Egypt the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt is a Mediterranean country bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south, Libya to the west. Across the Gulf of Aqaba lies Jordan, across the Red Sea lies Saudi Arabia, across the Mediterranean lie Greece and Cyprus, although none share a land border with Egypt. Egypt has one of the longest histories of any country, tracing its heritage back to the 6th–4th millennia BCE. Considered a cradle of civilisation, Ancient Egypt saw some of the earliest developments of writing, urbanisation, organised religion and central government. Iconic monuments such as the Giza Necropolis and its Great Sphinx, as well the ruins of Memphis, Thebes and the Valley of the Kings, reflect this legacy and remain a significant focus of scientific and popular interest. Egypt's long and rich cultural heritage is an integral part of its national identity, which has endured, assimilated, various foreign influences, including Greek, Roman, Ottoman Turkish, Nubian.
Egypt was an early and important centre of Christianity, but was Islamised in the seventh century and remains a predominantly Muslim country, albeit with a significant Christian minority. From the 16th to the beginning of the 20th century, Egypt was ruled by foreign imperial powers: The Ottoman Empire and the British Empire. Modern Egypt dates back to 1922, when it gained nominal independence from the British Empire as a monarchy. However, British military occupation of Egypt continued, many Egyptians believed that the monarchy was an instrument of British colonialism. Following the 1952 revolution, Egypt expelled British soldiers and bureaucrats and ended British occupation, nationalized the British-held Suez Canal, exiled King Farouk and his family, declared itself a republic. In 1958 it merged with Syria to form the United Arab Republic, which dissolved in 1961. Throughout the second half of the 20th century, Egypt endured social and religious strife and political instability, fighting several armed conflicts with Israel in 1948, 1956, 1967 and 1973, occupying the Gaza Strip intermittently until 1967.
In 1978, Egypt signed the Camp David Accords withdrawing from the Gaza Strip and recognising Israel. The country continues to face challenges, from political unrest, including the recent 2011 revolution and its aftermath, to terrorism and economic underdevelopment. Egypt's current government is a presidential republic headed by President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, described by a number of watchdogs as authoritarian. Islam is the official religion of Egypt and Arabic is its official language. With over 95 million inhabitants, Egypt is the most populous country in North Africa, the Middle East, the Arab world, the third-most populous in Africa, the fifteenth-most populous in the world; the great majority of its people live near the banks of the Nile River, an area of about 40,000 square kilometres, where the only arable land is found. The large regions of the Sahara desert, which constitute most of Egypt's territory, are sparsely inhabited. About half of Egypt's residents live in urban areas, with most spread across the densely populated centres of greater Cairo and other major cities in the Nile Delta.
The sovereign state of Egypt is a transcontinental country considered to be a regional power in North Africa, the Middle East and the Muslim world, a middle power worldwide. Egypt's economy is one of the largest and most diversified in the Middle East, is projected to become one of the largest in the world in the 21st century. In 2016, Egypt became Africa's second largest economy. Egypt is a founding member of the United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement, Arab League, African Union, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. "Miṣr" is the Classical Quranic Arabic and modern official name of Egypt, while "Maṣr" is the local pronunciation in Egyptian Arabic. The name is of Semitic origin, directly cognate with other Semitic words for Egypt such as the Hebrew "מִצְרַיִם"; the oldest attestation of this name for Egypt is the Akkadian "mi-iṣ-ru" related to miṣru/miṣirru/miṣaru, meaning "border" or "frontier". There is evidence of rock carvings in desert oases. In the 10th millennium BCE, a culture of hunter-gatherers and fishers was replaced by a grain-grinding culture.
Climate changes or overgrazing around 8000 BCE began to desiccate the pastoral lands of Egypt, forming the Sahara. Early tribal peoples migrated to the Nile River where they developed a settled agricultural economy and more centralised society. By about 6000 BCE, a Neolithic culture rooted in the Nile Valley. During the Neolithic era, several predynastic cultures developed independently in Upper and Lower Egypt; the Badarian culture and the successor Naqada series are regarded as precursors to dynastic Egypt. The earliest known Lower Egyptian site, predates the Badarian by about seven hundred years. Contemporaneous Lower Egyptian communities coexisted with their southern counterparts for more than two thousand years, remaining culturally distinct, but maintaining frequent contact through trade; the earliest known evidence of Egyptian hieroglyphic inscriptions appeared during the predynastic period on Naqada III pottery vessels, dated to about 3200 BCE. A unified kingdom was founded c. 3150 BCE
Dirk VII, Count of Holland
Dirk VII of Holland known as Dietrich in German, Thierry in French, Theodoric in English, was Count of Holland from 1190 to 1203. He was the elder son of Floris Ada of Huntingdon. Thanks to a civil war in the Holy Roman Empire, Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor had to find ways to make friends; the Emperor supported Dirk by giving him the right to levy tolls on Flemish traders in Geervliet. Henry gave Holland the Grote Waard, at the cost of the bishopric of Utrecht, he set aside the Salic law for the succession to the County of Holland, which meant that it could be inherited by a female heir. In 1196, Dirk temporarily gained the princely authority of the bishopric of Utrecht; this meant war with Count Otto I of Guelders. Otto was defeated at the Battle of the Grebbeberg. In 1197 Dirk van Are was elected as the new bishop; as such, he recovered the princely authority of Utrecht. The Hohenstaufens were losing the civil war, so Count Dirk changed sides and gave his allegiance to the Welfs; the Frisians in Oostergo and Westergo supported Dirk's brother William.
William was supported by some of the West Frisians as well. In 1202 Dirk allied himself with Otto of Guelders, they both attacked Brabant. Brabant claimed Holland and Guelders as dukes of Lotharingia. Den Bosch and Geertruidenberg were sacked during this campaign. Duke Henry I of Brabant took Dirk prisoner at Heusden; as well as having to pay a high ransom, he had to accept the Duke of Brabant as his overlord in southern Holland and the Bishop of Utrecht as his overlord in northern Holland. Dirk's daughter Ada inherited the County of Holland in 1203, she married Count of Loon, who became Count of Holland. In 1186 Dirk married a daughter of Arnold of Cleves and Ida of Louvain, they had three daughters: Aleidis. Petronilla Ada, Countess of Holland, married in 1203 Louis II, Count of Loon, Count of Holland from 1203 to 1206
Prince-Bishopric of Liège
The Prince-Bishopric of Liège or Principality of Liège was a state of the Holy Roman Empire in the Low Countries, situated for the most part in present Belgium, ruled by the Bishop of Liège. As a prince, the Bishop had seat and voice at the Imperial Diet; the Prince-Bishopric of Liège should not be confused with the Bishop's diocese of Liège, larger. The bishops of Liège acquired their status as a Prince-bishop between 980 and 985 when Bishop Notger, the bishop of Liege since 972, received secular control of the County of Huy from Otto II, Holy Roman Emperor; the Prince-Bishopric belonged from 1500 on to the Lower Rhenish–Westphalian Circle. Its territory included most of the present Belgian provinces of Liège and Limburg, some exclaves in other parts of Belgium and the Netherlands, it became a republic from 1789 to 1791, before reverting to a Prince-Bishopric in 1791. The role of the Bishop as prince permanently ended when the state was annexed by France in 1795. In 1815 the territories it had held became part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, in 1830 they were within the part of that kingdom which split off to become Belgium.
The principality ruled by the bishops of Liège was never part of the Seventeen Provinces or the Spanish and Austrian Southern Netherlands, but from the 16th century onwards its politics were influenced by the dukes of Burgundy and the Habsburgs. In 1559 its 1,636 parishes were grouped into eight archdeaconries, twenty-eight councils, chrétientés; the most important cities of the bishopric were: Liège, Bilzen, Bree, Châtelet, Couvin, Fosses-la-Ville, Hasselt, Herk-de-Stad, Maaseik, Sint-Truiden, Thuin, Verviers, Visé and Waremme. The city of Maastricht fell under the joint jurisdiction of the Prince-Bishop of Liège and the Duke of Brabant; the second city of the prince-bishopric thus kept its status aparte throughout the ancien régime. The large diocese of the medieval bishops was, until 1559, much larger than the princedom, in their possession. However, the princely domain was enlarged by donations and by acquisitions. In the 10th century, the bishops received secular power over the county of Huy, which lay within of the diocese.
Bishop Notger thus became a sovereign prince. This status was retained by his successors until the French Revolution, throughout that period of nearly eight centuries the Prince-Bishopric of Liège succeeded in maintaining a level of autonomy, though theoretically it was part of the Holy Roman Empire; this virtual independence was owed to the ability of its bishops, who on several occasions played an important part in international politics, being strategically positioned between France and Germany. Throughout the Middle Ages, the prince-bishopric was further expanded with the lordship of Bouillon in 1096, the acquisition of the county of Loon in 1366 and the county of Horne in 1568. Notger, the founder of the principality rebuilt the cathedral of St Lambert, as well as the episcopal palace, he was involved in other building activities in the city, which flourished under his rule. This bishop strengthened the parochial organization of the city, he was one of the first church leaders to spread the observance of All Souls' Day, which he authorized for his diocese.
Under Notger's administration, following up on the work of Heraclius, educational institutions in Liège flourished. With these two bishops "The schools of Liège were, in fact, at that time one of the brightest literary foci of the period". In the 11th century the city was indeed known as the Athens of the North. "Liège for more than a century occupied among the nations a position in regard to science which it has never recovered". Subsequent bishops, Balderic of Looz, Durandus, Nitard, the learned Wazo, Theoduin, valiantly sustained the heritage of Notger; the schools formed many brilliant scholars, gave the Catholic Church popes Stephen IX and Nicholas II. The diocese supplied the University of Paris with a number of important doctors — William of Saint-Thierry, Gerard of Liège and Godfrey of Fontaines. Alger of Liège was an important intellectual of the period, he was first appointed deacon of church of St Bartholomew and retired at the monastery of Cluny. In the reign of Henry of Verdun a tribunal was instituted to prevent war and enforce the Peace of God.
Otbert increased the territory of the principality by purchasing the Lordship of Bouillon. He remained faithful to emperor Henry IV. Henry of Namur was venerated as a martyr. During the administration of Alexander of Juliers the pope, the emperor and St Bernard visited Liège; the episcopate of Raoul of Zachringen was marked by the preaching of the reformer Lambert le Bègue, credited with founding the béguines. Albert of Louvain was elected Bishop of Liège in 1191, but Emperor Henry VI, on the pretext that the election was doubtful, gave the see to Lothair of Hochstadt. Albero's election was confirmed by the pope but in 1192, shortly after he took office, he was assassinated by three German knights at Reims, it is probable that the emperor was privy to this murder but Albero was canonized. In 1195, Albert de Cuyck formally recognized the political franchise of the people of Liège. During the 12th century, the cathedral chapter, along with the bishop, assum
Isabella of England
Isabella of England was Holy Roman Empress, Queen of the Germans, queen consort of Sicily. She was the fourth child and second daughter of King of England and Isabella of Angoulême. At a friendly meeting at Rieti, Pope Gregory IX suggested to Emperor Frederick II that he marry princess Isabella, a sister of King Henry III of England. At first Frederick II was concerned to lose his French allies; the betrothal was formalized in London in February 1235. Her brother Henry had to levy an unpopular tax of two marks of silver per hide in order to afford the thirty thousand marks Frederick insisted on as Isabella's dowry. Frederick sought this large amount to help fund his wars in northern Italy; the beautiful Isabella was about twenty-one years old when she set out to marry the twice-widowed Emperor Frederick II, forty. On her way through Cologne, she delighted the local women when she removed the traditionally worn veil so that they could see her face; the marriage between Isabella and Frederick took place in Worms Cathedral on 15 or 20 July 1235.
She was granted the castle of Monte Sant'Angelo by her husband upon her marriage. However, as soon as she was married she was added to the Emperor's harem, which included women from Arabia attended by black eunuchs, their marriage had been a political match, she was allowed to keep only two of her English women-attendants, Margaret Biset, her nurse, her maid Kathrein. Isabella lived in retirement at Noventa Padovana where her husband visited her; when her brother, Earl of Cornwall, returned from the crusades, he was allowed to visit her, although Isabella was not allowed to be present at the official reception. While the imperial court resided at Foggia, Isabella died, she is buried beside Frederick's previous wife, Queen Isabella II of Jerusalem, in Andria Cathedral, near Bari. Primary sources are at variance concerning Isabella's issue, including the number of children she had, their names, their birth order. What is known for sure is that Isabella had at least four children: a son who died shortly after his birth in 1236 or 1241, a daughter who – like her older brother – died shortly after her birth in 1237, Heinrich.
Margaret is believed by some to have been the first child, by others to be the child whose birth caused Isabella's death. The most common belief is; the short-lived son of Isabella has been given the name of Frederick, Jordanus/Jordan, Carl Otto by various sources. Some historians believe Isabella had five children, two short-lived sons instead of one, that they were named Jordanus/Carl Otto and Frederick, the two being born in spring 1236 and summer 1240, respectively. Jordanus. Agnes. Henry. Betrothed to many of Pope Innocent IV's nieces, but never married to any. Margaret, married Albert II, Margrave of Meissen. Goldstone, Nancy. Four Queens: The Provençal Sisters who ruled Europe. New York: Viking Penguin. ISBN 9780670038435. Tuchman, Barbara W. A Distant Mirror: the Calamitous 14th Century. Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 1984. ISBN 0-394-40026-7. Weir, Alison. Britain's Royal Family: A Complete Genealogy; the Bodley Head London, U. K. ISBN 0-7126-4286-2. Pages 70 & 71 https://web.archive.org/web/20140130144602/http://www.stupormundi.it/Mogli.htm
Maria of Brabant, Holy Roman Empress
Maria of Brabant, a member of the House of Reginar, was Holy Roman Empress and German Queen from 1214 until 1215 as the second and last wife of the Welf emperor Otto IV. Maria was the eldest daughter of his consort Maud of Boulogne, her paternal grandparents were Count Godfrey III of Margaret of Limburg. As a descendant of the Reginar dukes of Lower Lorraine, her father Henry had adopted the title of a Duke of Brabant, confirmed by Emperor Frederick Barbarossa in 1183. Maria was betrothed to King Otto IV in 1198, while he fought for the German throne against rivalling Philip of Swabia, her father, Duke Henry I, had supported the claims of the Welf dynasty, but adopted a hesitant position. When he changed to the Hohenstaufen side in 1204, the planned marriage seemed obsolete. After Philip of Swabia was assassinated in 1208, Otto IV became undisputed King of the Romans and was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Innocent III in 1209. Duke Henry of Brabant rushed to reconcile with the Welf ruler, who soon after his coronation, steered into conflict with the Pope over the Kingdom of Sicily ruled by the young Hohenstaufen prince Frederick II, nephew of the late Philip of Swabia.
Otto was excommunicated by his former ally Pope Innocent and had to face the election of Frederick as anti-king in September 1211. One year he demonstratively married Beatrice of Swabia, daughter of the late King Philip and Frederick's paternal first cousin. Not until Beatrice's death a few weeks the previous engagement with Maria of Brabant once again became significant. At the time Otto was engaged in a war against rival king Frederick II. While several Hohenstaufen loyalists had supported Emperor Otto because of his marriage with Beatrice, most had transferred their allegiance to Frederick II by this point. Crowned king by Archbishop Siegfried II of Mainz in December 1212, Frederick's rise continued and Otto was under increasing pressure, he and Maria of Brabant got married on 19 May 1214 in Maastricht. She was about twenty-four years old and her husband thirty-nine. In view of the ongoing conflict between Welfs and Hohenstaufens, Maria was Empress of a divided Holy Roman Empire, her husband's rule came to an end, when Frederick forged an alliance with King Philip II of France and provoked Otto to enter into the Anglo-French War.
On 27 July 1214, the Imperial army was decisively defeated in the Battle of Bouvines and forced to retreat. King Philip II sent the captured Imperial Reichsadler standard to Frederick. With his forces decimated and having lost supporters to both death and defection, Otto was forced to withdraw to his Welf estates around Brunswick in Saxony with his wife. Otto was deposed on 5 July 1215 and Frederick again crowned King of Germany on July 25, unopposed this time. Pope Innocent III, who had crowned Otto, acknowledged Frederick's rule as emperor-to-be during the Fourth Council of the Lateran in November. Maria joined her husband in his retirement. Resigned and ill, Otto died at Harzburg castle on 19 May 1218. There were no children from their marriage. Maria remained a widow for about two years. In July, 1220, she married her second husband Count William I of Holland. William died just two years on 4 February 1222, he was survived by at least five children. Genealogists believe. However, there is some uncertainty on their dates of birth.
Maria survived her second husband by thirty-eight years, but never remarried. In her years, she again adopted the title of a Holy Roman Empress, establishing a Cistercian monastery at Binderen, Brabant, she is buried in Leuven. Marie of Brabant Marek, Miroslav. "A listing of descendants of Lambert II of Leuven". Genealogy. EU, her profile in the "Our Family History" project by Robert Brian Stewart
Acre, known to locals as Akko or Akka, is a city in the coastal plain region of the Northern District of Israel. The city occupies an important location, sitting in a natural harbour at the extremity of Haifa Bay on the coast of the Mediterranean's Levantine Sea. Aside from coastal trading, it was an important waypoint on the region's coastal road and the road cutting inland along the Jezreel Valley; the first settlement during the Early Bronze Age was abandoned after a few centuries but a large town was established during the Middle Bronze Age. Continuously inhabited since it is among the oldest continuously-inhabited settlements on Earth, it has, been subject to conquest and destruction several times and survived as little more than a large village for centuries at a time. In present-day Israel, the population was 48,303 in 2017, made up of Jews, Christians and Baha'is. In particular, Acre is the holiest city of the Bahá'í Faith and receives many pilgrims of that faith every year; the mayor is Shimon Lankri, reelected in 2011.
The etymology of the name is unknown, but not Semitic. A folk etymology in Hebrew is that, when the ocean was created, it expanded until it reached Acre and stopped, giving the city its name. Acre seems to be recorded in Egyptian hieroglyphics being the "Akka" in the execration texts from around 1800 BC and the "Aak" in the tribute lists of Thutmose III; the Akkadian cuneiform Amarna letters mention an "Akka" in the mid-14th-century BC. On its native currency, Acre's name was written ʿK, it appears once in Biblical Hebrew. Other transcriptions of these names include Acco, Accho and Ocina. Acre was known to the Greeks as Ákē, a homonym for Greek word meaning "cure". Greek legend offered a folk etymology that Hercules had found curative herbs at the site after one of his many fights; this name was latinized as Ace. Josephus's histories transcribed the city into Greek as Akre. Under the successors of Alexander the Great, the Egyptians called the city Ptolemais and the Syrians Antioch or Antiochenes.
As both names were shared by a great many other towns, they were variously distinguished. The Syrians called it "Antioch in Ptolemais", the Romans Ptolemais in Phoenicia. Others knew it as "Antiochia Ptolemais". Under Claudius, it was briefly known as Germanicia in Ptolemais; as a Roman colony, it was notionally refounded and renamed Colonia Claudii Caesaris Ptolemais or Colonia Claudia Felix Ptolemais Garmanica Stabilis after its imperial sponsor Claudius. During the Crusades, it was known again as Acre or as St. John of Acre, after the Knights Hospitaller who had their headquarters there; the remains of the oldest settlement at the site of modern Acre were found at a tell located 1.5 km east of the modern city of Acre. Known as Tel Akko in Hebrew and Tell el-Fukhar in Arabic, its remains date to about 3000 BC, during the Early Bronze Age; this farming community endured for only a couple of centuries, after which the site was abandoned after being inundated by rising seawaters. Acre was resettled as an urban centre during the Middle Bronze Age and has been continuously inhabited since then.
During the Iron Age, Acre culturally affiliated with Phoenicia. In the biblical Book of Judges, Akko appears in a list of the places which the Israelites were not able to conquer from the Canaanites, it is described in the territory of the tribe of Asher and, according to Josephus's account, was reputed to have been ruled by one of Solomon's provincial governors. Around 725 BC, Acre joined Sidon and Tyre in a revolt against the Neo-Assyrian king Shalmaneser V. Strabo refers to the city as once a rendezvous for the Persians in their expeditions against Egypt. According to historians such as Diodurus Siculus and Strabo, King Cambyses II attacked Egypt after massing a huge army on the plains near the city of Acre. In December 2018 archaeologists digging at the site of Tell Keisan in Acre unearthed the remains of a Persian military outpost that might have played a role in the successful 525 B. C. Achaemenid invasion of Egypt; the Persian-period fortifications at Tell Keisan were heavily damaged during Alexander's fourth-century B.
C. campaign to drive the Achaemenids out of the Levant. After Alexander's death, his main generals divided his empire among themselves. At first, the Egyptian Ptolemies held the land around Acre. Ptolemy II renamed the city Ptolemais in his own and his father's honour in the 260s BC. Antiochus III conquered the town for the Syrian Seleucids in 200 BC. In the late 170s or early 160s BC, Antiochus IV founded a Greek colony in the town, which he named Antioch after himself. About 165 BC Judas Maccabeus defeated the Seleucids in several battles in Galilee, drove them into Ptolemais. About 153 BC Alexander Balas, son of Antiochus IV Epiphanes, contesting the Seleucid crown with Demetrius, seized the city, which opened its gates to him. Demetrius offered many bribes to the Maccabees to obtain Jewish support against his rival, including the revenues of Ptolemais for the benefit of the Temple in Jerusalem, but in vain. Jonathan Apphus threw in his lot with Alexander and in 150 BC he was received by him with great honour in Ptolemais.
Some years however, Tryphon, an officer of the Seleucid Empire, who had grow
Cologne is the largest city of Germany's most populous federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia, its 1 million+ inhabitants make it the fourth most populous city in Germany after Berlin and Munich. The largest city on the Rhine, it is the most populous city both of the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Region, Germany's largest and one of Europe's major metropolitan areas, of the Rhineland. Centred on the left bank of the Rhine, Cologne is about 45 kilometres southeast of North Rhine-Westphalia's capital of Düsseldorf and 25 kilometres northwest of Bonn, it is the largest city in the Central Ripuarian dialect areas. The city's famous Cologne Cathedral is the seat of the Catholic Archbishop of Cologne. There are many institutions of higher education in the city, most notably the University of Cologne, one of Europe's oldest and largest universities, the Technical University of Cologne, Germany's largest university of applied sciences, the German Sport University Cologne, Germany's only sport university.
Cologne Bonn Airport lies in the southeast of the city. The main airport for the Rhine-Ruhr region is Düsseldorf Airport. Cologne was founded and established in Ubii territory in the 1st century AD as the Roman Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium, the first word of, the origin of its name. An alternative Latin name of the settlement is Augusta Ubiorum, after the Ubii. "Cologne", the French version of the city's name, has become standard in English as well. The city functioned as the capital of the Roman province of Germania Inferior and as the headquarters of the Roman military in the region until occupied by the Franks in 462. During the Middle Ages it flourished on one of the most important major trade routes between east and west in Europe. Cologne was one of the leading members of the Hanseatic League and one of the largest cities north of the Alps in medieval and Renaissance times. Prior to World War II the city had undergone several occupations by the French and by the British. Cologne was one of the most bombed cities in Germany during World War II, with the Royal Air Force dropping 34,711 long tons of bombs on the city.
The bombing reduced the population by 95% due to evacuation, destroyed the entire city. With the intention of restoring as many historic buildings as possible, the successful postwar rebuilding has resulted in a mixed and unique cityscape. Cologne is a major cultural centre for the Rhineland. Exhibitions range from local ancient Roman archeological sites to contemporary graphics and sculpture; the Cologne Trade Fair hosts a number of trade shows such as Art Cologne, imm Cologne and the Photokina. The first urban settlement on the grounds of modern-day Cologne was Oppidum Ubiorum, founded in 38 BC by the Ubii, a Cisrhenian Germanic tribe. In 50 AD, the Romans founded Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium on the river Rhine and the city became the provincial capital of Germania Inferior in 85 AD. Considerable Roman remains can be found in present-day Cologne near the wharf area, where a 1,900-year-old Roman boat was discovered in late 2007. From 260 to 271 Cologne was the capital of the Gallic Empire under Postumus and Victorinus.
In 310 under emperor Constantine I a bridge was built over the Rhine at Cologne. Roman imperial governors resided in the city and it became one of the most important trade and production centres in the Roman Empire north of the Alps. Cologne is shown on the 4th century Peutinger Map. Maternus, elected as bishop in 313, was the first known bishop of Cologne; the city was the capital of a Roman province until it was occupied by the Ripuarian Franks in 462. Parts of the original Roman sewers are preserved underneath the city, with the new sewerage system having opened in 1890. Early medieval Cologne was part of Austrasia within the Frankish Empire. In 716, Charles Martel commanded an army for the first time and suffered the only defeat of his life when Chilperic II, King of Neustria, invaded Austrasia and the city fell to him in the Battle of Cologne. Charles fled to the Eifel mountains, rallied supporters, took the city back that same year after defeating Chilperic in the Battle of Amblève. Cologne had been the seat of a bishop since the Roman period.
In 843, Cologne became a city within the Treaty of Verdun-created East Francia. In 953, the archbishops of Cologne first gained noteworthy secular power, when bishop Bruno was appointed as duke by his brother Otto I, King of Germany. In order to weaken the secular nobility, who threatened his power, Otto endowed Bruno and his successors on the bishop's see with the prerogatives of secular princes, thus establishing the Electorate of Cologne, formed by the temporal possessions of the archbishopric and included in the end a strip of territory along the left Bank of the Rhine east of Jülich, as well as the Duchy of Westphalia on the other side of the Rhine, beyond Berg and Mark. By the end of the 12th century, the Archbishop of Cologne was one of the seven electors of the Holy Roman Emperor. Besides being prince elector, he was Arch-chancellor of Italy as well, technically from 1238 and permanently from 1263 until 1803. Following the Battle of Worringen in 1288, Cologne gained its independence from the archbishops and became a Free City.
Archbishop Sigfried II von Westerburg was forced to reside in Bonn. The archbishop preserv