Henry Mackenzie FRSE was a Scottish lawyer and writer. He was known by the sobriquet "Addison of the North." While Mackenzie is now remembered as an author, his principal income came from legal roles, ending in 1804–1831 with a lucrative post as Comptroller of Taxes for Scotland, which allowed him to indulge his interest in writing. Mackenzie was born at Liberton Wynd in Edinburgh on 26 July 1745, his father, Dr Joshua Mackenzie, was a distinguished Edinburgh physician and his mother, Margaret Rose, belonged to an old Nairnshire family. Mackenzie was educated at the High School and studied Law at University of Edinburgh, he was articled to George Inglis of Redhall, attorney for the crown in the management of exchequer business. Inglis had his Edinburgh office on Niddry Wynd, off the Royal Mile, a short distance from Mackenzie's family home. In 1765 he was sent to London for his legal studies, on his return to Edinburgh he set up his own legal office at Cowhatehead off the Grassmarket as a partner with Inglis, while he concurrently acted as attorney for the crown.
Mackenzie had tried for several years to interest publishers in what would become his first and most famous work, The Man of Feeling, but they would not accept it. Mackenzie published it anonymously in 1771, to instant success; the "Man of Feeling" is a weak creature, dominated by futile benevolence, who goes up to London and falls into the hands of those who exploit his innocence. The sentimental key in the book shows the author's acquaintance with Sterne and Richardson, but, in Sir Walter Scott's summary assessment, his work lacked the story construction and character of these writers. A clergyman from Bath named Eccles claimed authorship of the book, bringing in support for his pretensions a manuscript full of changes and erasures. Mackenzie's name was officially announced, but Eccles appears to have induced some people to believe him. In 1773 Mackenzie published a second novel, The Man of the World, whose hero was as bad as the "Man of Feeling" had been "constantly obedient to every emotion of his moral sense," as Sir Walter Scott put it.
Julia de Roubigné is an epistolary novel. The first of his dramatic pieces, The Prince of Tunis, was staged in Edinburgh in 1773 with some measure of success, but others were failures. In Edinburgh Mackenzie belonged to a literary club, at whose meetings papers in the manner of The Spectator were read; this led to the establishment of a weekly periodical, the Mirror, of which Mackenzie was editor and chief contributor. It was followed in 1785 by a similar paper, the Lounger, which ran for nearly two years and included one of the earliest tributes to the genius of Robert Burns. In 1783 he was a joint founder of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, serving as its Literary President in 1812–1828 and its Vice President in 1828–1831. Mackenzie was an ardent Tory, he wrote many tracts intended to counteract doctrines of the French Revolution, contributing to the Edinburgh Herald under the pseudonym "Brutus". Most of them remained anonymous, but he acknowledged his Review of the Principal Proceedings of the Parliament of 1784, a defence of the policy of William Pitt written at the desire of Henry Dundas.
He was rewarded by the office of comptroller of the taxes for Scotland. In 1776 Mackenzie married Penuel, daughter of Sir Ludovich Grant of Grant, they had eleven children. He was, in his years, a notable figure in Edinburgh society, he was nicknamed the "man of feeling," but in reality a hard-headed man of affairs with a kindly heart. Some of his literary reminiscences appeared in his Account of the Life and Writings of John Home, Esq.. He wrote a Life of Doctor Blacklock, prefixed to the 1793 edition of the poet's works. In 1807 The Works of Henry Mackenzie were published surreptitiously, he himself superintended the publication of his Works. There is an admiring but discriminating criticism of his work in the Prefatory Memoir prefixed by Sir Walter Scott to an edition of his novels in Ballantyne's Novelist's Library. Mackenzie died at home, in the huge Georgian town house of 6 Heriot Row, on 14 January 1831, he is buried at Greyfriars Kirkyard, Edinburgh, in a grave facing north in the centre of the north retaining wall.
Mackenzie's 1776 marriage to Penuel Grant, daughter of Sir Ludovic Grant.] Made him uncle by marriage to Lewis Grant-Ogilvy, 5th Earl of Seafield. His eldest son, Joshua Henry Mackenzie was a senator of the College of Justice known as Lord MacKenzie, buried with his father in Greyfriars Kirkyard. Two other sons and William, worked for the East India Company, he had two daughters and Hope. His nephew, Joshua Henry Davidson was First Physician in Scotland to Queen Victoria; the Man of Feeling The Man of the World Julia de Roubigné The Prince of Tunis Review of the Principal Proceedings of the Parliament of 1784 Account of the Life and Writings of John Home, Esq. Life of Doctor Blacklock In 1779/80 he was editor of The Mirror and in 1785–1787 of The Lounger; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Mackenzie, Henry". Encyclopædia Britannica. 17. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 252–253. Gale Group - Eighteenth-Century Collections Online British Authors Before 1800: A Biographical Dictionary, edited by Stanley J. Kunitz and Howard Haycraft, New York, the H. W. Wilson Company, 1952.
Works by Henry Mackenzie at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Henry Mackenzie at Internet Archive
David Wilkie (artist)
Sir David Wilkie was a British painter known for his genre scenes. He painted in a wide variety of genres, including historical scenes, including formal royal ones, scenes from his travels to Europe and the Middle East, his main base was in London, but he died and was buried at sea, off Gibraltar, returning from his first trip to the Middle East. He was sometimes known as the "people's painter", he was Principal Painter in Ordinary to King William Queen Victoria. Apart from royal portraits, his best-known painting today is The Chelsea Pensioners reading the Waterloo Dispatch of 1822 in Apsley House. David Wilkie was born in Pitlessie Fife in Scotland on 18 November 1785, he was the son of the parish minister of Fife. Caroline Wilkie was a relative, he developed a love for art at an early age. In 1799, after he had attended school at Pitlessie and Cupar, his father reluctantly agreed to his becoming a painter. Through the influence of the Earl of Leven Wilkie was admitted to the Trustees' Academy in Edinburgh, began the study of art under John Graham.
From William Allan and John Burnet, the engraver of Wilkie's works, we have an interesting account of his early studies, of his indomitable perseverance and power of close application, of his habit of haunting fairs and marketplaces, transferring to his sketchbook all that struck him as characteristic and telling in figure or incident, of his admiration for the works of Alexander Carse and David Allan, two Scottish painters of scenes from humble life. Among his pictures of this period might be mentioned a subject from Macbeth, Ceres in Search of Proserpine, Diana and Calisto, which in 1803 gained a premium of ten guineas at the Trustees' Academy, while his pencil portraits of himself and his mother, dated that year, now in the possession of the Duke of Buccleuch, prove that Wilkie had attained considerable certainty of touch and power of rendering character. A scene from Allan Ramsay, a sketch from Hector Macneill's ballad Scotland's Skaith, afterwards developed into the well-known Village Politicians.
In 1804, Wilkie returned to Cults. He established himself in the manse there, began his first important subject-picture, Pitlessie Fair, which includes about 140 figures, in which he introduced portraits of his neighbours and of several members of his family circle. In addition to this elaborate figure-piece, Wilkie was much employed at the time upon portraits, both at home and in Kinghorn, St Andrews and Aberdeen. In the spring of 1805 he left Scotland for London, carrying with him his Bounty-Money, or the Village Recruit, which he soon disposed of for £6, began to study in the schools of the Royal Academy. One of his first patrons in London was Robert Stodart, a pianoforte maker, a distant connection of the Wilkie family, who commissioned his portrait and other works and introduced the young artist to the dowager countess of Mansfield; this lady's son was the purchaser of the Village Politicians, which attracted great attention when it was exhibited in the Royal Academy of 1806, where it was followed in the succeeding year by The Blind Fiddler, a commission from the painter's lifelong friend Sir George Beaumont.
Wilkie now turned to historical scenes, painted his Alfred in the Neatherd's Cottage, for the gallery illustrative of English history, being formed by Alexander Davison. After its completion he returned to genre-painting, producing the Card-Players and the admirable picture of the Rent Day, composed during recovery from a fever contracted in 1807 while on a visit to his native village, his next great work was the Ale-House Door, afterwards entitled The Village Festival, purchased by John Julius Angerstein for 800 guineas. It was followed in 1813 by the well-known Blind Man's Buff, a commission from the Prince Regent, to which a companion picture, the Penny Wedding, was added in 1818. In November 1809 he was elected an associate of the Royal Academy, when he had hardly attained the age prescribed by its laws, in February 1811 he became a full Academician. In 1812 he opened an exhibition of his collected works in Pall Mall, but the experiment was financially unsuccessful. In 1814 he executed the Letter of Introduction, one of the most delicately finished and perfect of his cabinet pictures.
In the same year he made his first visit to the continent, in Paris entered upon a profitable and delighted study of the works of art collected in the Louvre. Interesting particulars of the time are preserved in his own matter-of-fact diary, in the more sprightly and flowing pages of the journal of Benjamin Haydon, his fellow traveller and brother Cedomir. On his return he began Distraining for one of the most popular and dramatic of his works. In 1816 he made a tour through Netherlands and Belgium in company with Raimbach, the engraver of many of his paintings; the Sir Walter Scott and his Family, a cabinet-sized picture with small full-length figures in the dress of Scottish peasants, was the result of a visit to Abbotsford in 1817. Reading the Will, a commission from the king of Bavaria, now in the New Pinakothek at Munich, was completed in 1820. In 1822 Wilkie visited Edinburgh, in order to select from the Visit of King George IV to Scotland a fitting subject for a picture; the Reception of the King at the Entrance of Holyrood Palace was the incident c
Allan Ramsay (artist)
Allan Ramsay was a prominent Scottish portrait-painter. Allan Ramsay was born in Edinburgh, the eldest son of Allan Ramsay and author of The Gentle Shepherd. From the age of twenty he studied in London under the Swedish painter Hans Hysing, at the St. Martin's Lane Academy. On his return in 1738 to the British Isles, he first settled in Edinburgh, attracting attention by his head of Duncan Forbes of Culloden and his full-length portrait of the Duke of Argyll used on Royal Bank of Scotland banknotes, he moved to London, where he was employed by the Duke of Bridgewater. His pleasant manners and varied culture, not less than his artistic skill, contributed to render him popular, his only serious competitor was Thomas Hudson, with whom he shared a drapery painter, Joseph van Aken. In 1739 he married his first wife, Anne Bayne, the daughter of Alexander Bayne of Rires, Mary Carstairs. Anne died on 4 February 1743. One of his drawing pupils was Margaret Lindsay, eldest daughter of Sir Alexander Lindsay of Evelick and Amelia Murray.
He eloped with her and on 1 March 1752 they married in the Canongate Kirk, Edinburgh. Ramsay had to maintain a daughter from his previous marriage and his two surviving sisters, but told Sir Alexander that he could provide Margaret with an annual income of £100, he said it would increase ‘as my affairs increase, I thank God, they are in a way of increasing’ and that his only motive for the marriage was ‘my love for your Daughter, who, I am sensible, is entitled to much more than I shall have to bestow upon her’. Three children survived from their long and happy marriage, Amelia and John. Ramsay and his new wife spent 1754 to 1757 together in Italy, going to Rome, Florence and Tivoli, researching and drawing old masters and archaeological sites, he earned income painting Grand Tourists' portraits. This and other trips to Italy involved more antiquarian research than art. After their return, Ramsay in 1761 was appointed to succeed John Shackelton as Principal Painter in Ordinary to George III, beating Hudson to the post.
The king commissioned so many royal portraits to be given to ambassadors and colonial governors, that Ramsay used the services of numerous assistants—of whom David Martin and Philip Reinagle are the best known. He gave up painting in about 1770 to concentrate on literary pursuits, his health was shattered by an accidental dislocation of the right arm and his second wife's death in 1782. With unflinching pertinacity, he struggled until he had completed a likeness of the king upon which he was engaged at the time, started for his beloved Italy, he left a series of 50 royal portraits to be completed by his assistant Reinagle. For several years he lingered in the south, his constitution broken, he died at Dover on 10 August 1784. Ramsay was a friend of Samuel Johnson's. You will not find a man in whose conversation there is more instruction, more information, more elegance, than in Ramsay's.' Among his most satisfactory productions are some of his earlier ones, such as the full-length of the duke of Argyll, the numerous bust-portraits of Scottish gentlemen and their ladies which he executed before settling in London.
They are full of both individuality. His full-length of Lady Mary Coke is remarkable for the skill and delicacy with which the white satin drapery is managed; the portrait of his wife shows the influence of French art, which Ramsay incorporated into his work. The large collection of his sketches in the possession of the Royal Scottish Academy and the Board of Trustees, Edinburgh show this French elegance and soft colours. In a documentary broadcast by the BBC in February 2014, Ramsay was shown to be the artist who painted the lost portrait of Charles Edward Stuart in 1745, completed on the verge of his invasion of England. Ramsay has paintings in the collection of a few British institutions including the National Gallery in London, Derby Art Gallery, Glasgow Museum and Newstead Abbey. According to Mario de Valdes y Cocom in 2009 on an edition of PBS Frontline, in several paintings of Queen Charlotte, Ramsay deliberately emphasised "mulatto features" which the queen inherited via descent from a 13th-century Moorish ancestor.
Valdes suggests that copies of these paintings were sent to the colonies to be used by abolitionists as a de facto support for their cause. Other historians question whether the 13th-century ancestor, referred to in various places as a'Moor' and Berber, was black African. In any event, they contend that the connection, nine and 15 generations removed, was too distant to consider Charlotte'black' in any cultural way, as her other ancestors were all European. Allan Ramsay's works A Dialogue on Taste 1762.
See Portrait for more about the general topic of portraits. Portrait painting is a genre in painting; the term'portrait painting' can describe the actual painted portrait. Portraitists may create their work by commission, for public and private persons, or they may be inspired by admiration or affection for the subject. Portraits are important state and family records, as well as remembrances. Portrait paintings have memorialized the rich and powerful. Over time, however, it became more common for middle-class patrons to commission portraits of their families and colleagues. Today, portrait paintings are still commissioned by governments, groups and individuals. In addition to painting, portraits can be made in other media such as prints, photography and digital media. A well-executed portrait is expected to show the inner essence of the subject or a flattering representation, not just a literal likeness; as Aristotle stated, "The aim of Art is to present not the outward appearance of things, but their inner significance.
Artists may strive for photographic realism or an impressionistic similarity in depicting their subject, but this differs from a caricature which attempts to reveal character through exaggeration of physical features. The artist attempts a representative portrayal, as Edward Burne-Jones stated, "The only expression allowable in great portraiture is the expression of character and moral quality, not anything temporary, fleeting, or accidental."In most cases, this results in a serious, closed lip stare, with anything beyond a slight smile being rather rare historically. Or as Charles Dickens put it, "there are only two styles of portrait painting: the serious and the smirk." Given these limitations, a full range of subtle emotions is possible from quiet menace to gentle contentment. However, with the mouth neutral, much of the facial expression needs to be created through the eyes and eyebrows; as author and artist Gordon C. Aymar states, "the eyes are the place one looks for the most complete and pertinent information" about the subject.
And the eyebrows can register, "almost single-handedly, pity, pain, concentration, wistfulness and expectation, in infinite variations and combinations."Portrait painting can depict the subject "full-length", "half-length", "head and shoulders", or just the head. The subject's head may turn from "full face" to profile. Artists have created composites with views from multiple directions, as with Anthony van Dyck's triple portrait of Charles I in Three Positions. There are a few portraits where the front of the subject is not visible at all. Andrew Wyeth's Christina's World is a famous example, where the pose of the disabled girl – with her back turned to the viewer – integrates with the setting in which she is placed to convey the artist's interpretation. Among the other possible variables, the subject can be nude. Portrait paintings can be of individuals, couples and children, families, or collegial groups, they can be created in various media including oils, watercolor and ink, charcoal and mixed media.
Artists may employ a wide-ranging palette of colors, as with Pierre-Auguste Renoir's Mme. Charpentier and her children, 1878 or restrict themselves to white or black, as with Gilbert Stuart's Portrait of George Washington. Sometimes, the overall size of the portrait is an important consideration. Chuck Close's enormous portraits created for museum display differ from most portraits designed to fit in the home or to travel with the client. An artist takes into account where the final portrait will hang and the colors and style of the surrounding décor. Creating a portrait can take considerable time requiring several sittings. Cézanne, on one extreme, insisted on over 100 sittings from his subject. Goya on the other hand, preferred one long day's sitting; the average is about four. Portraitists sometimes present their sitters with a portfolio of drawings or photos from which a sitter would select a preferred pose, as did Sir Joshua Reynolds. Some, such as Hans Holbein the Younger make a drawing of the face complete the rest of the painting without the sitter.
In the 18th century, it would take about one year to deliver a completed portrait to a client. Managing the sitter's expectations and mood is a serious concern for the portrait artist; as to the faithfulness of the portrait to the sitter's appearance, portraitists are consistent in their approach. Clients who sought out Sir Joshua Reynolds knew that they would receive a flattering result, while sitters of Thomas Eakins knew to expect a realistic, unsparing portrait; some subjects voice strong preferences, others let the artist decide entirely. Oliver Cromwell famously demanded that his portrait show "all these roughnesses, pimples and everything as you see me, otherwise I will never pay a farthing for it."After putting the sitter at ease and encouraging a natural pose, the artist studies his subject, looking for the one facial expression, out of many possibilities, that satisfies his concept of t
Water of Leith
The Water of Leith is the main river flowing through Edinburgh, Scotland, to the port of Leith where it flows into the sea via the Firth of Forth. It rises in the Colzium Springs at Millstone Rig of the Pentland Hills, it travels through Harperrig Reservoir, past the ruins of Cairns Castle, through Balerno, Juniper Green, Slateford, Saughton, Roseburn and on to the nearest it gets to the Edinburgh city centre at the Dean Village, on the site of old watermills in a deep gorge. This ravine is spanned by the Dean Bridge, designed by Thomas Telford, built in 1832 for the road to Queensferry, lies next to the New Town; the river flows on past Stockbridge, Inverleith and Warriston where it passes through shallows at a place known as Puddocky, thought to refer to "puddocks", the Scots language term for frogs, but took its name from the former Paddock Hall, sited nearby. The river continues past Bonnington, the site of another watermill, to Leith where it widens into the old harbour and port at the Shore.
Leith Docks have been extended out into the firth from the old shoreline, there are now plans to discontinue their use as a port and use the area for housing redevelopment. There is a Water of Leith Walkway beside the river for the 12.25 miles from Balerno to Leith, with half a mile of the route on roads. The route forms an attractive haven for wildlife, passing through areas of woodland well separated from roads. For some distance the walkway follows the route of former railway tracks, the remains of tunnels and other features of more than one railway may be seen at many places along the route. A visitor centre is open to the public where the Union Canal passes over the Water of Leith via the Slateford Aqueduct at Slateford, in south-west Edinburgh; the Water of Leith Conservation Trust is dedicated to the enhancement of the river. The Trust provides education programs about the environment; the river is stocked with brown trout, contains wild grayling, stone loach, three-spined Stickleback and flounder.
A few sea-trout run the river, occasional Atlantic salmon are reported, although those from which scale samples have been obtained have turned out to be from other catchments. Until the weirs are either demolished or furnished with effective fish-passes, there is little chance of a population of salmon establishing themselves in this river again. Roe deer, badgers and other mammals are seen; the river and its environs are the haunt of a wide variety of woodland and water birds, including kingfishers, wagtails and dippers. The name Leith may be of Brittonic origin and derived from *lejth meaning'damp, moist', it is less that the name derives from the Old Norse lodda meaning a river. The Gaelic form of the name is Lìte. Rivers of Scotland Water of Leith Conservation Trust: The River, Visitor Center, Conservation Scottish Government, 16/03/07: Water of Leith Flood Prevention Scheme Water of Leith Water of Leith Millennium Bid document; the bid was successful and paid for new sections of the Visitor Centre.
"Forth District Salmon Fishery Board" "River Forth Fisheries Trust"
William Robertson (historian)
William Robertson FRSE FSA Scot was a Scottish historian, minister in the Church of Scotland, Principal of the University of Edinburgh. "The thirty years during which presided over the University represent the highest point in its history." He made significant contributions to the writing of Scottish history and the history of Spain and Spanish America. He was one of the King's Chaplains in Scotland. Robertson was born at the manse of Borthwick, the son of Robertson, the local minister, he was educated at Dalkeith Grammar School. He was the son of his wife Eleanor Pitcairn; the family moved to Edinburgh. He studied divinity at Edinburgh University, was licensed to preach in 1741, he was granted a Doctor of Divinity in 1759. The educationalist and writer James Burgh, who founded a dissenting academy on the outskirts of London, was his cousin, describing him as his "much esteemed friend and relation", he became minister at Gladsmuir in 1743 and in 1759 at Lady Yester's Kirk and Greyfriars Kirk in Edinburgh.
A staunch Presbyterian and Whig, he volunteered to defend the city against the Jacobites led by Prince Charles Edward Stuart in 1745. In 1754 he was an original member of The Select Society referred to as the Edinburgh Select Society. Robertson became royal chaplain to George III, principal of the University of Edinburgh, Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland in 1763, Historiographer Royal in 1764, reviving a role within the Royal household in Scotland, in abeyance from 1709 until 1763, he was a member of The Poker Club. One of his most notable works is his History of Scotland 1542–1603, begun in 1753 and first published in 1759. Robertson contributed, not always to the history of Spain and Spanish America in his History of America, "the first sustained attempt to describe the discovery and settlement of Spanish America since Herrera's Décadas and his biography of Charles V. In that work he had "provided a masterly survey of the progress of European society, in which he traced the erosion of the'feudal system' caused by the rise of free towns, the revival of learning and Roman law, by the emergence of royal authority and the balance of power between states.
It was the development of commerce, assisted by law and private property, held to be chiefly responsible for the advance in civilisation." He was a significant figure in the Scottish Enlightenment and of the moderates in the Church of Scotland. In 1783 he was a founding member of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, he died of jaundice on 11 June 1793, at Grange House in south Edinburgh (the huge now-demolished mansion which gave its name to the Grange district. Robertson is buried at Edinburgh; the grave is within a large stone mausoleum. Second only to William Adam's mausoleum to the south. Both stand to the south-west near the entrance to the Covenanters Prison, he gives his name to the William Robertson Building of the Old Medical School buildings at the University of Edinburgh on Teviot Place, home to the School of History and Archaeology. Robertson married his cousin Mary Nisbet in 1751, they had three sons, all of whom are buried in Greyfriars Kirkyard in individual plots behind their father's mausoleum: Hon William Robertson, Lord Robertson FRSE, Senator of the College of Justice General James Robertson Lt Col David Robertson MacDonald of Kinlochmoidart FRSE an important figure in the history of CeylonOne of his daughters, married the author Patrick Brydone FRSE.
In 1778 another daughter, Eleanora Robertson, married John Russell WS FRSE, a Director of the Royal Bank of Scotland. Their children included Principal Clerk of Session, he was great uncle to Dr William Robertson FRSE. The Situation of the World at the Time of Christ's Appearance The History of Scotland 1542-1603 History of the Reign of the Emperor Charles V, with a View of the Progress of Society in Europe The History of America An Historical Disquisition Concerning the Knowledge Which the Ancients Had of India Brown, S. J. William Robertson and the Expansion of Empire, Cambridge, 1997 László Kontler, Histories, Enlightenments: William Robertson in Germany, 1760–1795, 978-1-349-47575-9, 978-1-137-37172-0, 978-1-137-37171-3 Palgrave Macmillan US 2014 William Robertson at James Boswell - a Guide
A goldsmith is a metalworker who specializes in working with gold and other precious metals. Goldsmiths have made silverware, goblets and serviceable utensils, ceremonial or religious items, using Kintsugi, but the rising prices of precious metals have curtailed the making of such items to a large degree. Goldsmiths must be skilled in forming metal through filing, sawing, forging and polishing metal; the trade has often included jewellery-making skills, as well as the similar skills of the silversmith. Traditionally, these skills had been passed along through apprenticeships, more jewellery arts schools specializing in teaching goldsmithing and a multitude of skills falling under the jewellery arts umbrella are available. Many universities and junior colleges offer goldsmithing and metal arts fabrication as a part of their fine arts curriculum. At least in Europe, goldsmiths performed many of the functions now regarded as part of banking providing custody of valuable items and currency exchange, though they were restrained from lending at interest, regarded as usury.
Compared to other metals, gold is malleable, rare, it is the only solid metallic element with a yellow color. It may be melted and cast without the problems of oxides and gas that are problematic with other metals such as bronzes, for example, it is easy to "pressure weld", wherein to clay two small pieces may be pounded together to make one larger piece. Gold is classified as a noble metal --, it is found in its native form, lasting indefinitely without oxidization and tarnishing. Gold has been worked by humans in all cultures where the metal is available, either indigenously or imported, the history of these activities is extensive. Superbly made objects from the ancient cultures of Africa, Europe, North America and South America grace museums and collections throughout the world; some pieces date back thousands of years and were made using many techniques that still are used by modern goldsmiths. Techniques developed by some of those goldsmiths achieved a skill level, lost and remained beyond the skills of those who followed to modern times.
Researchers attempting to uncover the chemical techniques used by ancient artisans have remarked that their findings confirm that "the high level of competence reached by the artists and craftsmen of these ancient periods who produced objects of an artistic quality that could not be bettered in ancient times and has not yet been reached in modern ones."In medieval Europe goldsmiths were organized into guilds and were one of the most important and wealthiest of the guilds in a city. The guild kept records of the marks they used on their products; these records, when they survive, are useful to historians. Goldsmiths acted as bankers, since they dealt in gold and had sufficient security for the safe storage of valuable items. In the Middle Ages, goldsmithing included silversmithing as well, but the brass workers and workers in other base metals were members of a separate guild, since the trades were not allowed to overlap. Many jewelers were goldsmiths; the Sunar caste is one of the oldest communities in goldsmithing in India, whose superb gold artworks were displayed at The Great Exhibition of 1851 in London.
In India,'Vishwakarma' are the goldsmith caste. The printmaking technique of engraving developed among goldsmiths in Germany around 1430, who had long used the technique on their metal pieces; the notable engravers of the fifteenth century were either goldsmiths, such as Master E. S. or the sons of goldsmiths, such as Martin Schongauer and Albrecht Dürer. A goldsmith might have a wide array of skills and knowledge at their disposal. Gold, being the most malleable metal of all, offers unique opportunities for the worker. In today's world a wide variety of other metals platinum alloys may be used frequently. 24 karat is pure gold and was known as fine gold. Because it is so soft, however, 24 karat gold is used, it is alloyed to make it stronger and to create different colors. The gold may be cast into some item usually with the lost wax casting process, or it may be used to fabricate the work directly in metal. In the latter case, the goldsmith will use a variety of tools and machinery, including the rolling mill, the drawplate, swage blocks and other forming tools to make the metal into shapes needed to build the intended piece.
Parts are fabricated through a wide variety of processes and assembled by soldering. It is a testament to the history and evolution of the trade that those skills have reached an high level of attainment and skill over time. A fine goldsmith can and will work to a tolerance approaching that of precision machinery, but using only his eyes and hand tools. Quite the goldsmith's job involves the making of mountings for gemstones, in which case they are referred to as jewelers.'Jeweller', however, is a term reserved for a person who deals in jewellery and not to be confused with a goldsmith, gemologist, diamond cutter, diamond setters. A'jobbing jeweller' is the term for a jeweller who undertakes a small basic amount of jewellery repair and alteration. Paul de Lamerie Paul Storr Lorenzo Ghiberti Benvenuto Cellini Johannes Gutenberg House of Fabergé Jean-Valentin Morel Adrien Vachette Gaspard van der Heyden Jocelyn Burton Lois Etherington Betteridge Andrea Cagnetti - Akelo William Claude Harper Mary Lee Hu Linda M