Skykomish is a town in King County, United States. The population was 198 as of the 2010 census, down from an estimated peak of "several thousand" in the 1920s. Located in the Mount Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest, 49 miles east of Everett, Washington, on the South Fork of the Skykomish River, Skykomish was founded as a railroad town. Today, it is a stopping point for recreational access to the surrounding mountains, including skiing at nearby Stevens Pass. Being located in the far northeastern corner of King County, mountains deny Skykomish any road access to the rest of the county. Instead, U. S. Highway 2 connects it with Snohomish County to the north and through Stevens Pass to Chelan County; the name "Skykomish" derives from the Skykomish or Skai-whamish tribe who inhabited the area before European settlement. The town of Skykomish was incorporated on June 5, 1909. From the 1890s to 1974, Skykomish was a maintenance and fueling station for the Great Northern Railway, which became part of the Burlington Northern Railroad, presently the BNSF Railway.
It was once the western terminus for electric operations on the Cascade Tunnel route all the way to Wenatchee. Here, steam or diesel locomotives were coupled to electric locomotives. Waste disposal practices, common during that era, resulted in the contamination of its soil, its groundwater, the Skykomish River by oil and heavy metals. BNSF and the Washington State Department of Ecology began remediation discussions in the mid-1980s, in 2006, agreed to a plan whereby the railroad would pay up to $50 million to clean up the area over a three-year period; this effort involved massive excavations—essentially removing the contaminated soil and replacing it with clean soil—and the rebuilding of a levee. Twenty two of Skykomish's buildings — both homes and business — were temporarily moved during the cleanup process. After the contaminated soil under them was removed, the buildings were moved back to their original locations on new foundations and utilities connections; the town was restored with modern conveniences such as sidewalks and street lights, but the historic character of Skykomish was maintained.
The greatest benefit of the cleanup to every resident and business in town was the installation of the new Waste Water Treatment system connected to every building. Skykomish is located at 47°42′36″N 121°21′21″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.33 square miles, of which, 0.31 square miles is land and 0.02 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 198 people, 95 households, 45 families residing in the town; the population density was 638.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 168 housing units at an average density of 541.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 95.5% White, 1.0% African American, 1.5% Native American, 1.5% Asian, 0.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.5% of the population. There were 95 households of which 20.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 34.7% were married couples living together, 4.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 8.4% had a male householder with no wife present, 52.6% were non-families.
44.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.08 and the average family size was 2.87. The median age in the town was 51.3 years. 18.2% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 57.1% male and 42.9% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 214 people, 104 households, 58 families residing in the town; the population density was 623.2 people per square mile. There were 162 housing units at an average density of 471.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 94.39% White, 0.47% African American, 1.40% Native American, 0.93% Asian, 2.80% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 2.80% of the population. There were 104 households. 48.1% were married couples living together, 2.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 44.2% were non-families. 34.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.06 and the average family size was 2.66. 18.2% of the town's population was under the age of 18, 5.1% from 18 to 24, 23.8% from 25 to 44, 34.1% from 45 to 64, 18.7% 65 or older. The median age was 46 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 103.5 males. The median income for a household in the town was $45,357, the median income for a family was $48,500. Males had a median income of $42,500 versus $25,938 for females; the per capita income for the town was $22,829. About 3.0% of families and 9.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.6% of those under the age of 18 and none of those 65 or over. Official website Historylink page on Skykomish Skykomish Fire Department Skykomish Historical Society
San Juan Islands National Monument
San Juan Islands National Monument is a U. S. National Monument located in the Salish Sea in the state of Washington; the monument protects archaeological sites of the Coast Salish peoples and relics of early European American settlers in the Pacific Northwest, biodiversity of the island life in the region. The monument was created from existing federal land by President Barack Obama on March 25, 2013 under the Antiquities Act; the national monument consists of 75 separate sites totaling 1,000 acres in area. They are managed by the U. S. Bureau of Land Management as part of the National Landscape Conservation System. "NCA or National Monument? One will protect sooner", San Juan Islander, February 29, 2012 "San Juan Islands National Monument", United States Bureau of Land Management Spokane District Office/Wenatchee Field Office, 2013, retrieved 2013-04-15 BLM Lands of San Juan County, San Juan County Committee for National Conservation Area, September 4, 2010, archived from the original on March 4, 2016, retrieved 2013-04-18 Wilderness character inventory — San Juan archipelago, United States Bureau of Land Management Spokane District Office/Wenatchee Field Office, November 2011, retrieved 2013-04-19 San Juan Islander - daily news site BLM−Bureau of Land Management.gov: official San Juan Islands National Monument website BLM.gov: Factsheet of San Juan Islands National Monument — including map.
Islanders for the San Juan Islands National Monument Presidential Proclamation -- San Juan Islands National Monument, The White House, March 25, 2013
Wild Sky Wilderness
The Wild Sky Wilderness is a 106,577-acre wilderness area in the western Cascade Range of Washington state. The wilderness is within the Mount Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest north of the U. S. Highway 2 towns of Index and Skykomish; the wilderness does not include, the North Fork Skykomish River and the Beckler River. The Henry M. Jackson Wilderness is adjacent to the northeast; the highest point in Wild Sky Wilderness is 6,244 foot Gunn Peak. Until 2014 with the expansion of the Alpine Lakes Wilderness by President Obama, the Wild Sky Wilderness was significant because it was the first new federally designated wilderness in Washington since 1984. Unlike many other wilderness areas in the Cascades, Wild Sky protects significant amounts of high productivity low-elevation forest; the Wild Sky Wilderness required several legislative attempts before becoming law, despite broad local support. Prior to 2007, the Wild Sky bill was blocked in committee by Representative Richard Pombo of California, not reelected in 2006.
President George W. Bush had been receptive to the proposal. In February 2007, Senator Patty Murray and Rep. Rick Larsen introduced legislation to designate the Wild Sky as wilderness; the bill passed the House and had been approved by the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee. Before the bill came to the Senate floor, however, it was put on hold by Oklahoma Republican Tom Coburn, never reached a vote; the Consolidated Natural Resources Act of 2008, creating the Wild Sky Wilderness, was passed by the U. S. Senate on April 10, 2008, passed the U. S. House of Representatives a little less than three weeks on April 29. President Bush signed the Wilderness into law on May 8, 2008; when the Wild Sky Wilderness was first proposed, about 2,000 acres of private land were within its boundaries. Since 2003 the Wilderness Land Trust and Cascade Land Conservancy have purchased about one-third of this amount. Efforts continue to acquire the remaining inholdings. List of U. S. Wilderness Areas Associated Press, "Nethercutt endorses Wild Sky wilderness", Seattle Post-Intelligencer, May 15, 2004 Goldfarb, Sam, "Wild Sky wilderness bill back in Congress", The Seattle Times, February 7, 2007 The Wild Sky Wilderness Proposal, Washington Wild Wild Sky Wilderness, U.
S. Senator Patty Murray The Wilderness Land Trust
Stevens Pass is a mountain pass through the Cascade Mountains located at the border of King County and Chelan County in Washington, United States. U. S. Route 2 travels over the pass; the Pacific Crest Trail crosses the highway at Stevens Pass. The BNSF Railway's Cascade Tunnel lies 1,180 feet below the pass summit; the pass is near Stevens Pass Ski Area, on Cowboy Mountain and Big Chief Mountain. Stevens Pass is named after the first non-indigenous person to discover it. Native Americans familiar with the area knew of the pass, although little is known about Native American routes through the mountains. In 1872 Hubert C. Ward, exploring the area for the Northern Pacific Railway, heard from some Native Americans that there was a low pass at the head of Nason Creek, a tributary of the Wenatchee River, which led to one of the sources of the Skykomish River. In 1887 Albert Bowman Rogers who, like Stevens, was working for the Great Northern Railway learned from Native Americans that the Skykomish River and Nason Creek had sources close to one another but that neither Native Americans nor whites visited the Nason Creek area.
Neither Ward nor Rogers had time to explore the area. In 1890 John Stevens conducted a thorough survey, located the pass, determined it to be the best suited for a railway crossing of the North Cascades, he wrote that there was no indication that the pass was used — there was no sign of any trails, campsites, or old campfires, for at least ten miles in either direction and that the area was thickly forested and covered with impenetrable brush. Steven wrote, "the region promised nothing to the prospector, while Indians and Whites crossing the mountains used either Snoqualmie on the south or the Indian Pass on the north." On February 23, 1910, the two Great Northern Railway trains, the "Seattle Express" local passenger train No. 25 and Fast Mail train No. 27, were stalled on the tracks at the Cascade Tunnel Station on Stevens Pass because of a heavy snow storm and avalanches. On March 1, six days another avalanche pushed both trains 150 feet down into the Tye River Valley, thus burying the train cars in snow and debris.
The Wellington Disaster killed ninety-six people – thirty-five passengers and sixty-one railroad employees – which made the Wellington avalanche one of the worst train disasters in United States history. Over a century an avalanche occurred on February 19, 2012 near Tunnel Creek Canyon Road, killing three of four experienced backcountry skiers, including the Stevens Pass Ski Area's marketing director. Stevens Pass experiences a maritime-influenced alpine subarctic climate, with short, dry summers and heavy winter snowfall; the following chart includes climate data from 10/26/1950 to 4/30/1994. Stevens Pass road conditions from Washington State Department of Transportation Stevens Pass ski area official site
Olympic National Park
Olympic National Park is an American national park located in the State of Washington, on the Olympic Peninsula. The park has four regions: the Pacific coastline, alpine areas, the west side temperate rainforest and the forests of the drier east side. Within the park there are three distinct ecosystems which are subalpine forest and wildflower meadow, temperate forest, the rugged Pacific coast. President Theodore Roosevelt designated Mount Olympus National Monument on 2 March 1909; the monument was redesignated as a national park by Congress and President Franklin Roosevelt on June 29, 1938. In 1976, Olympic National Park was designated by UNESCO as an International Biosphere Reserve, in 1981 as a World Heritage Site. In 1988, Congress designated 95 percent of the park as the Olympic Wilderness; the coastal portion of the park is a sandy beach along with a strip of adjacent forest. It is just a few miles wide, with native communities at the mouths of two rivers; the Hoh River has the Hoh people and at the town of La Push at the mouth of the Quileute River live the Quileute.
The beach has unbroken stretches of wilderness ranging from 10 to 20 miles. While some beaches are sand, others are covered with heavy rock and large boulders. Bushy overgrowth, slippery footing and misty rain forest weather all hinder foot travel; the coastal strip is more accessible than the interior of the Olympics. The most popular piece of the coastal strip is the 9-mile Ozette Loop; the Park Service runs a reservation program to control usage levels of this area. From the trailhead at Ozette Lake, a 3-mile leg of the trail is a boardwalk-enhanced path through near primal coastal cedar swamp. Arriving at the ocean, it is a 3-mile walk supplemented by headland trails for high tides; this area has traditionally been favored by the Makah from Neah Bay. The third 3-mile leg is enabled by a boardwalk. There are thick groves of trees adjacent to the sand, which results in chunks of timber from fallen trees on the beach; the unaltered Hoh River, toward the south end of the park, discharges large amounts of eroded timber and other drift, which moves north, enriching the beaches.
The removal of driftwood – logs, dead-heads and root-wads from streams and beaches was a major domestication measure across North America. Today driftwood deposits form a commanding presence, biologically as well as visually, giving a taste of the original condition of the beach viewable to some extent in early photos. Drift-material comes from a considerable distance; the smaller coastal portion of the park is separated from the larger, inland portion. President Franklin D. Roosevelt had supported connecting them with a continuous strip of park land; the park is known for its unique turbidites. It has exposed turbidities with white calcite veins. Turbidites are rocks or sediments that travel into the ocean as suspended particles in the flow of water, causing a sedimentary layering effect on the ocean floor. Over time the sediments and rock compact and the process repeats as a constant cycle; the park is known for its tectonic mélanges that have been deemed'smell rocks' by the locals due to its strong petroleum odor.
Mélanges are large individual rocks that are large enough that they are accounted for in map drawings. The Olympic mélanges can be as large as a house. Within the center of Olympic National Park rise the Olympic Mountains whose sides and ridgelines are topped with massive, ancient glaciers; the mountains themselves are products of accretionary wedge uplifting related to the Juan De Fuca Plate subduction zone. The geologic composition is a curious mélange of oceanic sedimentary rock; the western half of the range is dominated by the peak of Mount Olympus. Mount Olympus receives a large amount of snow, has the greatest glaciation of any non-volcanic peak in the contiguous United States outside of the North Cascades, it has several glaciers, the largest of, Hoh Glacier at 3.06 miles in length. Looking to the east, the range becomes much drier due to the rain shadow of the western mountains. Here, there are craggy ridges; the tallest summit of this area is Mount Deception, at 7,788 feet. The western side of the park is mantled by temperate rainforests, including the Hoh Rainforest and Quinault Rainforest, which receive annual precipitation of about 150 inches, making this the wettest area in the continental United States.
As opposed to tropical rainforests and most other temperate rainforest regions, the rainforests of the Pacific Northwest are dominated by coniferous trees, including Sitka Spruce, Western Hemlock, Coast Douglas-fir and Western redcedar. Mosses coat the bark of these trees and drip down from their branches in green, moist tendrils. Valleys on the eastern side of the park have notable old-growth forest, but the climate is notably drier. Sitka Spruce is absent, trees on average are somewhat smaller, undergrowth is less dense and different in character. Northeast of the park is a rather small rainshadow area where annual precipitation averages about 16 inches; because the park sits on an isolated peninsula, with a high mountain range dividing it from the land to the south, it developed many endemic plant and animal species (like the Olympic Marmot
Glacier Peak Wilderness
Glacier Peak Wilderness is a 566,057-acre, 35-mile-long, 20-mile-wide wilderness area located within portions of Chelan and Skagit counties in the North Cascades of Washington. The area lies within parts of Wenatchee National Forest and Mount Baker National Forest and is characterized by forested stream courses, steep-sided valleys, dramatic glacier-crowned peaks; the dominant geologic feature of the area is 10,541-foot Glacier Peak. It is the most remote major volcanic peak in the Cascade Range and has more active glaciers than any other place in the lower forty-eight states. Glacier Peak is a volcanic cone of basalt and ash which erupted during periods of heavy glaciation. Glacier Peak Wilderness was created by the U. S. Forest Service in 1960 through the efforts of the North Cascades Conservation Council, four years before the 1964 wilderness legislation of the Congress. Forest vegetation comprises several species of fir, Douglas fir, red cedar as well as stands of mixed pine and Douglas fir on its eastern slopes.
Various species of wildlife inhabit the area and include deer, black bear, mountain goat, cougar and lynx. Smaller animals, such as field mice are common; the last confirmed grizzly bear sighting in the United States portion of the North Cascade ecosystem occurred in this wilderness. The high mountain lakes give good catches of fish during their ice-free months; the primary fishery is cutthroat trout, other species do exist. No roads approach Glacier Peak, many miles of hiking through rough terrain to reach its base. Hikers can reach the volcano from the west via the White Chuck River Valley, or the Suiattle River Valley. Most years the wilderness is still buried under 10 to 20 feet of snow in May. Most trails and passes are snow free by mid-August, but this varies from year to year. Snow and cold rain can occur in mid-summer. Dome Peak Image Lake Ptarmigan Traverse This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the U. S. Forest Service. Glacier Peak Wilderness U. S. Forest Service Glacier Peak Wilderness U.
S. Forest Service Glacier Peak Wilderness Wilderness.net