Leeds is a city in West Yorkshire, England. Leeds has one of the most diverse economies of all the UK's main employment centres and has seen the fastest rate of private-sector jobs growth of any UK city, it has the highest ratio of private to public sector jobs of all the UK's Core Cities, with 77% of its workforce working in the private sector. Leeds has the third-largest jobs total by local authority area, with 480,000 in employment and self-employment at the beginning of 2015. Leeds is ranked as a gamma world city by World Cities Research Network. Leeds is the cultural and commercial heart of the West Yorkshire Urban Area. Leeds is served by four universities, has the fourth largest student population in the country and the country's fourth largest urban economy. Leeds was a small manorial borough in the 13th century, in the 17th and 18th centuries it became a major centre for the production and trading of wool, in the Industrial Revolution a major mill town. From being a market town in the valley of the River Aire in the 16th century, Leeds expanded and absorbed the surrounding villages to become a populous urban centre by the mid-20th century.
It now lies within the West Yorkshire Urban Area, the United Kingdom's fourth-most populous urban area, with a population of 2.6 million. Today, Leeds has become the largest legal and financial centre, outside London with the financial and insurance services industry worth £13 billion to the city's economy; the finance and business service sector account for 38% of total output with more than 30 national and international banks located in the city, including an office of the Bank of England. Leeds is the UK's third-largest manufacturing centre with around 1,800 firms and 39,000 employees, Leeds manufacturing firms account for 8.8% of total employment in the city and is worth over £7 billion to the local economy. The largest sub-sectors are engineering and publishing, food and drink and medical technology. Other key sectors include retail and the visitor economy and the creative and digital industries; the city saw several firsts, including the oldest-surviving film in existence, Roundhay Garden Scene, the 1767 invention of soda water.
Public transport and road communications networks in the region are focused on Leeds, the second phase of High Speed 2 will connect it to London via East Midlands Hub and Sheffield Meadowhall. Leeds has the third busiest railway station and the tenth busiest airport outside London; the name derives from the old Brythonic word Ladenses meaning "people of the fast-flowing river", in reference to the River Aire that flows through the city. This name referred to the forested area covering most of the Brythonic kingdom of Elmet, which existed during the 5th century into the early 7th century. Bede states in the fourteenth chapter of his Ecclesiastical History, in a discussion of an altar surviving from a church erected by Edwin of Northumbria, that it is located in...regione quae vocatur Loidis. An inhabitant of Leeds is locally known as a word of uncertain origin; the term Leodensian is used, from the city's Latin name. The name has been explained as a derivative of Welsh lloed, meaning "a place".
Leeds developed as a market town in the Middle Ages as part of the local agricultural economy. Before the Industrial Revolution, it became a co-ordination centre for the manufacture of woollen cloth, white broadcloth was traded at its White Cloth Hall. Leeds handled one sixth of England's export trade in 1770. Growth in textiles, was accelerated by the building of the Aire and Calder Navigation in 1699 and the Leeds and Liverpool Canal in 1816. In the late Georgian era, William Lupton, Lord of the Manor of Leeds, was one of a number of central Leeds landowners with the mesne lord title, some of whom, like him, were textile manufacturers. At the time of his death in 1828, Lupton's land in Briggate in central Leeds included a mill, manor house and outbuildings; the railway network constructed around Leeds, starting with the Leeds and Selby Railway in 1834, provided improved communications with national markets and for its development, an east-west connection with Manchester and the ports of Liverpool and Hull giving improved access to international markets.
Alongside technological advances and industrial expansion, Leeds retained an interest in trading in agricultural commodities, with the Corn Exchange opening in 1864. Marshall's Mill was one of the first of many factories constructed in Leeds from around 1790 when the most significant were woollen finishing and flax mills. Manufacturing diversified by 1914 to printing, engineering and clothing manufacture. Decline in manufacturing during the 1930s was temporarily reversed by a switch to producing military uniforms and munitions during World War II. However, by the 1970s, the clothing industry was in irreversible decline, facing cheap foreign competition; the contemporary economy has been shaped by Leeds City Council's vision of building a'24-hour European city' and'capital of the north'. The city has developed from the decay of the post-industrial era to become a telephone banking centre, connected to the electronic infrastructure of the modern global economy. There has been growth in the corporate and legal sectors, increased local affluence has led to an expanding retail sector, including the luxury goods market.
Leeds City Region Enterprise Zone was launched in April 2012 to promote development in four sites along the A63 East Leeds Link Road. Leeds was a manor and townshi
Knutsford is a town in Cheshire, England, 14 miles south-west of Manchester and 9 miles north-west of Macclesfield. The population at the 2011 Census was 13,191. Near Cheshire's Golden Triangle, on the Cheshire Plain between the Peak District to the east and the Welsh mountains to the west and its surrounding villages are affluent and sought-after residential areas, with properties rated as some of the most expensive outside of London. Knutsford is a dormitory town for people working in Liverpool. Residents include Coronation Street actress Barbara Knox and footballers Peter Crouch, Sam Ricketts, Michael Jacobs and Phil Jagielka. Knutsford's main town centre streets, Princess Street and King Street lower down, form the hub of the town. At one end of the narrow King Street is an entrance to Tatton Park; the Tatton estate was home to the Egerton family, has given its name to Tatton parliamentary constituency, which includes the neighbouring communities of Alderley Edge and Wilmslow. Former Parliamentary representatives include the BBC war correspondent Martin Bell, who stood as an Independent in 1997 to defeat the disgraced former Conservative Party MP, Neil Hamilton.
The current MP is Esther McVey. The previous MP for Tatton is George Osborne, the former Chancellor of the Exchequer, now editor of the London Evening Standard. Knutsford was recorded in the William the Conqueror's Domesday Book of 1086 as Cunetesford. King Canute was the king of England and king of Denmark and parts of Sweden as well. Local tradition says that King Canute blessed a wedding, taking place and forded the River Lily, said to be dangerous though other reports say it was the Birkin Brook at or near Booth Mill; the English Place-Name Society gives the name as being derived from the Old English for Knutr's ford or hillock ford. Knutsford Gaol was built in 1817 and extended in 1853. During the First World War it was used as a military prison; the gaol was demolished in 1934. Knutsford was the place in which General George S. Patton, shortly before the Normandy invasion, delivered a speech perceived to be critical of the Soviets, to have "slap the face of every one of the United Nations except Great Britain", which nearly ended his career.
After the Second World War overspill housing estates were created in the town to accommodate families from Manchester. The Longridge overspill estate was built in Over Ward by Manchester City Council in the 1960s. At the end of the 20th century, all of the homes on the estate that had not been sold to their occupants were transferred to Manchester Methodist Housing. In 2005 Knutsford was named as the most expensive town to buy a house in Northern England, followed by nearby town Altrincham. There is an large range of house prices in Knutsford, varying from £175,000 to nearly £4,000,000 in late 2017; the average price is above £400,000. Knutsford has been under the unitary council of Cheshire East since April 2009. Prior to that Knutsford was in the Borough of Macclesfield. Knutsford Town Council was created after the abolition of the urban district council in the Local Government Reorganisation of 1974; the town comprises four wards: Nether, Norbury Booths and Over. Each ward returns three councillors except for Over which, owing to its size and greater population, returns six.
Each councillor serves a four-year term. The Town Council is elected whole every four years; the election held on 7 May 2015 returned three independents. Knutsford is part of the North West region for the European Parliament, represented by Theresa Griffin, Wajid Khan, Julie Ward, Jacqueline Foster, Sajjad Haider Karim, Paul Nuttall, Steven Woolfe and Louise Bours. Knutsford has excellent access with junctions to the M6 and M56 motorways. However, this can have disadvantages as the A50 which runs through Knutsford town centre follows a similar route to the M6 between Warrington and Stoke-on-Trent, this means that if the M6 is closed due to an accident or roadworks. Knutsford is served by Knutsford railway station, situated on the Mid-Cheshire Line running from Chester to Manchester; the station was built in 1862 by the Cheshire Midland Railway. The CMR was absorbed into the Cheshire Lines Committee in August 1867, this entity continuing to serve Knutsford until nationalisation on 1 January 1948.
The rail service to Manchester was re-routed via a slower route when the Manchester Metrolink trams took over the CLC direct line between Altrincham and Manchester, with the heavy rail service being re-routed via Stockport to Manchester Piccadilly. There is an hourly service to Altrincham and Manchester to the north and Northwich and Chester to the south-west, with extra trains to and from Stockport at peak times on weekdays. On Sundays there is a service every two hours to Chester and a service every two hours to Southport via Manchester and Wigan; the number of weekday peak trains to Manchester was controversially cut back in December 2008 to allow Virgin Trains West Coast to run extra services between Manchester and London. By May 2018, Knutsford is expected to have half-hourly train services to Northwich and Manchester for most of the day except on Sundays when services will be hourly. Since April 2018 bus service cutbacks, part of the Conservative Party's austerity program, has left Knutsford with just one regular bus route, an hourly Altrincham-Wilmslow-Knutsfor
Telegraphy is the long-distance transmission of textual or symbolic messages without the physical exchange of an object bearing the message. Thus semaphore is a method of telegraphy. Telegraphy requires that the method used for encoding the message be known to both sender and receiver. Many methods are designed according to the limits of the signalling medium used; the use of smoke signals, reflected light signals, flag semaphore signals are early examples. In the 19th century, the harnessing of electricity led to the invention of electrical telegraphy; the advent of radio in the early 20th century brought about radiotelegraphy and other forms of wireless telegraphy. In the Internet age, telegraphic means developed in sophistication and ease of use, with natural language interfaces that hide the underlying code, allowing such technologies as electronic mail and instant messaging; the word "telegraph" was first coined by the French inventor of the Semaphore telegraph, Claude Chappe, who coined the word "semaphore".
A "telegraph" is a device for transmitting and receiving messages over long distances, i.e. for telegraphy. The word "telegraph" alone now refers to an electrical telegraph. Wireless telegraphy, transmission of messages over radio with telegraphic codes. Contrary to the extensive definition used by Chappe, Morse argued that the term telegraph can be applied only to systems that transmit and record messages at a distance; this is to be distinguished from semaphore, which transmits messages. Smoke signals, for instance, are to be considered semaphore, not telegraph. According to Morse, telegraph dates only from 1832 when Pavel Schilling invented one of the earliest electrical telegraphs. A telegraph message sent by an electrical telegraph operator or telegrapher using Morse code was known as a telegram. A cablegram was a message sent by a submarine telegraph cable shortened to a cable or a wire. A Telex was a message sent by a Telex network, a switched network of teleprinters similar to a telephone network.
A wire picture or wire photo was a newspaper picture, sent from a remote location by a facsimile telegraph. A diplomatic telegram known as a diplomatic cable, is the term given to a confidential communication between a diplomatic mission and the foreign ministry of its parent country; these continue to be called cables regardless of the method used for transmission. Passing messages by signalling over distance is an ancient practice. One of the oldest examples is the signal towers of the Great Wall of China. In 400 BC, signals could drum beats. By 200 BC complex flag signalling had developed, by the Han dynasty signallers had a choice of lights, flags, or gunshots to send signals. By the Tang dynasty a message could be sent 700 miles in 24 hours; the Ming dynasty added artillery to the possible signals. While the signalling was complex, only predetermined messages could be sent; the Chinese signalling system extended well beyond the Great Wall. Signal towers away from the wall were used to give early warning of an attack.
Others were built further out as part of the protection of trade routes the Silk Road. Signal fires were used in Europe and elsewhere for military purposes; the Roman army made frequent use of them, as did their enemies, the remains of some of the stations still exist. Few details have been recorded of European/Mediterranean signalling systems and the possible messages. One of the few for which details are known is a system invented by Aeneas Tacticus. Tacitus's system had water filled pots at the two signal stations which were drained in synchronisation. Annotation on a floating scale indicated which message was being received. Signals sent by means of torches indicated when to start and stop draining to keep the synchronisation. None of the signalling systems discussed above are true telegraphs in the sense of a system that can transmit arbitrary messages over arbitrary distances. Lines of signalling relay stations can send messages to any required distance, but all these systems are limited to one extent or another in the range of messages that they can send.
A system like flag semaphore, with an alphabetic code, can send any given message, but the system is designed for short-range communication between two persons. An engine order telegraph, used to send instructions from the bridge of a ship to the engine room, fails to meet both criteria. There was only one ancient signalling system described; that was a system using the Polybius square to encode an alphabet. Polybius suggested using two successive groups of torches to identify the coordinates of the letter of the alphabet being transmitted; the number of said torches held up signalled the grid square. The system would have been slow for military purposes and there is no record of it being used. An optical telegraph, or semaphore telegraph is a telegraph consisting of a line of stations in towers or natural high points which signal to each other by means of shutters or paddles. Early proposals for an optical telegraph system were made to the Royal Society by Robert Hooke in 1684 and were first implemented on an experimental level by Sir Richard Lovell Edgeworth in 1767.
The first successful optical telegraph network was invented by Claude Chappe and operated in France from 1
Second Boer War
The Second Boer War was fought between the British Empire and two Boer states, the South African Republic and the Orange Free State, over the Empire's influence in South Africa. It is known variously as the Boer War, Anglo-Boer War, or South African War. Initial Boer attacks were successful, although British reinforcements reversed these, the war continued for years with Boer guerrilla warfare, until harsh British counter-measures brought them to terms; the war under-prepared. The Boers were well armed and struck first, besieging Ladysmith and Mahikeng in early 1900, winning important battles at Colenso and Stormberg. Staggered, the British fought back. General Redvers Buller was replaced by Lord Kitchener, they relieved the three besieged cities, invaded the two Boer republics in late 1900. The onward marches of the British Army, well over 400,000 men, were so overwhelming that the Boers did not fight staged battles in defense of their homeland; the British seized control of all of the Orange Free State and Transvaal, as the civilian leadership went into hiding or exile.
In conventional terms, the war was over. The British annexed the two countries in 1900. Back home, Britain's Conservative government wanted to capitalize on this success and use it to maneuver an early general election, dubbed a "khaki election" to give the government another six years of power in London. British military efforts were aided by Cape Colony, the Colony of Natal and some native African allies, further supported by volunteers from the British Empire, including Southern Africa, the Australian colonies, Canada and New Zealand. All other nations were neutral, but public opinion was hostile to the British. Inside the UK and its Empire there was significant opposition to the Second Boer War; the Boers refused to surrender. They reverted to guerrilla warfare under new generals Louis Botha, Jan Smuts, Christiaan de Wet and Koos de la Rey. Two years of surprise attacks and quick escapes followed; as guerrillas without uniforms, the Boer fighters blended into the farmlands, which provided hiding places and horses.
The UK's response to guerilla warfare was to set up complex nets of block houses, strong points, barbed wire fences, partitioning off the entire conquered territory. In addition, civilian farms and live stock were destroyed in the scorched earth strategy. Survivors were forced into concentration camps. Large proportions of these civilians died of hunger and disease the children. British mounted infantry units systematically tracked down the mobile Boer guerrilla units; the battles at this stage were small operations. Few died during combat, though many of disease; the war ended in surrender and British terms with the Treaty of Vereeniging in May 1902. Both former republics were incorporated into the Union of South Africa in 1910, as part of the British Empire; the conflict is referred to as the Boer War, since the First Boer War was a much smaller conflict. "Boer" is the common term for Afrikaans-speaking white South Africans descended from the Dutch East India Company's original settlers at the Cape of Good Hope.
It is known as the Anglo-Boer War among some South Africans. In Afrikaans it may be called the Anglo-Boereoorlog, Tweede Boereoorlog, Tweede Vryheidsoorlog or Engelse oorlog. In South Africa it is called the South African War; the complex origins of the war resulted from more than a century of conflict between the Boers and Britain, but of particular immediate importance was the question as to who would control and benefit most from the lucrative Witwatersrand gold mines. The first European settlement in South Africa was founded at the Cape of Good Hope in 1652, thereafter administered as part of the Dutch Cape Colony; the Cape was governed by the Dutch East India Company until its bankruptcy in the late 1700s, thereafter directly by the Netherlands. The British occupied the Cape three times during the Napoleonic Wars as a result of political turmoil in the Netherlands, the occupation became permanent after British forces defeated the Dutch at the Battle of Blaauwberg in 1806. At the time, the colony was home to about 26,000 colonists settled under Dutch rule.
A relative majority still represented old Dutch families brought to the Cape during the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. Cleavages were likelier to occur along socio-economic rather than ethnic lines and broadly speaking the colonists included a number of distinct subgroups, namely the Boers; the Boers were itinerant farmers who lived on the colony's frontiers, seeking better pastures for their livestock. Many Boers who were dissatisfied with aspects of British administration, in particular with Britain's abolition of slavery on 1 December 1834, elected to migrate away from British rule in what became known as the Great Trek. Around 15,000 trekking Boers followed the eastern coast towards Natal. After Britain annexed Natal in 1843, they journeyed further northwards into South Africa's vast eastern interior. There they established two independent Boer republics: the South African Republic and the Orange Free State. Britain recognised the two Boer republics in 1852 and 1854, but attempted British annexation of the Transvaal in 1877 led to the First Boer War in 1880–81
The Wright Flyer was the first successful heavier-than-air powered aircraft. It was built by the Wright brothers, they flew it four times on December 17, 1903, near Kill Devil Hills, about four miles south of Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. Today, the airplane is exhibited in the National Air and Space Museum in Washington D. C; the U. S. Smithsonian Institution describes the aircraft as "the first powered, heavier-than-air machine to achieve controlled, sustained flight with a pilot aboard." The flight of Flyer I marks the beginning of the "pioneer era" of aviation. The Flyer was based on the Wrights' experience testing gliders at Kitty Hawk between 1900 and 1902, their last glider, the 1902 Glider, led directly to the design of the Flyer. The Wrights built the aircraft in 1903 using giant spruce wood as their construction material; the wings were designed with a 1-in-20 camber. Since they could not find a suitable automobile engine for the task, they commissioned their employee Charlie Taylor to build a new design from scratch a crude 12 horsepower gasoline engine.
A sprocket chain drive, borrowing from bicycle technology, powered the twin propellers, which were made by hand. In order to avoid the risk of torque effects from affecting the aircraft handling, one drive chain was crossed over so that the propellers rotated in opposite directions; the Flyer was a bicanard biplane configuration. As with the gliders, the pilot flew lying on his stomach on the lower wing with his head toward the front of the craft in an effort to reduce drag, he steered by moving a cradle attached to his hips. The cradle pulled wires which turned the rudder simultaneously; the Flyer's "runway" was a track of 2x4s stood on their narrow edge, which the brothers nicknamed the "Junction Railroad." Upon returning to Kitty Hawk in 1903, the Wrights completed assembly of the Flyer while practicing on the 1902 Glider from the previous season. On December 14, 1903, they felt ready for their first attempt at powered flight. With the help of men from the nearby government life-saving station, the Wrights moved the Flyer and its launching rail to the incline of a nearby sand dune, Big Kill Devil Hill, intending to make a gravity-assisted takeoff.
The brothers tossed a coin to decide who would get the first chance at piloting, Wilbur won. The airplane left the rail, but Wilbur pulled up too stalled, came down after 31⁄2 seconds with minor damage. Repairs after the abortive first flight took three days; when they were ready again on December 17, the wind was averaging more than 20 miles per hour, so the brothers laid the launching rail on level ground, pointed into the wind, near their camp. This time the wind, instead of an inclined launch, provided the necessary airspeed for takeoff; because Wilbur had had the first chance, Orville took his turn at the controls. His first flight lasted 12 seconds for a total distance of 120 feet – shorter than the wingspan of a Boeing 747, as noted by observers in the 2003 commemoration of the first flight. Taking turns, the Wrights made four low-altitude flights that day; the flight paths were all straight. Each flight ended in a bumpy and unintended "landing." The last flight, by Wilbur, was 852 feet in 59 seconds, much longer than each of the three previous flights of 120, 175 and 200 feet.
The landing broke the front elevator supports, which the Wrights hoped to repair for a possible four-mile flight to Kitty Hawk village. Soon after, a heavy gust picked up the Flyer and tumbled it end over end, damaging it beyond any hope of quick repair, it was never flown again. In 1904, the Wrights continued refining their designs and piloting techniques in order to obtain controlled flight. Major progress toward this goal was achieved with a new Flyer in 1904 and more decisively in 1905 with a third Flyer, in which Wilbur made a 39-minute, 24-mile nonstop circling flight on October 5. While the 1903 Flyer was a important test vehicle, its hallowed status in the American imagination has obscured the role of its two successors in the continuing development that led to the Wrights' mastery of controlled powered flight in 1905; the Flyer series of aircraft were the first to achieve controlled heavier-than-air flight, but some of the mechanical techniques the Wrights used to accomplish this were not influential for the development of aviation as a whole, although their theoretical achievements were.
The Flyer design depended on wing-warping and a foreplane or "canard" for pitch control, features which would not scale and produced a hard-to-control aircraft. However, the Wrights' pioneering use of "roll control" by twisting the wings to change wingtip angle in relation to the airstream led directly to the more practical use of ailerons by their imitators, such as Curtiss and Farman; the Wrights' original concept of simultaneous coordinated roll and yaw control, which they discovered in 1902, perfected in 1903–1905, patented in 1906, represents the solution to controlled flight and is used today on every fixed-wing aircraft. The Wright patent included the use of hinged rather than warped surfaces for the forward elevator and rear rudder. Other features that made the Flyer a success were efficient wings and propellers, which resulted from the Wrights' exacting wind tunnel tests and made the most of the marginal power delivered by their early "homebuilt" engines; the future of aircraft design, lay with rigid wings and rear control surfaces.
A British patent of 1868 for
The Rolls-Royce Eagle was the first aircraft engine to be developed by Rolls-Royce Limited. Introduced in 1915 to meet British military requirements during World War I, it was used to power the Handley Page Type O bombers and a number of other military aircraft; the Eagle was the first engine to make a non-stop trans-Atlantic crossing by aeroplane when two Eagles powered the converted Vickers Vimy bomber on the Transatlantic flight of Alcock and Brown in June 1919. At the outbreak of World War I in August 1914, the Royal Aircraft Factory asked Rolls-Royce to develop a new 200 hp air-cooled engine. Despite initial reluctance they agreed on condition that it be cooled by water rather than air, as this was the company's area of expertise. Development of the new 20 litre engine was led by Henry Royce from his home in Kent. Based on the 7.4 litre 40/50 Rolls-Royce Silver Ghost engine, drawing on the design of a 7.2 litre Daimler DF80 aero engine used in a 1913 Grand Prix Mercedes, acquired, the power was increased by doubling the number of cylinders to twelve and increasing their stroke to 6.5 inches, although their bore remained at 4.5 inches of the 40/50.
The engine was run faster, an epicyclic reduction gear was designed to keep the propeller speed below 1,100 rpm. To reduce inertia and improve performance the valvetrain design was changed from sidevalves to a SOHC design following the original "side-slot" rocker arm design philosophy used on the contemporary German Mercedes D. I, Mercedes D. II and Mercedes D. III straight-six aviation powerplants. On 3 January 1915 the Admiralty ordered twenty-five of the new engines; the Eagle first ran on a test bed at Rolls-Royce's Derby works in February 1915, producing 225 hp at 1,600 rpm. This was increased to 1,800 in August 1915 to 2,000 rpm where it produced 300 hp. After further testing, it was decided to approve the engine for production at 255 hp; the engine first flew on a Handley Page O/100 bomber in December 1915, the first flight of a Rolls-Royce aero engine. The Eagle was developed further during 1916 and 1917, with power being progressively increased from 225 hp to 266 hp, followed by 284 hp, 322 hp, 360 hp by February 1918 by which time eight Eagle variants had been produced.
Throughout World War I Rolls-Royce struggled to build Eagles in the quantities required by the War Office, but the company resisted pressure to license other manufacturers to produce it, fearing that the engine's much admired quality would risk being compromised. After the War, a Mark IX version of the Eagle was developed for civilian use. Production continued until 1928, in total 4,681 Eagle engines were built. Time between overhaul for Eagles was around 100-180 hours. Note: Eagle I, 225 hp, 104 engines produced in both left and right hand tractor versions. Eagle II, 250 hp, 36 built at Derby. Eagle III, 250 hp, increased compression ratio, strengthened pistons. 110 built at Derby. Eagle IV, 270/286 hp, 36 built at Derby. Eagle V, 275 hp, high-lift camshaft, 100 built at Derby. Eagle VI, 275 hp, first use of twin spark plugs, 300 built at Derby. Eagle VII, 275 hp, 200 built at Derby. Eagle VIII, 300 hp, extensive modifications, 3,302 built at Derby. Eagle IX, 360 hp, developed as 373 built at Derby.
Examples of the Rolls-Royce Eagle are on display at the: Science Museum, London Canada Aviation Museum South African National Museum of Military History, Johannesburg South African Air Force Museum, Port ElizabethOne of the two Eagles that powered Alcock and Brown's historic transatlantic flight is on display at the Derby Industrial Museum. Data from Lumsden Type: 12-cylinder liquid-cooled 60° Vee aircraft piston engine Bore: 4.5 in Stroke: 6.5 in Displacement: 1,239 in³ Length: 72.6 in Width: 42.6 in Height: 46.4 in Dry weight: 900 lb Valvetrain: Overhead camshafts Fuel system: Twin Claudel-Hobson carburettors Cooling system: Liquid-cooled Power output: 360 hp at 1,800 rpm Specific power: 0.32 hp/in³ Compression ratio: 5.22:1 Fuel consumption: 24 gallons per hour Power-to-weight ratio: 0.40 hp/lb Rolls-Royce aircraft piston enginesRelated development Rolls-Royce Hawk Rolls-Royce Condor Comparable engines Sunbeam MatabeleRelated lists List of aircraft engines Images of the Rolls-Royce Eagle
Derby is a city and unitary authority area in Derbyshire, England. It lies on the banks of the River Derwent in the south of Derbyshire, of which it was traditionally the county town. At the 2011 census, the population was 248,700. Derby gained city status in 1977. Derby was settled by Romans – who established the town of Derventio – Saxons and Vikings, who made Derby one of the Five Boroughs of the Danelaw. A market town, Derby grew in the industrial era. Home to Lombe's Mill, an early British factory, Derby has a claim to be one of the birthplaces of the Industrial Revolution, it contains the southern part of the Derwent Valley Mills World Heritage Site. With the arrival of the railways in the 19th century, Derby became a centre of the British rail industry. Derby is a centre for advanced transport manufacturing, home to the world's second largest aero-engine manufacturer, Rolls-Royce. Bombardier Transportation are based at the Derby Litchurch Lane Works and were for many years the UK's only train manufacturer.
Toyota Manufacturing UK's automobile headquarters is south west of the city at Burnaston. The Roman camp of'Derventio' is considered to have been located at Little Chester/Chester Green, the site of the old Roman fort; the town was one of the'Five Boroughs' of the Danelaw, until it was captured by Lady Aethelflaed of Mercia in July 917, subsequent to which the town was annexed into the Kingdom of Mercia. The Viking name Djúra-bý, recorded in Old English as Deoraby, means "Village of the Deer". However, the origin of the name'Derby' has had multiple influences; the town name does appear as'Darbye' in early maps, such as that of John Speed, 1610. Modern research into the history and archaeology of Derby has provided evidence that the Vikings and Anglo-Saxons would have co-existed, occupying two areas of land surrounded by water; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle says that "Derby is divided by water". These areas of land were known as Norþworþig and Deoraby, were at the "Irongate" side of Derby. During the Civil War of 1642–1646, Derby was garrisoned by Parliamentary troops commanded by Sir John Gell, 1st Baronet, appointed Governor of Derby in 1643.
These troops took part in the defence of nearby Nottingham, the Siege of Lichfield, the Battle of Hopton Heath and many other engagements in Nottinghamshire and Cheshire, as well as defending Derbyshire against Royalist armies. A hundred years Bonnie Prince Charlie set up camp at Derby on 4 December 1745, whilst on his way south to seize the British crown; the prince called at The George Inn on Irongate, where the Duke of Devonshire had set up his headquarters, demanded billets for his 9,000 troops. He stayed at Exeter House, Full Street where he held his "council of war". A replica of the room is on display at Derby Museum in the city centre, he had received misleading information about an army coming to meet him south of Derby. Although he wished to continue with his quest, he was over-ruled by his fellow officers, he abandoned his invasion at Swarkestone Bridge on the River Trent just a few miles south of Derby. As a testament to his belief in his cause, the prince – who on the march from Scotland had walked at the front of the column – made the return journey on horseback at the rear of the bedraggled and tired army.
Derby and Derbyshire were among the centres of Britain's Industrial Revolution. In 1717, Derby was the site of the first water-powered silk mill in Britain, built by John Lombe and George Sorocold, after Lombe had reputedly stolen the secrets of silk-throwing from Piedmont in Italy. In 1759, Jedediah Strutt patented and built a machine called the Derby Rib Attachment that revolutionised the manufacture of hose; this attachment was used on the Rev. Lee's Framework Knitting Machine; the partners were William Woollatt. The patent was obtained in January 1759. After three years and Stafford were paid off, Samuel Need – a hosier of Nottingham – joined the partnership; the firm was known as Need and Woollatt. The patent expired in 1773. Messrs Wright, the bankers of Nottingham, recommended that Richard Arkwright apply to Strutt and Need for finance for his cotton spinning mill; the first mill was driven by horses. In 1771 Richard Arkwright, Samuel Need and Jedediah Strutt built the world's first commercially successful water-powered cotton spinning mill at Cromford, developing a form of power, to be a catalyst for the Industrial Revolution.
This was followed in Derbyshire by Jedediah Strutt's cotton spinning mills at Belper. They were: South Mill, the first, 1775; the Belper and Milford mills were not built in partnership with Arkwright. These mills were all Strutt financed. Oth