitalization, realigning the north-south railroad tracks, removing the huge rail viaduct that separated downtown from the capitol building and moving the rivers to create Waterplace Park and river walks along the rivers' banks, constructing the Fleet Skating Rink and the Providence Place Mall. Despite new investment, poverty remains an entrenched problem. 27.9 percent of the city population is living below the poverty line. Recent increases in real estate values further exacerbate problems for those at marginal income levels, as Providence had the highest rise in median housing price of any city in the United States from 2004 to 2005.
The Providence city limits enclose a small geographical region with a total area of 20.5 square miles. Providence is located at the head of Narragansett Bay, with the Providence River running into the bay through the center of the city, formed by the confluence of the Moshassuck and Woonasquatucket Rivers; the Waterplace Park amphitheater and riverwalks line the river's banks through downtown. Providence is one of many cities claimed to be founded on seven hills like Rome; the more prominent hills are: Constitution Hill, College Hill, Federal Hill. The other four are: Tockwotten Hill at Fox Point, Smith Hill, Christian Hill at Hoyle Square, Weybosset Hill at the lower end of Weybosset Street, leveled in the early 1880s. Providence has 25 official neighborhoods, though these neighborhoods are grouped together and referred to
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Stephen D. Lee
Stephen Dill Lee was an American soldier, the youngest Confederate lieutenant general of the American Civil War. He was the first president of the Mississippi Agricultural and Mechanical College and served from 1880 until 1899. An officer in the Regular U. S. Army, Lee resigned soon after secession, to join the South Carolina Militia, delivered the historic demand to the Union to evacuate Fort Sumter starting the war. After serving in the Seven Days Battles, Second Battle of Manassas and Battle of Sharpsburg, he became John C. Pemberton's chief of artillery in the Vicksburg Campaign, where he distinguished himself at Champion Hill. Captured and exchanged, Lee served at Atlanta and in the abortive Franklin-Nashville Campaign surrendering with Joseph E. Johnston in North Carolina in April 1865, he was commander-in-chief of the United Confederate Veterans. Lee was born in 1833 in South Carolina, to Thomas Lee and his wife Caroline Allison, he was raised in South Carolina. He volunteered for service with the United States Army during the Mexican–American War.
Lee entered the United States Military Academy at West Point in 1850, graduating four years and standing 17th out of 46 cadets. On July 1, 1854, he was commissioned a second lieutenant in the 4th Infantry Regiment. Lee was promoted to the rank of first lieutenant on October 31, 1856, he served as the 4th Regiment's Quartermaster from September 18, 1857, to February 8, 1861. Lee was serving as adjutant of Florida as well as his regiment's quartermaster in 1857 during the Seminole Wars. From 1858 to 1861 he was assigned to the western frontier, posted in Kansas and in the newly created Dakota Territory. Lee resigned his U. S. Army commission twelve days to enter the Confederate service. After resigning from the U. S. Army in 1861, Lee entered the Confederate forces as a captain in the South Carolina Militia. On March 6 he was assigned as the Assistant Adjutant General and Assistant Inspector General of the Forces at Charleston, on March 16 he was appointed a captain in the Regular Confederate States Artillery.
Beginning on April 11 Lee was aide-de-camp to Brig. Gen. P. G. T. Beauregard; that same day he delivered an ultimatum from Beauregard to Union Maj. Robert Anderson, demanding the evacuation of Fort Sumter, refused and after bombardment the fort fell on April 14, precipitating the start of the Civil War. According to Carl Sandburg, Captain Lee and 3 other men with full power from Beauregard to decide what to answer Anderson heard him say he would be starved out in a few days. Anderson offered to "evacuate Fort Sumter in 3 days and avoid the useless effusion of blood." They could have taken Anderson's reply back to Beauregard, have it telegraphed to Jefferson Davis to see if they would wait 3 days more to see if Anderson would surrender after his food was gone. "It seemed as though the 4 men had decided before they came what they would say, which was: "Beauregard will open fire on Fort Sumter in one hour from this time." This was not, as it seems, the last opportunity to avoid war because "Sumpter was a symbol, a Chip on the Shoulder."
It was "framed" by Lincoln and the South was eager to meet the challenge. Sandburg calls this war "the Second American Revolution.". When Beauregard received permission to organize two regular companies of artillery on May 11, Lee was assigned to command one of them Lee's company was assigned to Castle Pinckney until May 30, when it was sent to Fort Palmetto on Cole's Island, arriving June 1. In June 1861 Lee resumed his position in the South Carolina Militia, in November he was promoted to the rank of major in the Confederate Army. Lee commanded a light battery in Hampton's Legion in Gen. Joseph E. Johnston's army in 1861, he was promoted to lieutenant colonel in March 1862, was the artillery chief for Maj. Gen. Lafayette McLaws's division of the Army of Northern Virginia from April to June 17, in the same role under Brig. Gen. John B. Magruder until July. Lee participated in the 1862 Peninsula Campaign, notably during the Battle of Seven Pines on May 31 and June 1, the Battle of Savage's Station on June 29, during the Seven Days Battles from June 25 to July 1, the Battle of Malvern Hill on July 1.
He served in the 4th Virginia Cavalry in July, was promoted to colonel on July 9, assumed command of an artillery battalion of Maj. Gen. James Longstreet's Corps that same month. Under Longstreet, Lee fought in the Second Battle of Manassas that August and Battle of Sharpsburg on September 17, where his guns played a prominent role in defending the ground near the famed Dunker Church; the following is a summary of Lee's involvement at Sharpsburg:...he deployed late on the 15th on the West side of Antietam Creek. He exchanged fire with the Federal batteries the creek on the 16th the fight becoming more intense as sundown approached. On the morning of the 17th he positioned his batteries on the high ground near the Dunkard Church, was engaged against the assaults of the Federal I and XII Corps through the Cornfield and to the West Woods. About 10AM, he was ordered to the vicinity of Sharpsburg in the face of Burnside's afternoon drive from the Lower Bridge, was furiously engaged there as well.
On November 6, 1862, Lee was promoted to the rank of brigadier general. Leaving the artillery branch, Lee led an infantry division during the Battle of Chickasaw Bayou from December 26–29, where he repulsed the attacks of Union Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman. Beginning in January 1863 he
Lloyd Tilghman Memorial
The Lloyd Tilghman Memorial is an historical statue located in Paducah Kentucky, honoring native son Lloyd Tilghman, a brigadier general for the Confederate States of America who died at the Battle of Champion Hill in May 1863. Lloyd Tilghman was a native of Maryland that lived in Paducah from 1852 to 1861. Joined the Confederate army on July 5, 1861 as a colonel, but was promoted to general the next October, he was placed in charge of the engineering of Fort Henry and Fort Donelson, succeeding another general, but was unable to stop the building of the militarily deficient Henry until too late. He was captured at the Battle of Fort Henry, would not return to duty until the next Fall, which led to his death during the Vicksburg Campaign. In 1909 it was decided to honor Tilghman. Tilghman's sons Frederick and Sidell and the United Daughters of the Confederacy jointly paid for the building of the monument, with the brothers paying $10,000 and the UDC paying $5,000; the statue was made by Henry Hudson Kitson a resident of Boston, Massachusetts who immigrated from England.
The statue depicting Tilghman is made of bronze, is on top of a pink granite pedestal and base. The total height is twelve feet; the two bases are perfect squares of 25 feet. The historical marker at the site was placed there by the Augusta Tilghman High School class of 1929. On July 17, 1997, it was one of sixty-one different monuments to the Civil War in Kentucky placed on the National Register of Historic Places, as part of the Civil War Monuments of Kentucky Multiple Property Submission. One other monument on the list, the Confederate Monument in Paducah, is nearby. Tilghman's home in Paducah is on the National Register, serves as a museum. "Brigadier General Lloyd Tilghman, C. S. A."