The term public domain has two senses of meaning. Anything published is out in the domain in the sense that it is available to the public. Once published and information in books is in the public domain, in the sense of intellectual property, works in the public domain are those whose exclusive intellectual property rights have expired, have been forfeited, or are inapplicable. Examples for works not covered by copyright which are therefore in the domain, are the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes. Examples for works actively dedicated into public domain by their authors are reference implementations of algorithms, NIHs ImageJ. The term is not normally applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, as rights are country-based and vary, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another. Some rights depend on registrations on a basis, and the absence of registration in a particular country, if required. Although the term public domain did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined many things that cannot be privately owned as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis.
The term res nullius was defined as not yet appropriated. The term res communes was defined as things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air, sunlight. The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, when the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by British and French jurists in the eighteenth century, instead of public domain they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law. The phrase fall in the domain can be traced to mid-nineteenth century France to describe the end of copyright term. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain. Because copyright law is different from country to country, Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being different sizes at different times in different countries.
According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the public domain and equates the public domain to public property. However, the usage of the public domain can be more granular. Such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair use rights, the materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Edward Bouverie Pusey
Edward Bouverie Pusey was an English churchman, for more than fifty years Regius Professor of Hebrew at Christ Church, Oxford. He was one of the leaders of the Oxford Movement and he was born in the village of Pusey in Berkshire. His father was Philip Bouverie, a son of the 1st Viscount Folkestone. Philip Pusey was his brother, his sister Charlotte married Richard Lynch Cotton, for preparatory education, Pusey went to the school of the Rev. Richard Roberts in Mitcham. He attended Eton College, where he was taught by Thomas Carter, father of Thomas Thellusson Carter, for university entrance he was tutored for a period by Edward Maltby. Pusey became in 1819 a commoner of Christ Church, where Thomas Vowler Short was his tutor and he graduated in 1822 with a first. In 1823 Pusey was elected by competition to a fellowship at Oriel College, John Henry Newman and John Keble were already there as fellows. Between 1825 and 1827, Pusey studied Oriental languages and German theology at the University of Göttingen, in 1828 Pusey took holy orders, and married shortly afterwards.
His views had been influenced by German trends in theology and that year, the Duke of Wellington as Prime Minister appointed Pusey as Oxford Regius Professor of Hebrew, with the attached canonry of Christ Church. By the end of 1833, Pusey began sympathizing with the authors of the Tracts for the Times and he published Tract XVIII, on fasting, at the end of 1833, adding his initials. He was not, fully associated in the movement till 1835 and 1836, but Pusey himself was a widower, having lost his wife in 1839, and much affected by personal grief. The Oxford movement was known as Puseyism and its adherents as Puseyites. Some occasions when Pusey preached before his university marked distinct stages for the High Church party he led, Pusey studied the Church Fathers, and the Caroline Divines who revived traditions of pre-Reformation teaching. His sermon before the university in May 1843, The Holy Eucharist, the condemned sermon nearly immediately sold 18,000 copies. Pusey was behind the scenes in theological and academic controversies, occupied with articles, treatises, in reviving the doctrine of the Real Presence, Pusey contributed to the rise of ritualism in the Church of England.
He had little sympathy with ritualists and protested in a university sermon of 1859 and he came to defend those who were accused of breaking the law in their practice of ritual, but the Ritualists sidelined the Puseyites. Pusey edited the Library of the Fathers, a series of translations of the work of the Church fathers, among the translators was his contemporary at Christ Church, Charles Dodgson. He befriended and assisted Dodgsons son Lewis Carroll when he came to Christ Church
Penguin Books is a British publishing house. It was founded in 1935 by Sir Allen Lane as a line of the publishers The Bodley Head, Penguins success demonstrated that large audiences existed for serious books. Penguin had a significant impact on public debate in Britain, through its books on British culture, the arts, and science. Penguin Books is now an imprint of the worldwide Penguin Random House and it is one of the largest English-language publishers, formerly known as the Big Six, now the Big Five. The first Penguin paperbacks were published in 1935, but at first only as an imprint of The Bodley Head with the books originally distributed from the crypt of Holy Trinity Church Marylebone, Penguin Books has its registered office in the City of Westminster, England. However the question of how publishers could reach a larger public had been the subject of a conference at Rippon Hall, inexpensive paperbacks did not initially appear viable to Bodley Head, since the deliberately low price of 6d.
This helped Allen Lane purchase publication rights for some works more cheaply than he otherwise might have done since other publishers were convinced of the short term prospects of the business. By March 1936, ten months after the launch on 30 July 1935. It was Frost who in 1945 was entrusted with the reconstruction of Penguin Inc after the departure of its first managing director Ian Ballantine, from the outset, design was essential to the success of the Penguin brand. In the central panel, the author and title were printed in Gill Sans. The initial design was created by the 21-year-old office junior Edward Young, series such as Penguin Specials and The Penguin Shakespeare had individual designs. Lane actively resisted the introduction of images for several years. Some recent publications of literature from that time have duplicated the original look, from 1937 and on, the headquarters of Penguin Books was at Harmondsworth west of London and so it remained until the 1990s when a merge with Viking involved the head office moving to London.
Paper rationing was the problem of publishers during wartime, with the fall of France cutting off supply of esparto grass. This was particularly advantageous to Penguin who as a volume printer had enjoyed a successful year that year. Further in a deal with the Canadian Government, Penguin had agreed to publish editions for their armed forces for which they were paid in tons of paper. Penguin would receive 60 tons a month from Paper Supply in return for 10 titles a month in runs of 75,000 at 5d, however demand was exceeding supply on the home front leading Lane to seek a monopoly on army books made specifically for overseas distribution. This dominance over the paper supply put Penguin in a strong position after the war as rationing continued
Henry V of England
Henry V was King of England from 1413 until his death at the age of 36 in 1422. He was the second English monarch who came from the House of Lancaster, after his fathers death in 1413, Henry assumed control of the country and embarked on war with France in the ongoing Hundred Years War between the two nations. His military successes culminated in his famous victory at the Battle of Agincourt and he was the son of 20-year-old Henry of Bolingbroke, and 16-year-old Mary de Bohun. He was the grandson of the influential John of Gaunt, at the time of his birth, Richard II of England, his cousin once removed, was king. As he was not close to the line of succession to the throne and his grandfather, John of Gaunt, was the guardian of the king at that time. Upon the exile of Henrys father in 1398, Richard II took the boy into his own charge, the young Henry accompanied King Richard to Ireland, and while in the royal service, he visited Trim Castle in County Meath, the ancient meeting place of the Irish Parliament.
He was created Prince of Wales at his fathers coronation, and Duke of Lancaster on 10 November 1399 and his other titles were Duke of Cornwall, Earl of Chester, and Duke of Aquitaine. A contemporary record notes that during that year Henry spent time at The Queens College, under the care of his uncle Henry Beaufort, from 1400 to 1404, he carried out the duties of High Sheriff of Cornwall. It was there that the prince was almost killed by an arrow that became stuck in his face. An ordinary soldier might have died from such a wound, the operation was successful, but it left Henry with permanent scars, evidence of his experience in battle. The Welsh revolt of Owain Glyndŵr absorbed Henrys energies until 1408, then, as a result of the kings ill health, Henry began to take a wider share in politics. From January 1410, helped by his uncles Henry Beaufort and Thomas Beaufort – legitimised sons of John of Gaunt – he had control of the government. Both in foreign and domestic policy he differed from the king, the quarrel of father and son was political only, though it is probable that the Beauforts had discussed the abdication of Henry IV, and their opponents certainly endeavoured to defame the prince.
It may be that the tradition of Henrys riotous youth, immortalised by Shakespeare, is due to political enmity. Henrys record of involvement in war and politics, even in his youth, the most famous incident, his quarrel with the chief justice, has no contemporary authority and was first related by Sir Thomas Elyot in 1531. The story of Falstaff originated in Henrys early friendship with Sir John Oldcastle, shakespeares Falstaff was originally named Oldcastle, following his main source, The Famous Victories of Henry V. However, his descendants objected, and the name was changed. That friendship, and the political opposition to Thomas Arundel, Archbishop of Canterbury. If so, their disappointment may account for the statements of ecclesiastical writers like Thomas Walsingham that Henry, after Henry IV died on 20 March 1413, Henry V succeeded him and was crowned on 9 April 1413 at Westminster Abbey, Kingdom of England
Christ Church Cathedral School
Christ Church Cathedral School is an independent preparatory school for boys in Oxford, England. It is one of three choral foundation schools in the city and educates choristers of Christ Church Cathedral and the Worcester College Chapel and it is a member of the IAPS and the Choir Schools Association. Now a Church of England School, it was housed within the College itself. Today its premises are located across from Christ Church at 3 Brewer Street, in the 19th century, the Dean of Christ Church, Henry Liddell arranged for the building of a new choir school on its present site. More recent developments include the opening of a Pre-Prep department and nursery, at this point, the school began to take admit non-chorister pupils as well. The school opened a department in 1984 and a nursery in 1998. All pupils are boys except a number of girls who attend the nursery. The 22 boarders are choristers or probationary choristers for the Cathedral, the dormitories in which they sleep are named after distinguished former organists including Ley, Taverner and Harwood.
All other pupils are day boys, among them eighteen choristers who sing in Worcester College Chapel, the school used to provide choristers for Exeter College but this ended when Exeter established a mixed choir. In addition to the focus on Music, there is a tradition of Art. Leavers typically move on to schools such as Magdalen College School, Abingdon School, St Edwards School, Bloxham School
JSTOR is a digital library founded in 1995. Originally containing digitized back issues of journals, it now includes books and primary sources. It provides full-text searches of almost 2,000 journals, more than 8,000 institutions in more than 160 countries have access to JSTOR, most access is by subscription, but some older public domain content is freely available to anyone. William G. Bowen, president of Princeton University from 1972 to 1988, JSTOR originally was conceived as a solution to one of the problems faced by libraries, especially research and university libraries, due to the increasing number of academic journals in existence. Most libraries found it prohibitively expensive in terms of cost and space to maintain a collection of journals. By digitizing many journal titles, JSTOR allowed libraries to outsource the storage of journals with the confidence that they would remain available long-term, online access and full-text search ability improved access dramatically. Bowen initially considered using CD-ROMs for distribution, JSTOR was initiated in 1995 at seven different library sites, and originally encompassed ten economics and history journals. JSTOR access improved based on feedback from its sites.
Special software was put in place to make pictures and graphs clear, with the success of this limited project and Kevin Guthrie, then-president of JSTOR, wanted to expand the number of participating journals. They met with representatives of the Royal Society of London and an agreement was made to digitize the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society dating from its beginning in 1665, the work of adding these volumes to JSTOR was completed by December 2000. The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation funded JSTOR initially, until January 2009 JSTOR operated as an independent, self-sustaining nonprofit organization with offices in New York City and in Ann Arbor, Michigan. JSTOR content is provided by more than 900 publishers, the database contains more than 1,900 journal titles, in more than 50 disciplines. Each object is identified by an integer value, starting at 1. In addition to the site, the JSTOR labs group operates an open service that allows access to the contents of the archives for the purposes of corpus analysis at its Data for Research service.
This site offers a facility with graphical indication of the article coverage. Users may create focused sets of articles and request a dataset containing word and n-gram frequencies and they are notified when the dataset is ready and may download it in either XML or CSV formats. The service does not offer full-text, although academics may request that from JSTOR, JSTOR Plant Science is available in addition to the main site. The materials on JSTOR Plant Science are contributed through the Global Plants Initiative and are only to JSTOR
Charterhouse is an independent day and boarding school in Godalming, Surrey. Today pupils are referred to as Carthusians, and ex-pupils as Old Carthusians. Charging full boarders up to £36,000 per annum in 2015/16, Charterhouse is amongst the most expensive Headmasters and it has educated one British Prime Minister and has a long list of notable alumni. In May 1611, the London Charterhouse came into the hands of Thomas Sutton of Knaith and he acquired a fortune by the discovery of coal on two estates which he had leased near Newcastle-on-Tyne, and afterwards, removing to London, he carried on a commercial career. Charterhouse established a reputation for excellence in care and treatment, thanks in part to Henry Levett. Levett was widely esteemed for his writings, including an early tract on the treatment of smallpox. Levett was buried in Charterhouse Chapel and his widow married Andrew Tooke, the school was moved to its present site in 1872 by the headmaster, the Reverend William Haig Brown – a decision influenced by the findings of the Clarendon Commission of 1864.
The school bought a 68-acre site atop a hill just outside Godalming, in addition to the main school buildings, they constructed three boarding houses, known as Saunderites and Gownboys. The school was built by Lucas Brothers, who built the Royal Albert Hall. As pupil numbers grew, other houses were built alongside the approach road, each was titled with an adaptation of the name of their first housemaster, such as Weekites and Girdlestoneites. The last of these is referred to as Duckites, reflecting the unusual gait of its original housemaster. There are now the four old houses plus eight new houses. The twelve Houses have preserved a unique identity and pupils compete against each other in sports and the arts. The school continued to expand over the 20th century, around 350 names have been subsequently added to commemorate those who died in the Second World War and other more recent conflicts. Most still attend a chapel service there six times a week. Charterhouse was all male until the 1970s when girls were first admitted in the sixth form, of over 400 sixth formers today, almost a third are girls.
An addition to the campus was seven new Houses, built in the 1970s, in 2003, the School renovated its onsite Library. 2006 saw the opening of The Beveridge Centre for the Social Sciences, in 2007, a £3m Modern Languages building was completed
The Right Reverend Francis Paget, DD was an English theologian and the 33rd Bishop of Oxford. He was the son of the noted surgeon Sir James Paget, 1st Baronet. He was educated at St Marylebone Grammar School and Christ Church, ordained priest he became preacher at Whitehall in 1882 and Vicar of Bromsgrove in 1885. An eminent scholar, he was subsequently Regius Professor of Pastoral Theology at the University of Oxford, after the death of the Right Reverend William Stubbs in April 1901, Paget was recommended to succeed him as Bishop of Oxford. He was elected bishop the following month, and consecrated by the Archbishop of Canterbury in St. Paul´s Cathedral 29 June 1901. A couple of days he was received by King Edward VII and invested as Chancellor of the Order of the Garter, Paget served as bishop until his death in 1911. Pagets son Sir Bernard Paget was a General in the Army, and another son, Edward Paget, was the first Anglican Archbishop of Central Africa
George W. E. Russell
George William Erskine Russell PC, known as George W. E. Russell, was a British biographer and Liberal politician. Russell was born in London, England, on 3 February 1853 and his mother was Isabella Clarisa Davies, daughter of William Griffith Davies, of Penylan, Carmarthenshire. He was educated at Harrow and University College, though he entered University College as a Scholar, he obtained only a Pass degree. Ill-health, particularly myelitis, put paid to any chance of academic distinction, Russell was Liberal Member of Parliament for Aylesbury from 1880 to 1885. and for Biggleswade from 1892-1895. He was appointed by William Ewart Gladstone as Parliamentary Secretary to the Local Government Board from 1883 to 1885, under Lord Rosebery he was Under-Secretary of State for the Home Department from 1894 to 1895. He was an Alderman on London County Council from 1889 to 1895 and he was appointed a Privy Counsellor in 1907, and held the honorary degree of LLD from St Andrews University. He was the author of the biography The Right Honourable William Ewart Gladstone, Russell was a journalist by profession, and a close ally of the Grand Old Man, a home ruler, when Gladstone presented the bill to the Commons for the second time on 13 February 1893.
Russell died, unmarried, at 18 Wilton Street, London, on 17 March 1919, aged 66
John Ruskin was the leading English art critic of the Victorian era, as well as an art patron, watercolourist, a prominent social thinker and philanthropist. He wrote on subjects as varied as geology, myth, literature, education and his writing styles and literary forms were equally varied. Ruskin penned essays and treatises and lectures, travel guides and manuals, the elaborate style that characterised his earliest writing on art was superseded by a preference for plainer language designed to communicate his ideas more effectively. In all of his writing, he emphasised the connections between nature and society and he made detailed sketches and paintings of rocks, birds and architectural structures and ornamentation. He was hugely influential in the half of the 19th century. After a period of decline, his reputation has steadily improved since the 1960s with the publication of numerous academic studies of his work. Today, his ideas and concerns are widely recognised as having anticipated interest in environmentalism, from the 1850s he championed the Pre-Raphaelites who were influenced by his ideas.
His work increasingly focused on social and political issues, Unto This Last marked the shift in emphasis. In 1869, Ruskin became the first Slade Professor of Fine Art at the University of Oxford, in 1871, he began his monthly letters to the workmen and labourers of Great Britain, published under the title Fors Clavigera. In the course of this complex and deeply personal work, he developed the principles underlying his ideal society, as a result, he founded the Guild of St George, an organisation that endures today. Ruskin was the child of first cousins. His father, John James Ruskin, was a sherry and wine importer founding partner and de facto manager of Ruskin, Telford. John James was born and brought up in Edinburgh, Scotland, to a mother from Glenluce and his wife, Margaret Cox, née Cock, was the daughter of an aunt on the English side of the family and a publican in Croydon. She had joined the Ruskin household when she became companion to John Jamess mother, John James had hoped to practice law, but was instead articled as a clerk in London.
His father, John Thomas Ruskin, described as a grocer, was an inadequate businessman, to save the family from bankruptcy, John James, whose prudence and success were in stark contrast to his father, took on all debts, settling the last of them in 1832. John James and Margaret were engaged in 1809, but opposition to the union from John Thomas, Ruskin was born at 54 Hunter Street, Brunswick Square, south of St Pancras railway station. His childhood was characterised by the influences of his father and mother. John James Ruskin helped to develop his sons Romanticism and they shared a passion for the works of Byron and especially Walter Scott