Henry III of England

Henry III known as Henry of Winchester, was King of England, Lord of Ireland, Duke of Aquitaine from 1216 until his death. He was the fourth king of the House of Plantagenet; the son of King John and Isabella of Angoulême, Henry assumed the throne when he was only nine in the middle of the First Barons' War. Cardinal Guala declared the war against the rebel barons to be a religious crusade and Henry's forces, led by William Marshal, defeated the rebels at the battles of Lincoln and Sandwich in 1217. Henry promised to abide by the Great Charter of 1225, which limited royal power and protected the rights of the major barons, his early rule was dominated first by Hubert de Burgh and Peter des Roches, who re-established royal authority after the war. In 1230, the King attempted to reconquer the provinces of France that had once belonged to his father, but the invasion was a debacle. A revolt led by William Marshal's son, Richard Marshal, broke out in 1232, ending in a peace settlement negotiated by the Church.

Following the revolt, Henry ruled England rather than governing through senior ministers. He travelled less than previous monarchs, investing in a handful of his favourite palaces and castles, he married Eleanor of Provence, with. Henry was known for his piety, holding lavish religious ceremonies and giving generously to charities, he extracted huge sums of money from the Jews in England crippling their ability to do business, as attitudes towards the Jews hardened, he introduced the Statute of Jewry, attempting to segregate the community. In a fresh attempt to reclaim his family's lands in France, he invaded Poitou in 1242, leading to the disastrous Battle of Taillebourg. After this, Henry relied on diplomacy, cultivating an alliance with Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor. Henry supported his brother Richard of Cornwall in his bid to become King of the Romans in 1256, but was unable to place his own son Edmund Crouchback on the throne of Sicily, despite investing large amounts of money, he was prevented from doing so by rebellions in Gascony.

By 1258, Henry's rule was unpopular, the result of the failure of his expensive foreign policies and the notoriety of his Poitevin half-brothers, the Lusignans, as well as the role of his local officials in collecting taxes and debts. A coalition of his barons probably backed by Eleanor, seized power in a coup d'état and expelled the Poitevins from England, reforming the royal government through a process called the Provisions of Oxford. Henry and the baronial government enacted a peace with France in 1259, under which Henry gave up his rights to his other lands in France in return for King Louis IX recognising him as the rightful ruler of Gascony; the baronial regime collapsed but Henry was unable to reform a stable government and instability across England continued. In 1263, one of the more radical barons, Simon de Montfort, seized power, resulting in the Second Barons' War. Henry mobilised an army; the Battle of Lewes occurred in 1264, where Henry was taken prisoner. Henry's eldest son, escaped from captivity to defeat de Montfort at the Battle of Evesham the following year and freed his father.

Henry enacted a harsh revenge on the remaining rebels, but was persuaded by the Church to mollify his policies through the Dictum of Kenilworth. Reconstruction was slow and Henry had to acquiesce to various measures, including further suppression of the Jews, to maintain baronial and popular support. Henry died in 1272, he was buried in Westminster Abbey, which he had rebuilt in the second half of his reign, was moved to his current tomb in 1290. Some miracles were declared after his death. Henry was born in Winchester Castle on 1 October 1207, he was the eldest son of King Isabella of Angoulême. Little is known of Henry's early life, he was looked after by a wet nurse called Ellen in the south of England, away from John's itinerant court, had close ties to his mother. Henry had four legitimate younger brothers and sisters – Richard, Joan and Eleanor – and various older illegitimate siblings. In 1212 his education was entrusted to the Bishop of Winchester. Little is known about Henry's appearance.

Henry grew up to show flashes of a fierce temper, but as historian David Carpenter describes, he had an "amiable, easy-going, sympathetic" personality. He was unaffected and honest, showed his emotions easily being moved to tears by religious sermons. At the start of the 13th century, the Kingdom of England formed part of the Angevin Empire spreading across Western Europe. Henry was named after his grandfather, Henry II, who had built up this vast network of lands stretching from Scotland and Wales, through England, across the English Channel to the territories of Normandy, Brittany and Anjou in north-west France, onto Poitou and Gascony in the south-west. For many years the French Crown was weak, enabling first Henry II, his sons Richard I and John, to dominate France. In 1204, John lost Normandy, Brittany and Anjou to Philip II of France, leaving English power on the continent limited to Gascony and Poitou. John raised taxes to pay f

University of Santa Catalina

The Pontifical and Royal University of St. Catherine or University of Osma was founded in 1550 by the Portuguese bishop Pedro Alvarez de Acosta in El Burgo de Osma in Spain, it was closed in 1841. The building that housed the university is now a hotel; the university was founded in 1541 by the Bishop of Osma, Pedro Alvarez de Acosta, with faculties of arts, canon law and theology. Philip II of Spain took it under his protection by a royal decree of 31 January 1562, thus it obtained the double title of a royal university. Political and educational changes, as well as the lack of economic resources it fell into decline from 1751. Examinations were suspended between 30 October 1770 and 1 December 1778; the university resumed with great intellectual splendour, but during the Peninsular War it closed again on 5 August 1807. Although it reopened on 7 October 1814, no studies or professorships were normalised. There was another closure between 19 November 1833 and 1 October 1839, when the university was considered a centre of political turmoil.

It was moved to Soria until its final closure during the academic year 1841-1842 after El Burgo de Osma had supported the losing side in the First Carlist War. The building became a secondary school, a prison, a vocational institute, is now the Hotel Termal Burgo de Osma. A summer school is now held every year in the town using the university's name; the building is square, is structured around a large courtyard with columns. Works started in the year 1541 and were completed in 1549; the façade is in the plateresque style. It has two large columns that are decorated with grotesques and figures in relief at their base, while they appear grooved on the top. On the lintel that frames the main door, the niche between columns contains the image of Saint Catherine of Alexandria, flanked by two coats of arms of Bishop Acosta. A triangular pediment crowns this second body. Above this is the imperial coat of arms of Philip II, from the period. Inside it has a square Renaissance courtyard with two floors connected by a monumental staircase.

The central courtyard is surrounded by double arches supported by columns of smooth shafts. La Red de Hosterías Reales de Castilla y León, Castilla Termal y el Grupo Olmedo Hoteles transformed the former university into a quality hotel that includes a thermal area of 1,500 square meters on two basement floors and 62 rooms. Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos writer and politician. Basilio Ponce de León theologian and poet. Ibáñez G. La Universidad de Santa Catalina de Burgo de Osma. Recuerdo de Soria. 1900. García García M. El Colegio-Universidad de Santa Catalina. Celtiberia. 1959. 1961. 1964. Iruela JM. Una Universidad castellana: la de Santa Catalina de El Burgo de Osma. Revista de Soria. 1969. 1970. Bartolomé Martínez B. Las Cátedras de Gramática en la Universidad del Burgo de Osma. Hispania Sacra. 1976. Bartolomé Martínez B. Brotes de rebeldía y politización en la Universidad de El Burgo de Osma en el siglo XIX. Celtiberia. 1979. Bartolomé Martínez B. Visitas y reformas en el Colegio-Universidad de Santa Catalina de El Burgo de Osma.

Historia de la Educación. 1984. Bartolomé Martínez B. El Colegio-Universidad de Santa Catalina en El Burgo de Osma y su tiempo. 1550-1840. Almazán. 1988. Frías Balsa JV. Médicos graduados en la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de El Burgo de Osma, durante el siglo XVII. Soria Semanal. 5/1/1991. Frías Balsa JV. La Universidad de Santa Catalina y América. Celtiberia. 1992. El Burgo de Osma La frontera del Duero: History of El Burgo de Osma Photographs of the current state of the University of St Catherine

The Savior of Painting

The Savior of Painting is a 1997 painting by the Norwegian artist Odd Nerdrum. It is known as Self-Portrait as the Prophet of Painting, it depicts Nerdrum in a golden robe, standing barefoot under the evening sky, with a paintbrush in his right hand and a palette in his left. Nerdrum has described the painting as "kitsch in its purest form", making a distinction between kitsch, which always is intended, camp, ironic; the painting was made at Røvik gård in Stavern. The model was Arne Aakermann, whose posture were similar to Nerdrum's. Aakermann modeled for two hours every day during three months in the summer of 1997; the custom-made robe was used in Nerdrum's 1997 painting Self-Portrait in Golden Cape, where the artist is depicted with an erected penis. The model was however not the same in the two paintings. Reviewing a 1999 exhibition of Nerdrum's self-portraits in New York City, Ken Johnson of The New York Times wrote that the paintings overall only succeeded to "envelop the artist in a stale aura of quasi-Rembrandtian soulfulness".

One exception was "Self-Portrait as the Prophet of Painting, in which the artist appears life-size in a floor-length, pearl-studded golden robe and palette in his hands, against a romantically barren rocky shore and a twilit sky. In this goofy, over-the-top image, Mr. Nerdrum seems to be having some fun with his own self-glorifying predilections."In 2012, it was selected by the magazine American Artist as one of "7 important paintings of our time". The magazine described it as "boldly presumptuous" and "one of few paintings in Nerdrum's oeuvre devoid of tension, angst, or torment; that is because the artist portrayed here is triumphant—he has overcome the accusations and criticism of his public and stands confidently poised to save art from its so-called imminent doom."