The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals
The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals is Charles Darwin's third major work of evolutionary theory, following On the Origin of Species and The Descent of Man. Intended as a section of The Descent of Man, it was published separately in 1872 and concerns the biological aspects of emotional life. In this book, Darwin sets out some early ideas about behavioural genetics, explores the animal origins of such human characteristics as the lifting of the eyebrows in moments of surprise and the mental confusion which accompanies blushing. A German translation of The Expression appeared in 1872. A second edition of the book, with only minor alterations, was published in 1890. Before Darwin, human emotional life had posed problems to the western philosophical categories of mind and body. Darwin's interest can be traced to his time as a medical student and the 1824 reprint of Sir Charles Bell's Anatomy and Philosophy of Expression which argued for a spiritual dimension to the subject. In contrast, Darwin's biological approach links mental states to the coordination of movement, allows cultural factors only an auxiliary role in the shaping of expression.
This biological emphasis leads to a concentration on six emotional states: happiness, fear, anger and disgust. It leads to an appreciation of the universal nature of expression, with its implication of a single origin for the entire human species. Darwin sought out the opinions of some leading British psychiatrists, notably James Crichton-Browne, in the preparation of the book which forms his main contribution to psychology. Amongst the innovations with this book are Darwin's circulation of a questionnaire during his preparatory research. Publisher John Murray warned Darwin that including the photographs would "poke a hole in the profits" of the book. Background: In the weeks before Queen Victoria's coronation in 1838, Charles Darwin sought medical advice on his mysterious physical symptoms, travelled to Scotland for a period of rest and a "geologizing expedition" – but spent some of his time re-exploring the old haunts of his undergraduate days. On the day of the coronation, 28 June 1838, Darwin was in Edinburgh.
A few days he opened a private notebook with philosophical and psychological speculation – the M Notebook – and, over the next three months, filled it with his thoughts about possible interaction of hereditary factors with the mental and behavioural aspects of life. It should be noted that Darwin made his first attempt at autobiography in August 1838; the critical importance of the M Notebook has been viewed in its relationship to Darwin's conception of natural selection as the central mechanism of evolutionary development, which he grasped some time around September 1838. These notes have a tentative and fragmented quality in Darwin's descriptions of conversation with his father about recurring patterns of behaviour in successive generations of his patients' families. Darwin was anxious about the materialistic drift in his thinking – and of the disrepute which this could attract in early Victorian England – at the time, he was mentally preparing for marriage with his cousin Emma Wedgwood who held firm Christian beliefs.
On 21 September 1838, Darwin recorded a confused and disturbing dream in which he was involved in a public execution where the corpse came to life and claimed to have faced death like a hero. In summary: Darwin put together the central features of his evolutionary theory at the same time that he was considering a scientific understanding of human behaviour and family life – and he was in some emotional turmoil. A discussion of the significance of Darwin's early notebooks can be found in Paul H. Barrett's Metaphysics and the Evolution of Mind – Early Writings of Charles Darwin. Mental qualities are determined by the size and constitution of the brain: and these are transmitted by hereditary descent. One is tempted to believe phrenologists are right about habitual exercise of the mind altering form of head, thus these qualities become hereditary.... When a man says I will improve my powers of imagination, does so, – is not this free will?... To avoid stating how far I believe in Materialism, say only that emotions, degrees of talent, which are hereditary are so because brain of child resembles parent stock –....
Development of the Text 1866 - 1872: Very little of Darwin's turmoil surfaced in On the Origin of Species in 1859, although Chapter 7 contains a mildly expressed argument on instinctive behaviour. In the public management of his evolutionary theory, Darwin understood that its relevance to human emotional life could draw a hostile response. While preparing the text of The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication in 1866, Darwin took the decision to publish a book on human ancestry, sexual selection and emotional life. After his initial correspondence with the psychiatrist James Crichton-Browne, Darwin set aside his material concerning emotional expression in order to complete The Descent of Man, which covered human ancestry and sexual selection. Darwin
Sir James Crichton-Browne MD FRS FRSE was a leading British psychiatrist and medical psychologist. He is known for studies on the relationship of mental illness to brain injury and for the development of public health policies in relation to mental health. Crichton-Browne's father was the asylum reformer Dr William A. F. Browne, a prominent member of the Edinburgh Phrenological Society and, from 1838 until 1857, the superintendent of the Crichton Royal at Dumfries where Crichton-Browne spent much of his childhood. Crichton-Browne edited the influential West Riding Lunatic Asylum Medical Reports, he was one of Charles Darwin's major collaborators – on The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals – and, like Duchenne de Boulogne and Hugh Welch Diamond in Surrey, was a pioneer of neuropsychiatric photography. He based himself at the West Riding Lunatic Asylum in Wakefield from 1866 to 1875, there he taught psychiatry to students from the nearby Leeds School of Medicine and, with David Ferrier, transformed the asylum into a world centre for neuropsychology.
Crichton-Browne served as Lord Chancellor's Visitor from 1875 till 1922. Throughout his career, Crichton-Browne emphasised the asymmetrical aspects of the human brain and behaviour. In 1920, Crichton-Browne delivered the first Maudsley Lecture to the Medico-Psychological Association in the course of which he outlined his recollections of Henry Maudsley. In 2015, UNESCO listed Crichton-Browne's clinical papers and photographs as items of international cultural importance. Crichton-Browne was born in Edinburgh at the family home of Magdalene Howden Balfour, she was the daughter of Dr Andrew Balfour and belonged to one of Scotland's foremost scientific families. The Balfour home had been constructed in 1770 for the unmarried geologist James Hutton, Magdalene Balfour's great-uncle. Crichton-Browne's father, the asylum reformer William A. F. Browne, was a prominent phrenologist and his younger brother, John Hutton Balfour-Browne KC, wrote a classic account of the legal relations of insanity. Crichton-Browne spent much of his childhood at The Crichton Royal in Dumfries where his father was the medical superintendent from 1838 to 1857.
William A. F. Browne was a pioneering Victorian psychiatrist and an exponent of moral treatment with an interest in the psychological lives of his patients as illustrated by their group activities and art-works. W. A. F. Browne hoarded a huge collection of patient art and this interest found a parallel in Crichton-Browne's asylum photography. In his childhood, Crichton-Browne lost an older brother, William in 1846, he went to school at Dumfries Academy and in line with his mother's episcopalian outlook, to Glenalmond College. Shortly before his death, Crichton-Browne wrote a valuable account of his Dumfries childhood, including the visit of the American asylum reformer Dorothea Lynde Dix. Crichton-Browne studied Medicine at Edinburgh University, qualifying as an MD in 1862 with a thesis on hallucinations. Among his teachers was his father's friend Thomas Laycock whose magnum opus Mind and Brain is an extended speculative essay on neurology and psychological life. Crichton-Browne drew on the writings of the physicians Sir Andrew Halliday and Sir Henry Holland.
Like his father, Crichton-Browne was elected one of the undergraduate Presidents of the Royal Medical Society and, in this capacity, he argued for the place of psychology in the medical curriculum. In 1863, he visited a number of asylums in Paris, after working as assistant physician at asylums in Exeter and Derby, a brief period on Tyneside, Crichton-Browne was appointed Physician-Superintendent of the West Riding Pauper Lunatic Asylum at Wakefield in 1866; this was the year in which his father served as the President of the Medico-Psychological Association. Ferrier's neurology: Crichton-Browne spent ten years at the West Riding Asylum, he believed that the asylum should be an educational as well as a therapeutic institution and set about a major research programme, bringing biological insights to bear on the causes of insanity. He supervised hundreds of post-mortem examinations of the brain and took a special interest in the clinical features of neurosyphilis. In 1872, Crichton-Browne developed his father's phrenological theories by inviting the Scottish neurologist David Ferrier to direct the asylum laboratories and to conduct studies on the cortical localization of cerebral functions..
Ferrier's work at Wakefield transformed the asylum into a world centre for neuropsychiatry and he summarised his research in the neurological classic The Functions of the Brain. Darwin's correspondence: At the instigation of Henry Maudsley, Crichton-Browne corresponded with Charles Darwin from May 1869 until December 1875; the bulk of the correspondence occurred during the preparation of Crichton-Browne's famous West Riding Lunatic Asylum Medical Reports and of Darwin's The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. On 8 June 1869, Darwin sen
Bénédict Augustin Morel was a French psychiatrist born in Vienna, Austria. He was an influential figure in the field of degeneration theory during the mid-19th century. Morel was born in Austria in 1809, of French parents. In the aftermath of the War of the Sixth Coalition Morel was abandoned by his parents, left with the Luxembourgish Abbé Dupont and his servant Marianne, who raised him. Morel received his education in Paris, while a student, supplemented his income by teaching English and German classes. In 1839 he earned his medical doctorate, two years became an assistant to psychiatrist Jean-Pierre Falret at the Salpêtrière in Paris. Morel's interest in psychiatry was further enhanced in the mid-1840s when he visited several mental institutions throughout Europe. In 1848 he was appointed director of the Asile d'Aliénés de Maréville at Nancy. Here he introduced reforms towards the welfare of the mentally ill, in particular liberalization of restraining practices. At the Maréville asylum he studied the mentally handicapped, researching their family histories and investigating aspects such as poverty and childhood physical illnesses.
In 1856 he was appointed director of the mental asylum at Saint-Yon in Rouen. Morel, influenced by various pre-Darwinian theories of evolution those that attributed a powerful role to acclimation, saw mental deficiency as the end stage of a process of mental deterioration. In the 1850s, he developed a theory of "degeneration" in regards to mental problems that take place from early life to adulthood. In 1857 he published Traité des dégénérescences physiques, intellectuelles et morales de l'espèce humaine et des causes qui produisent ces variétés maladives, a treatise in which he explains the nature and indications of human degeneration. Morel looked for answers to mental illness in heredity, although on he believed that alcohol and drug usage could be important factors in the course of mental decline. In the first volume of his Études cliniques Morel used the term démence précoce in passing to describe the characteristics of a subset of young patients, he employed the phrase more in his textbook Traité des maladies mentales, published in 1860.
Morel used the term in a descriptive sense and not to define a specific and novel diagnostic category. It was applied as a means of setting apart a group of young men and women who were suffering from "stupor." As such their condition was characterised by a certain torpor and disorder of the will and was related to the diagnostic category of melancholia. His understanding of dementia was a traditional and distinctly non-modern one in the sense that he did not conceptualise it as irreversible state. While some have sought to interpret, if in a qualified fashion, Morel's reference to démence précoce as amounting to the "discovery" of schizophrenia, others have argued convincingly that Morel's descriptive use of the term should not be considered in any sense as a precursor to the German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin's dementia praecox disease concept; this is due to the fact that their concepts of dementia differed from each other, with Kraepelin employing the more modern sense of the word, that Morel was not describing a diagnostic category.
Indeed, until the advent of Arnold Pick and Kraepelin, Morel's term had vanished without a trace and there is little evidence to suggest that either Pick or indeed Kraepelin were aware of Morel's use of the term until long after they had published their own disease concepts bearing the same name. As Eugène Minkowski succinctly stated,'An abyss separates Morel's démence précoce from that of Kraepelin.' Morel is known for creating degeneration theory in the 1850s. He began to develop his theory while he was the director of the mental asylum at Saint-Yon in northern France. In 19th century France, there was an increase in crime and mental disorders, which interested Morel, he was determined to identify the underlying causes of this increase. Morel's Catholic and radical political background shaped his process. Morel noticed that the patients in the mental asylum with mental retardation had physical abnormalities like goiters, he was able to expand this idea when he noticed most people in the asylum had unusual physical characteristics.
Morel's degeneration theory was based on the idea that psychological disorders and other behavioral abnormalities were caused by an abnormal constitution. This meant that he believed that there was a perfect type of human that degenerations altered, he believed that these abnormalities could be inherited and that there was a progressive worsening of the degeneration by generation. These traits were not specified pathologies, but rather an overall abnormality like a susceptible nervous system to disturbances from excessive toxins; the first generation started with neurosis in the next generation, mental alienation. After the second generation, the mental alienation led to imbecility; the fourth generation was destined to be sterile. In Morel's theory, degeneration was synonymous with anything, different from the natural or normal state; these abnormalities were caused by environmental influences like diet and moral depravities or traits that were passed from generation to generation like alcoholism and living in the slums.
Due to the law of progressivity, these degenerations would get worse in each generation to produce more criminals and neurotics with worse degenerations. Over time, the degenerations would progress until generations were so idiotic that they were sterile and the abnormal family would die out; this theory explained why there was an increase
John Bale was an English churchman and controversialist, Bishop of Ossory. He wrote the oldest known historical verse drama in English, developed and published a extensive list of the works of British authors down to his own time, just as the monastic libraries were being dispersed, his unhappy disposition and habit of quarrelling earned him the nickname "bilious Bale". He was born near Dunwich in Suffolk. At the age of twelve he joined the Carmelite friars at Norwich, removing to the house of "Holme", he entered Jesus College and took his degree of B. D. in 1529. He became the last Prior of the Ipswich Carmelite house, elected in 1533, he abandoned his monastic vocation, got married, saying, "that I might never more serve so execrable a beast, I took to wife the faithful Dorothy." He obtained the living of Thorndon, but in 1534 was summoned before the Archbishop of York for a sermon against the invocation of saints preached at Doncaster, afterwards before John Stokesley, Bishop of London, but he escaped through the powerful protection of Thomas Cromwell, whose notice he is said to have attracted by his miracle plays.
In these plays Bale denounced the monastic system and its supporters in unrestrained language and coarse imagery. The prayer of Infidelitas which opens the second act of his Three Laws is an example of his profane parody; these somewhat brutal productions were intended to impress popular feeling, Cromwell found in him an invaluable instrument. When Cromwell fell from favour in 1540, Bale fled with his wife and children to Antwerp, he returned on the accession of King Edward VI, received the living of Bishopstoke, being promoted in 1552 to the Irish see of Ossory. He refused to be consecrated by the Roman Catholic rites of the Irish church, won his point, though the Dean of Dublin made a protest against the revised office during the ceremony, he quarrelled bitterly with the aged and respected judge Thomas St. Lawrence, who travelled to Kilkenny to urge the people to reject his innovations; when the accession of Queen Mary inaugurated a violent reaction in matters of religion, he was forced to get out of the country again.
He tried to escape to Scotland, but on the voyage was captured by a Dutch man-of-war, driven by bad weather into St Ives, Cornwall. Bale was soon released. At Dover he had another narrow escape, but he made his way to the Netherlands and thence to Frankfurt and Basel. During his exile he devoted himself to writing. After his return, on the accession of Queen Elizabeth I, he received a prebendal stall at Canterbury, where he died and was buried in the cathedral. John Bale attacked his enemies with vehemence and scurrility, much of, directed and forcibly against the Roman Catholic Church and its writers: but this cavill does not diminish the value of his contributions to literature. Of his mysteries and miracle plays only five have been preserved, but the titles of the others, quoted by himself in his Catalogus, show that they were animated by the same political and religious aims; the Three Laws of Nature and Christ, corrupted by the Sodomytes and Papystes most wicked was a morality play. The direction for the dressing of the parts is instructive: "Let Idolatry be decked like an old witch, Sodomy like a monk of all sects, Ambition like a bishop, Covetousness like a Pharisee or spiritual lawyer, False Doctrine like a popish doctor, Hypocrisy like a gray friar."
A Tragedye. Bale is a figure of some literary-dramatic importance as the author of Kynge Johan, which marks the transition between the old morality play and the English historical drama, it does not appear to have directly influenced the creators of the chronicle histories, but it is remarkable that such a developed attempt at historical drama should have been made fourteen years before the production of Gorboduc. Kynge Johan is itself a polemic against the Roman Catholic Church. King John is represented; some view Bale's most important work as being Illustrium majoris Britanniae scriptorum, hoc est, Cambriae, ac Scotiae Summarium... published at Ipswich and Wesel for John Overton in 1548, 1549. This contained authors through five centuries: however, another edition entirely rewritten and containing fourteen centuries, was printed at Basel with the title Scriptorum illustrium majoris Britanniae... Catalogus in 1557–1559; this chronological catalogue of British authors and their works was founded on the De uiris illustribus of John Leland.
Bale was an indefatigable collector and worker, examined many of the valuable libraries of the Augustinian and Carmelite houses before their dissolution. His work contains much information, his autograph note-book is preserved in the Selden Collection of the Bodleian Oxford. It contains the materials collected for his two published catalogues arranged alphabetically
John Conolly was an English psychiatrist. He published the volume Indications of Insanity in 1830. In 1839, he was appointed resident physician to the Middlesex County Asylum where he introduced the principle of non-restraint into the treatment of the insane, which led to non-restraint became accepted practice throughout England. With colleagues he founded the'Provincial Medical and Surgical Association', founded the'British and Foreign Medical Review, or, A Quarterly Journal of Practical Medicine'. Conolly was born at Lincolnshire, of an Irish family, he spent four years as a lieutenant in the Cambridgeshire Militia and lived for a year in France before embarking on a medical career. He graduated with an MD degree at University of Edinburgh in 1821. After practising at Lewes and Stratford-on-Avon successively, he was appointed professor of the practice of medicine at University College, London, in 1828. In 1830 he published a work on the Indications of Insanity, soon afterwards settled at Warwick.
In 1832 in co-operation with Sir Charles Hastings and Sir John Forbes, he founded a small medical association with a view to raising the standard of provincial practice called the Provincial Medical and Surgical Association. His brother William Brice Conolly became the association's'Widows and Orphans Benevolent Fund' treasurer and secretary. In years this grew in importance and membership, became the British Medical Association. Conolly and Forbes went on to start a new publication in 1836: the'British and Foreign Medical Review, or, A Quarterly Journal of Practical Medicine', for which they shared the editorship from 1836 to 1839, it was the first publication of its type, aimed at sharing newly-won medical knowledge. The Review was read in Europe and America, helped to promote modern methods of treatment and to enhance the reputation of British medicine; the BMA library still holds a complete set of its volumes. In 1839, Conolly was appointed resident physician to the Middlesex County Asylum at Hanwell.
In this capacity, he introduced the principle of non-restraint into the treatment of the insane. This principle had been put into practice in two small English asylums—William Tuke's York Retreat and the Lincoln Asylum—but it was due to Conolly's courage in sweeping away all mechanical restraint in a great metropolitan asylum and in the face of strong opposition, that non-restraint became accepted practice throughout the country. In 1844 Conolly ceased to be resident physician at Hanwell, but he remained visiting physician until 1852. On 21 July 1852, the honorary degree of Doctor of Civil Law was conferred on Conolly together with his two friends Dr John Forbes and Dr Charles Hastings. Conolly died on 5 March 1866 at Hanwell, where in the part of his life he had a private asylum called Lawn House, his gravestone can still be seen in Uxbridge Road, Ealing. Conolly married Elizabeth Collins, daughter of naval captain Sir John Collins, by whom he had four children, their only son, Edward Tennyson Conolly, was born whilst Conolly was working at Chichester in Sussex.
Edward became a lawyer, having been called to the Bar on 30 January 1852. In 1865 he emigrated with his family to New Zealand. There he continued to practise law and became active in politics. In line with his father's concerns for humane treatment of the mentally ill, he introduced the concept of rehabilitation to the New Zealand penal system, he was interred in the City of Westminster Cemetery. John Conolly's second daughter, Sophia Jane, married Thomas Harrington Tuke in 1852. Tuke ran a private Lunatic Asylum at Manor House in Middlesex. Conolly's youngest child, married Henry Maudsley when she was thirty-six, just two months before her father's death. Conolly's obituary was shocked many by its unusually unsympathetic tone. Henry Maudsley had by taken over the running of Lawn House. Ann predeceased Maudsley on 9 February 1911 at the age of 81. Conolly, John. An Inquiry concerning the Indications of Insanity, with Suggestions for the Better Protection and Care of the Insane. London: John Taylor.
Conolly, John. The construction and government of lunatic asylums and hospitals for the insane. London: John Churchill. Conolly, John; the Treatment of the Insane without Mechanical Restraints. London: Smith, Elder & Co.. German translation by Caspar Max Brosius as Die Behandlung der Irren ohne mechanischen Zwang. London. 1860. The Indications of Insanity with an introduction by Richard Hunter and Ida MacAlpine. Psychiatric Monograph Series 4 Conolly, John. A study of Hamlet. London: Edward Moxon. Scull, Andrew Social Order/Mental Disorder: Anglo-American Psychiatry in Historical Perspective. John Conolly: A Victorian Psychiatric Career. Berkeley: University of California Press. Accessed 2007-09-21 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Conolly, John". Encyclopædia Britannica. 6. Cambridge University Press. P. 694
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.