A midshipman is an officer of the junior-most rank, in the Royal Navy, United States Navy, many Commonwealth navies. Commonwealth countries which use the rank include Canada, Bangladesh, New Zealand, South Africa, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Kenya. In the 17th century, a midshipman was a rating for an experienced seaman, the word derives from the area aboard a ship, either where the original rating worked on the ship, or where he was berthed. Beginning in the 18th century, a commissioned officer candidate was rated as a midshipman, the seaman rating began to die out. By the Napoleonic era, a midshipman was an apprentice officer who had served at least three years as a volunteer, officer's servant or able seaman, was equivalent to a present-day petty officer in rank and responsibilities. After serving at least three years as a midshipman or master's mate, he was eligible to take the examination for lieutenant. Promotion to lieutenant was not automatic, many midshipmen took positions as master's mates for an increase in pay and responsibility aboard ship.
Midshipmen in the United States Navy were trained and served to midshipmen in the Royal Navy, although unlike their counterparts in the Royal Navy, a midshipman was a warrant officer rank until 1912. During the 19th century, changes in the training of naval officers in both the Royal Navy and the United States Navy led to the replacement of apprenticeship aboard ships with formal schooling in a naval college. Midshipman began to mean an officer cadet at a naval college. Trainees now spent around four years in a college and two years at sea prior to promotion to commissioned officer rank. Between the mid-19th and mid-20th centuries, time at sea declined to less than a year as the entry age was increased from 12 to 18. Ranks equivalent to midshipman exist in many other navies. Using US midshipman or pre-fleet board UK midshipman as the basis for comparison, the equivalent rank would be a naval cadet in training to become a junior commissioned officer. Using post-fleet board UK midshipman for comparison, the rank would be the most junior commissioned officer in the rank structure, similar to a US ensign in role and responsibility.
In many Romance languages, the literal translation of the local term for "midshipman" into English is "Navy Guard", including the French garde marine, Spanish guardia marina, Portuguese guarda-marinha, Italian guardiamarina. Today, these ranks all refer to naval cadets, but they were selected by the monarchy, were trained on land as soldiers; the rank of midshipman originated during the Tudor and Stuart eras, referred to a post for an experienced seaman promoted from the ordinary deck hands, who worked in between the main and mizzen masts and had more responsibility than an ordinary seaman, but was not a military officer or an officer in training. The first published use of the term midshipman was in 1662; the word derives from an area aboard a ship, but it refers either to the location where midshipmen worked on the ship, or the location where midshipmen were berthed. By the 18th century, four types of midshipman existed: midshipman, midshipman extraordinary and midshipman ordinary; some midshipmen were older men, while most were officer candidates who failed to pass the lieutenant examination or were passed over for promotion, some members of the original rating served, as late as 1822, alongside apprentice officers without themselves aspiring to a commission.
By 1794, all midshipmen were considered officer candidates, the original rating was phased out. Beginning in 1661, boys who aspired to become officers were sent by their families to serve on ships with a "letter of service" from the crown, were paid at the same rate as midshipmen; the letter instructed the admirals and captains that the bearer was to be shown "such kindness as you shall judge fit for a gentleman, both in accommodating him in your ship and in furthering his improvement". Their official rating was volunteer-per-order, but they were known as King's letter boys, to distinguish their higher social class from the original midshipman rating. Beginning in 1677, Royal Navy regulations for promotion to lieutenant required service as a midshipman, promotion to midshipman required some time at sea. By the Napoleonic era, the regulations required at least three years of services as a midshipman or master's mate and six years of total sea time. Sea time was earned in various ways, most boys served this period at sea in any lower rating, either as a servant of one of the ship's officers, a volunteer, or a seaman.
By the 1730s, the rating volunteer-per-order was phased out and replaced with a system where prospective midshipmen served as servants for officers. For example, a captain was allowed four servants for every 100 men aboard his ship. In 1729, the Royal Naval Academy in Portsmouth – renamed the Royal Naval College in 1806 – was founded, for 40 students aged between 13 and 16, who would take three years to complete a course of study defined in an illustrated book, would earn two years of sea time as part of their studies; the rating of midshipman-by-order, or midshipman ordinary, was used for graduates of the Royal Naval College, to distinguish them from midshipmen who had served aboard ship, who were paid more. The school was unpopular in the Navy, because officers enjoyed the privilege of having servants and preferred the traditional method of training officers via apprenticeship. In 1794, officers' servants were abolished and a new class of volunteers called'volunteer class I' was created for boys between the ag
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
Order of Merit
The Order of Merit is an order of merit recognising distinguished service in the armed forces, art, literature, or for the promotion of culture. Established in 1902 by King Edward VII, admission into the order remains the personal gift of its Sovereign—currently Edward VII's great-granddaughter, Queen Elizabeth II—and is restricted to a maximum of 24 living recipients from the Commonwealth realms, plus a limited number of honorary members. While all members are awarded the right to use the post-nominal letters OM and wear the badge of the order, the Order of Merit's precedence among other honours differs between countries; the first mention of a possible Order of Merit was made following the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805, in correspondence between First Lord of the Admiralty Lord Barham and William Pitt, though nothing came of the idea. It was thought by Queen Victoria, her courtiers, politicians alike, that a new order, based on the Prussian order Pour le Mérite, would make up for the insufficient recognition offered by the established honours system to achievement outside of public service, in fields such as art, literature and science.
Victoria's husband, Prince Consort, took an interest in the matter. The concept did not wither and, on 5 January 1888, British prime minister Lord Salisbury submitted to the Queen a draft constitution for an Order of Merit in Science and Art, consisting of one grade split into two branches of knighthood: the Order of Scientific Merit for Knights of Merit in Science, with the post-nominal letters KMS, the Order of Artistic Merit for Knights of Merit in Art, with the post-nominal letters KMA. However, Sir Frederic Leighton, President of the Royal Academy, advised against the new order because of its selection process. Victoria's son, King Edward VII founded the Order of Merit on 26 June 1902 as a means to acknowledge "exceptionally meritorious service in Our Navy and Our Army, or who may have rendered exceptionally meritorious service towards the advancement of Art and Science". All modern aspects of the order were established under his direction, including the division for military figures.
From the outset, prime ministers attempted to propose candidates or lobbied to influence the monarch's decision on appointments, but the Royal Household adamantly guarded information about potential names. After 1931, when the Statute of Westminster came into being and the Dominions of the British Empire became independent countries, equal in status to the UK, the Order of Merit continued as an honour open to all these realms and, in many, became a part of their national honours systems; the order's statutes were amended in 1935 to include members of the Royal Air Force and, in 1969, the definition of honorary recipients was expanded to include members of the Commonwealth of Nations that are not realms. From its inception, the order has been open to women, Florence Nightingale being the first woman to receive the honour, in 1907. Several individuals have refused admission into the Order of Merit, such as Rudyard Kipling, A. E. Housman, George Bernard Shaw. To date, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, remains the youngest person inducted into the Order of Merit, having been admitted by Queen Elizabeth II in 1968, when he was 47 years of age.
All citizens of the Commonwealth realms are eligible for appointment to the Order of Merit. There may be, only 24 living individuals in the order at any given time, not including honorary appointees, new members are selected by the reigning monarch of the realms Queen Elizabeth II, with the assistance of her private secretaries. Within the limited membership is a designated military division, with its own unique insignia. Honorary members form another group, to which there is no numerical limit, though such appointments are rare. Upon admission into the Order of Merit, members are entitled to use the post-nominal letters OM and are entrusted with the badge of the order, consisting of a golden crown from, suspended a red enamelled cross, itself centred by a disk of blue enamel, surrounded by a laurel wreath, bearing in gold lettering the words FOR MERIT; the ribbon of the Order of Merit is divided into two stripes of blue. Men wear their badges on a neck ribbon, while women carry theirs on a ribbon bow pinned to the left shoulder, aides-de-camp may wear the insignia on their aiguillettes.
Since 1991, it has been required. Sovereign: Queen Elizabeth II Secretary and Registrar: The Lord Fellowes There have been no honorary members of the Order of Merit since the death of the last such member, Nelson Mandela, in December 2013; as the Order of Merit is open to the citizens of sixteen different countries, each with their own system of orders and medals, the order's place of precedence varies from country to country. While, in the United Kingdom, the o
Admiral of the Fleet (Royal Navy)
Admiral of the Fleet is a five-star naval officer rank and the highest rank of the Royal Navy formally established in 1688. The five-star NATO rank code is OF-10, equivalent to a field marshal in the British Army or a marshal of the Royal Air Force. Other than honorary appointments no new admirals of the fleet have been named since 1995; the origins of the rank can be traced back to Sir John de Beauchamp, 1st Baron Beauchamp de Warwick, appointed'Admiral of the King's Southern and Western Fleets' on 18 July 1360. The appointment gave the command of the English navy to one person for the first time. In the days sailing ships the admiral distinctions used by the Royal Navy when the fleet was divided into three divisions – red, white, or blue; each division was assigned an admiral, who in turn commanded a rear admiral. The rank of Admiral of the Fleet was formally established in 1688 prior to this date the Admiral of the White was pre-eminent and regarded informally as the admiral of the fleet In the 18th century, the original nine ranks began to be filled by more than one person at any one time.
The admiral of the red became known as the admiral of the fleet. In November 1805, a new rank of Admiral of the Red junior to that of Admiral of the Fleet was created, the announcement on page 1373 of issue 15859 of the London Gazette stating "His Majesty having been pleased to order the Rank of Admirals of the Red to be restored in His Majesty's Navy..." and promoting 22 men serving as Admirals to that rank. The organisation of the British fleet into coloured squadrons was abandoned in 1864, although the Royal Navy kept the White Ensign; when the professional head of the Royal Navy was given the title of First Naval Lord in 1828, the rank of admiral of the fleet became an honorary promotion for retiring First Naval Lords allowing more than one admiral of the fleet to exist at one time. It was broadly customary for the senior Admiral on the active list to be made an Admiral of the Fleet whether or not he had served as First Naval Lord. However, there was no Admiral of the Fleet between 1854 and 1857 and on the death of Provo Wallis in 1892 the promotion went to John Edmund Commerell rather than the senior Algernon Frederick Rous de Horsey.
In 1914 the criteria were revised and in 1940 the Admirals of the Fleet were exempted from compulsory retirement. Since 1811 five members of the British Royal family, other than the monarch, four members of foreign royal families have been appointed admirals of the fleet. Of the British royalty granted the rank, only one, the Prince of Wales had not seen service in the Royal Navy. During the two World Wars a number of serving officers held active commissions as admirals of the fleet, as well as the First Sea Lord. Following the creation of the Chief of the Defence Staff in 1959, the five naval officers appointed to that position became admirals of the fleet. Recognizing the reduced post–Cold War size of the British Armed Forces, no further appointments were made to the rank after 1995 when Sir Benjamin Bathurst was appointed admiral of the fleet on his retirement as First Sea Lord; the rank was not abolished and in 2012 the Prince of Wales became an honorary admiral of the fleet, in recognition of his support to Queen Elizabeth II in her role of as Commander-in-Chief of the British Armed Forces.
In 2014, Lord Boyce, a former First Sea Lord and Chief of the Defence Staff, was appointed an honorary admiral of the fleet. Lord High Admiral of the United Kingdom First Sea Lord Heathcote, Tony; the British Admirals of the Fleet 1734–1995. Pen & Sword Ltd. ISBN 0-85052-835-6. Media related to Royal Navy admirals of the fleet at Wikimedia Commons
North America and West Indies Station
The North America and West Indies Station was a formation or command of the United Kingdom's Royal Navy stationed in North American waters from 1745 to 1956. The North American Station was separate from the Jamaica Station until 1830 when the two combined to form the North America and West Indies Station, it was abolished in 1907 before being restored in 1915. It was renamed the America and West Indies Station in 1926, it was commanded by the Commander-in-Chief, North America and West Indies Station and subsequently by the Commander-in-Chief and West Indies Station. The squadron was formed in 1745 to counter French forces in North America, with the headquarters at the Halifax Naval Yard in Nova Scotia; the area of command had first been designated as the North American Station in 1767, under the command of Commodore Samuel Hood, with the headquarters in Halifax from 1758 to 1794, thereafter in Halifax and Bermuda. Land and buildings for a permanent Naval Yard were purchased by the Royal Navy in 1758 and the Yard was commissioned in 1759.
The Yard served as the main base for the Royal Navy in North America during the Seven Years' War, the American Revolution, the French Revolutionary Wars. Following American independence in 1783, Bermuda was the only British territory left between Nova Scotia and the West Indies, was selected as the new headquarters for the region; the establishment of a base there was delayed for a dozen years, due to the need to survey the encircling barrier reef to locate channels suitable for large warships. Once this had been completed, a base was established at St. George's in 1794, with the fleet anchoring at Murray's Anchorage in the northern lagoon, named for Vice Admiral Sir George Murray, who became the Commander-in-Chief of the new River St. Lawrence and Coast of America and North America and West Indies Station; the Admiralty began purchasing land at Bermuda's West End, including Ireland Island, Spanish Point, smaller islands in the Great Sound with the intent of building the Royal Naval Dockyard, a permanent naval base there, with its anchorage on Grassy Bay.
The construction of this base was to drag on through much of the Nineteenth Century. Admiral Sir John Borlase Warren was appointed Commander-in-Chief in 1812, he and his staff seem to have spent most of their time at Bermuda during the War of 1812, from where the blockade of much of the Atlantic Seaboard of the United States was orchestrated, the punitive expedition which included the Raid on Alexandria, the Battle of Bladensburg, the Burning of Washington was launched in August, 1814. In 1813, the area of command had become the North America Station again, with the West Indies falling under the Jamaica Station, in 1816 it was renamed the North America and Lakes of Canada Station; the headquarters was in Bermuda during the winter and Halifax during the summer, but Admiralty House, became the year-round headquarters of the Station in 1821, when the area of command became the North America and Newfoundland Station. In 1818 Halifax became the summer base for the squadron which shifted to the Royal Naval Dockyard, for the remainder of the year.
In 1819, the main base of the Station was moved from Halifax to Bermuda, better positioned to counter threats from the United States. Halifax continued to be used as the summer base for the station until 1907. At around the same time that the main base was moved the area of command was redesignated as the North America and West Indies Station, remained so until 1907, when the North America and West Indies Station was abolished and replaced by the 4th Cruiser Squadron; these were based in England and Bermuda was redesignated from a base to a coaling station, although the dockyard remained in operation. The Commander-in-Chief, North America and West Indies Station, remained in Bermuda; the Royal Navy withdrew from Halifax in 1905, the Halifax Naval Yard was handed over to the Royal Canadian Navy in 1910. The North America and West Indies Station was restored in 1915, incorporated the 8th Cruiser Squadron from 1924–25, it was renamed the Western Atlantic Station in 1942. In 1945 it became West Indies Station.
In 1951, the Royal Naval Dockyard, was closed, with the Admiralty Floating Dock No. 5 towed to Britain by HM Tugs Warden and Reward, departing on 11 July. The position of Senior Naval Officer West Indies was established as a Sub-Area Commander under the Commander-in-Chief of the America and West Indies station; the occupant of this position ranked as a Commodore, was provided with a shore office on Ireland Island, but was required to spend much of his time at sea in the West Indies. A flagship and other vessels of the America and West Indies Squadron continued to be based at the South Yard of the former Royal Naval Dockyard, where the Royal Navy maintained a Berthing Area under the command of a Resident Naval Officer, but were detached from the Home Fleet, their refits and repairs were thenceforth to be carried out in Britain; the RNO had his own office in one of the houses of Dockyard Terrace. Admiralty land not required for the continued naval operations was sold to the colonial government.
There was an RNO in Nassau. In 1952, the Commander-in-Chief, Vice Admiral Sir William Andrewes, became the initial Deputy Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic. On 29 October 1956, the position of Commander-in-Chief of the America a
Maria Christina of the Two Sicilies
Princess Maria Christina of the Two Sicilies was queen consort of Spain from 1829 to 1833 and regent of the kingdom from 1833 to 1840. Born in Palermo, Sicily on 27 April 1806, she was the daughter of King Francis I of the Two Sicilies by his second wife, Maria Isabella of Spain. With the death on 27 May 1829 of his third wife King Ferdinand VII of Spain, was in need for a male heir to succeed to the crown; this led to his fourth marriage, just seven months to his niece, Maria Christina, the daughter of his sister, Maria Isabella. As queen, Maria Christina delivered two daughters, the future Queen Isabella II, the Infanta Luisa Fernanda, two sons who did not survive past one year; when Ferdinand died on 29 September 1833, Maria Christina became regent for their daughter Isabella. Isabella's claim to the throne was disputed by her uncle, the Infante Carlos, Count of Molina, who claimed that his brother Ferdinand had unlawfully changed the succession law to permit females to inherit the crown.
Some supporters of Don Carlos went so far as to claim that Ferdinand had bequeathed the crown to his brother but that Maria Christina had suppressed that fact. It was further alleged that the Queen had signed her dead husband's name to a decree recognizing Isabella as heir. Carlos' attempt to seize power resulted in the Carlist Wars. Despite considerable support for Carlos from conservative elements in Spain, Maria Christina retained the throne for her daughter; the Carlist Wars grew from a dispute about the succession into a dispute over the future of Spain. The supporters of Maria Christina and her daughter favored a liberal constitution and progressive social policies. In contrast, Carlos' supporters favored a return to an absolute monarchy; the army's loyalty to Isabella II proved the decisive issue in the war. On 28 December 1833, shortly after the death of Ferdinand VII, Maria Christina had secretly married an ex-sergeant from the royal guard, Agustín Fernando Muñoz. Maria Christina and Muñoz had several children together while trying to keep their marriage a secret.
Maria de los Countess of Vista Alegre married Prince Władysław Czartoryski. Maria de los Milagros, Marchioness of Castillejo married to Filippo del Drago, Principe di Mazzano e d'Antuni. Agustín Maria, 1st Duke of Tarancón candidate to King of Ecuador in 1846. Fernando Maria, 2nd Duke of Riansares and Tarancon married to Eladia Bernaldo de Quirós y González de Cienfuegos. Maria Cristina, Marchioness of La Isabella. Juan Bautista, Count of Recuerdo Antonio de Padua. Jose Maria, Count of Gracia Muñoz enlisted in the royal bodyguard, attracted the attention of Maria Christina. According to one account, he distinguished himself by stopping the runaway horses of her carriage. Maria Christina's husband, King Ferdinand VII of Spain died on 29 September 1833, on 28 December 1833 she and Muñoz were married. If Maria Christina had made the marriage public, she would have forfeited the regency; when on 13 August 1836 the soldiers on duty at the summer palace La Granja mutinied and forced the regent to grant a constitution, it was though wrongly, believed that they overcame her reluctance by seizing Muñoz, whom they called her guapo, or fancy man, threatening to shoot him.
News of Maria Christina's marriage to this low-ranking soldier became public. That news made Maria Christina unpopular, her position was undermined by news of her remarriage and concerns that she was not supportive of her liberal ministers and their policies. The army, the backbone of Isabella II's support, the liberal leadership in the Cortes combined to demand that Maria Christina stand aside from the regency. In 1840 Maria Christina found her position intolerable; the army commander, General Baldomero Espartero, Count of Luchana, replaced her as regent. In 1842 Maria Christina purchased the Château de Malmaison as their residence. In 1843, on the overthrow of General Baldomero Espartero they returned to Spain. In 1844, Muñoz's stepdaughter Queen Isabella II was declared to be of age. On 23 June 1844 Isabella gave to Muñoz the title duque de Riánsares, to, attached a Grandeza de España. On October 12, 1844 Isabella gave official consent to the marriage between her mother and Muñoz, it was publicly performed.
In 1846 Isabella made Muñoz a Knight of the Golden Fleece. On 30 May 1846 she gave Muñoz marqués de San Agustín. Muñoz was made the highest rank in the Spanish Army. In 1847 Louis Philippe, King of the French, gave Muñoz the title duc de Montmorot. In 1854, Maria Christina left for France a second time. France remained her primary residence for the remainder of her life. In 1846, by the express request of the former president Juan José Flores, the Queen participated in an attempt to re