Church of England
The Church of England is the established church of England. The Archbishop of Canterbury is the most senior cleric, although the monarch is the supreme governor; the Church of England is the mother church of the international Anglican Communion. It traces its history to the Christian church recorded as existing in the Roman province of Britain by the third century, to the 6th-century Gregorian mission to Kent led by Augustine of Canterbury; the English church renounced papal authority when Henry VIII failed to secure an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon in 1534. The English Reformation accelerated under Edward VI's regents, before a brief restoration of papal authority under Queen Mary I and King Philip; the Act of Supremacy 1558 renewed the breach, the Elizabethan Settlement charted a course enabling the English church to describe itself as both catholic and reformed: catholic in that it views itself as a part of the universal church of Jesus Christ in unbroken continuity with the early apostolic church.
This is expressed in its emphasis on the teachings of the early Church Fathers, as formalised in the Apostles', Athanasian creeds. Reformed in that it has been shaped by some of the doctrinal principles of the 16th-century Protestant Reformation, in particular in the Thirty-Nine Articles of Religion and the Book of Common Prayer. In the earlier phase of the English Reformation there were both Catholic martyrs and radical Protestant martyrs; the phases saw the Penal Laws punish Roman Catholic and nonconforming Protestants. In the 17th century, the Puritan and Presbyterian factions continued to challenge the leadership of the Church which under the Stuarts veered towards a more catholic interpretation of the Elizabethan Settlement under Archbishop Laud and the rise of the concept of Anglicanism as the via media. After the victory of the Parliamentarians the Prayer Book was abolished and the Presbyterian and Independent factions dominated; the Episcopacy was abolished. The Restoration restored the Church of England and the Prayer Book.
Papal recognition of George III in 1766 led to greater religious tolerance. Since the English Reformation, the Church of England has used a liturgy in English; the church contains several doctrinal strands, the main three known as Anglo-Catholic and Broad Church. Tensions between theological conservatives and progressives find expression in debates over the ordination of women and homosexuality; the church includes both liberal and conservative members. The governing structure of the church is based on dioceses, each presided over by a bishop. Within each diocese are local parishes; the General Synod of the Church of England is the legislative body for the church and comprises bishops, other clergy and laity. Its measures must be approved by both Houses of Parliament. According to tradition, Christianity arrived in Britain in the 1st or 2nd century, during which time southern Britain became part of the Roman Empire; the earliest historical evidence of Christianity among the native Britons is found in the writings of such early Christian Fathers as Tertullian and Origen in the first years of the 3rd century.
Three Romano-British bishops, including Restitutus, are known to have been present at the Council of Arles in 314. Others attended the Council of Serdica in 347 and that of Ariminum in 360, a number of references to the church in Roman Britain are found in the writings of 4th century Christian fathers. Britain was the home of Pelagius. While Christianity was long established as the religion of the Britons at the time of the Anglo-Saxon invasion, Christian Britons made little progress in converting the newcomers from their native paganism. In 597, Pope Gregory I sent the prior of the Abbey of St Andrew's from Rome to evangelise the Angles; this event is known as the Gregorian mission and is the date the Church of England marks as the beginning of its formal history. With the help of Christians residing in Kent, Augustine established his church at Canterbury, the capital of the Kingdom of Kent, became the first in the series of Archbishops of Canterbury in 598. A archbishop, the Greek Theodore of Tarsus contributed to the organisation of Christianity in England.
The Church of England has been in continuous existence since the days of St Augustine, with the Archbishop of Canterbury as its episcopal head. Despite the various disruptions of the Reformation and the English Civil War, the Church of England considers itself to be the same church, more formally organised by Augustine. While some Celtic Christian practices were changed at the Synod of Whitby, the Christian in the British Isles was under papal authority from earliest times. Queen Bertha of Kent was among the Christians in England who recognised papal authority before Augustine arrived, Celtic Christians were carrying out missionary work with papal approval long before the Synod of Whitby; the Synod of Whitby established the Roman date for Easter and the Roman style of monastic tonsure in England. This meeting of the ecclesiastics with Roman customs with local bishops was summoned in 664 at Saint Hilda's double monastery of Streonshalh called Whitby Abbey, it was presided over by King Oswiu, who made the final ruling.
The final ruling was decided in favor of Roman tradition because St. Peter holds the keys to the gate of Heaven. In 1534, King Henry VIII separated the English Church from Rome. A theological separation had been foreshadowed by various movements within the English Church, such as Lollardy, but the English Reformation gained political support when Henry VIII wanted an a
The Flying Dutchman is a legendary ghost ship that can never make port and is doomed to sail the oceans forever. The myth is to have originated from the 17th-century golden age of the Dutch East India Company; the oldest extant version has been dated to the late 18th century. Sightings in the 19th and 20th centuries reported the ship to be glowing with ghostly light. If hailed by another ship, the crew of the Flying Dutchman will try to send messages to land, or to people long dead. In ocean lore, the sight of this phantom ship is a portent of doom; the first print reference to the ship appears in Travels in various part of Europe and Africa during a series of thirty years and upward by John MacDonald: The weather was so stormy that the sailors said they saw the Flying Dutchman. The common story is that this Dutchman came to the Cape in distress of weather and wanted to get into harbour but could not get a pilot to conduct her and was lost and that since in bad weather her vision appears; the next literary reference appears in Chapter VI of A Voyage to Botany Bay, attributed to George Barrington: I had heard of the superstition of sailors respecting apparitions and doom, but had never given much credit to the report.
Having refitted, returning to Europe, they were assailed by a violent tempest nearly in the same latitude. In the night watch some of the people saw, or imagined they saw, a vessel standing for them under a press of sail, as though she would run them down: one in particular affirmed it was the ship that had foundered in the former gale, that it must be her, or the apparition of her. Nothing could do away the idea of this phenomenon on the minds of the sailors. From the Dutch the English seamen got the infatuation, there are few Indiamen, but what has some one on board, who pretends to have seen the apparition; the next literary reference introduces the motif of punishment for a crime, in Scenes of Infancy by John Leyden: It is a common superstition of mariners, that, in the high southern latitudes on the coast of Africa, hurricanes are ushered in by the appearance of a spectre-ship, denominated the Flying Dutchman... The crew of this vessel are supposed to have been guilty of some dreadful crime, in the infancy of navigation.
Thomas Moore places the vessel in the north Atlantic in his poem Written on passing Dead-man's Island in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Late in the evening, September, 1804: "Fast gliding along, a gloomy bark / Her sails are full, though the wind is still, / And there blows not a breath her sails to fill." A footnote adds: "The above lines were suggested by a superstition common among sailors, who call this ghost-ship, I think,'the flying Dutch-man'." Sir Walter Scott, a friend of John Leyden's, was the first to refer to the vessel as a pirate ship, writing in the notes to Rokeby. According to some sources, 17th-century Dutch captain Bernard Fokke is the model for the captain of the ghost ship. Fokke was renowned for the speed of his trips from the Netherlands to Java and was suspected of being in league with the Devil; the first version of the legend as a story was printed in Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine for May 1821, which puts the scene as the Cape of Good Hope. This story introduces the name Captain Hendrick Van der Decken for the captain and the motifs of letters addressed to people long dead being offered to other ships for delivery, but if accepted will bring misfortune.
She sailed from port seventy years ago. Her master's name was Van der Decken, he was a staunch seaman, would have his own way in spite of the devil. For all that, never a sailor under him had reason to complain; the story is this:. However, the wind headed them, went against them more and more, Van der Decken walked the deck, swearing at the wind. Just after sunset a vessel spoke him. Van der Decken replied: "May I be eternally damned if I do, though I should beat about here till the day of judgment." And to be sure, he never did go into that bay, for it is believed that he continues to beat about in these seas still, will do so long enough. This vessel is never seen but with foul weather along with her. There have been many alleged sightings in the 19th and 20th centuries. A well-known sighting was by Prince George of Wales, the future King George V, he was on a three-year voyage during his late adolescence in 1880 with his elder brother Prince Albert Victor of Wales and their tutor John Neill Dalton.
They temporarily shipped into H
Distributed Proofreaders Canada
Distributed Proofreaders Canada is a volunteer organization that converts books into digital format and releases them as public domain books in formats readable by electronic devices. It as of 2018 has published about 4,200 books. Books that are released are stored on a book archive called Faded Page. While its focus is on Canadian publications and preserving Canadiana, it includes books from other countries as well, it is modelled after Distributed Proofreaders, performs the same function as similar projects in other parts of the world such as Project Gutenberg in the United States and Project Gutenberg Australia. Distributed Proofreaders Canada was launched in December 2007 by Michael Shepard. Although it was established by members of the original Distributed Proofreaders site, it is a separate entity, it is a volunteer based non-profit organization. All the administrative and management costs are borne by its members; the software used by DP Canada was downloaded from SourceForge but has been modified since then.
In addition to preserving Canadiana, DP Canada is notable because it is one of the first major efforts to take advantage of Canada's copyright laws which allows more works to be preserved. Unlike copyright law in other countries, Canada has a "life plus 50" copyright term. Works by authors who died more than fifty years ago may be made publicly available in Canada. Other countries have differing copyright laws. Although files available through DP Canada are publicly available in other countries, the onus is on the reader to ensure that they only download material, not in copyright in their country of residence. Notable Canadian authors whose books have been published include Stephen Leacock, L. M. Montgomery, E. T. Seton and Mazo de la Roche. Authors whose works have been released in Canada but not other parts of the world include A. A. Milne, C. S. Lewis, Winston Churchill, E. E. Smith and Amy Carmichael. Eligible books are chosen by members for publication based on personal access. Books are scanned electronically and each page is uploaded to the proofreading website.
A project is made available to the proofreading members. Each book is proofread in three stages called'P1','P2' and'P3'. During the first stage, errors in scanning and other minor errors are corrected. Once all pages in the book have been edited the book pages are promoted to the next stage, P2; the proofreading is repeated and again in stage P3 to ensure no errors make it to the final publication. Once stage P3 is finished the book moves to a set of two formatting stages called'F1', and'F2'. In these stages the book text is changed into a format that allows it to be presented to the reader in a style that resembles the original book as as possible. For example, text appearing in Italic type is placed within formatting tags <i>this text is in italics</i>; when formatted the text appears as this text is in italics. When the formatting stages are complete, a post-processing stage brings all the files together to publish the books in five electronic formats; these include mobi, HTML, PDF and plain text.
The HTML version is made available as a Zip file. Before the books are added to the Faded Page book archive, the books are placed in a final round called'Smooth Reading'. While in this phase, members of DP Canada are encouraged to read them. While the books are in this phase, comments about the book for possible improvements can be sent to the post processor. Once past the Smooth Reading process, the publication is posted on Faded Page; the books that are published by DP Canada in the public domain are made available through the Faded Page book archive. Some of the publications released are posted to the Project Gutenberg Canada website. PG Canada is a book archive. List of digital library projects Distributed Proofreaders Canada Faded Page Book Archive
University of Oxford
The University of Oxford is a collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's second-oldest university in continuous operation, it grew from 1167 when Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled north-east to Cambridge where they established what became the University of Cambridge; the two'ancient universities' are jointly called'Oxbridge'. The history and influence of the University of Oxford has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world; the university is made up of 38 constituent colleges, a range of academic departments, which are organised into four divisions. All the colleges are self-governing institutions within the university, each controlling its own membership and with its own internal structure and activities, it does not have a main campus, its buildings and facilities are scattered throughout the city centre.
Undergraduate teaching at Oxford is organised around weekly tutorials at the colleges and halls, supported by classes, lectures and laboratory work provided by university faculties and departments. It operates the world's oldest university museum, as well as the largest university press in the world and the largest academic library system nationwide. In the fiscal year ending 31 July 2018, the university had a total income of £2.237 billion, of which £579.1 million was from research grants and contracts. The university is ranked first globally by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings as of 2019 and is ranked as among the world's top ten universities, it is ranked second in all major national league tables, behind Cambridge. Oxford has educated many notable alumni, including 27 prime ministers of the United Kingdom and many heads of state and government around the world; as of 2019, 69 Nobel Prize winners, 3 Fields Medalists, 6 Turing Award winners have studied, worked, or held visiting fellowships at the University of Oxford, while its alumni have won 160 Olympic medals.
Oxford is the home of numerous scholarships, including the Rhodes Scholarship, one of the oldest international graduate scholarship programmes. The University of Oxford has no known foundation date. Teaching at Oxford existed in some form as early as 1096, but it is unclear when a university came into being, it grew from 1167 when English students returned from the University of Paris. The historian Gerald of Wales lectured to such scholars in 1188 and the first known foreign scholar, Emo of Friesland, arrived in 1190; the head of the university had the title of chancellor from at least 1201, the masters were recognised as a universitas or corporation in 1231. The university was granted a royal charter in 1248 during the reign of King Henry III. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled from the violence to Cambridge forming the University of Cambridge; the students associated together on the basis of geographical origins, into two'nations', representing the North and the South.
In centuries, geographical origins continued to influence many students' affiliations when membership of a college or hall became customary in Oxford. In addition, members of many religious orders, including Dominicans, Franciscans and Augustinians, settled in Oxford in the mid-13th century, gained influence and maintained houses or halls for students. At about the same time, private benefactors established colleges as self-contained scholarly communities. Among the earliest such founders were William of Durham, who in 1249 endowed University College, John Balliol, father of a future King of Scots. Another founder, Walter de Merton, a Lord Chancellor of England and afterwards Bishop of Rochester, devised a series of regulations for college life. Thereafter, an increasing number of students lived in colleges rather than in halls and religious houses. In 1333–34, an attempt by some dissatisfied Oxford scholars to found a new university at Stamford, was blocked by the universities of Oxford and Cambridge petitioning King Edward III.
Thereafter, until the 1820s, no new universities were allowed to be founded in England in London. The new learning of the Renaissance influenced Oxford from the late 15th century onwards. Among university scholars of the period were William Grocyn, who contributed to the revival of Greek language studies, John Colet, the noted biblical scholar. With the English Reformation and the breaking of communion with the Roman Catholic Church, recusant scholars from Oxford fled to continental Europe, settling at the University of Douai; the method of teaching at Oxford was transformed from the medieval scholastic method to Renaissance education, although institutions associated with the university suffered losses of land and revenues. As a centre of learning and scholarship, Oxford's reputation declined in the Age of Enlightenment. In 1636 William Laud, the chancellor and Archbishop of Canterbury, codified the university's statutes. These, to a large extent, remained its gove
LibriVox is a group of worldwide volunteers who read and record public domain texts creating free public domain audiobooks for download from their website and other digital library hosting sites on the internet. It was founded in 2005 by Hugh McGuire to provide "Acoustical liberation of books in the public domain" and the LibriVox objective is "To make all books in the public domain available, for free, in audio format on the internet". On 6 August 2016, the project completed project number 10,000. and from 2009–2017 was producing about 1,000 items per year. Most releases are in the English language, but many non-English works are available. There are multiple affiliated projects. LibriVox is affiliated with Project Gutenberg from where the project gets some of its texts, the Internet Archive that hosts their offerings. LibriVox was started in August 2005 by Montreal-based writer Hugh McGuire, who set up a blog, posed the question; the first recorded book was The Secret Agent by Joseph Conrad.
The main features of the way LibriVox works have changed little since its inception, although the technology that supports it has been improved by the efforts of its volunteers with web-development skills. LibriVox is an invented word inspired by Latin words liber in its genitive form libri and vox, giving the meaning BookVoice; the word was coined because of other connotations: liber means child and free, unrestricted. As the LibriVox forum says: "We like to think LibriVox might be interpreted as'child of the voice', and'free voice'; the other link we like is'library' so you could imagine it to mean Library of Voice."There has been no decision or consensus by LibriVox founders or the community of volunteers for a single pronunciation of LibriVox. It is accepted. LibriVox is a volunteer-run, free content, Public Domain project, it has legal personality. The development of projects is managed through an Internet forum, supported by an admin team, who maintain a searchable catalogue database of completed works.
In early 2010, LibriVox ran a fundraising drive to raise $20,000 to cover hosting costs for the website of about $5,000/year and improve front- and backend usability. The target was reached in 13 days, so the fundraising ended and LibriVox suggested that supporters consider making donations to its affiliates and partners, Project Gutenberg and the Internet Archive. Volunteers can choose new projects to start, either recording on their own or inviting others to join them, or they can contribute to projects that have been started by others. Once a volunteer has recorded his or her contribution, it is uploaded to the site, proof-listened by members of the LibriVox community. Finished audiobooks are available from the LibriVox website, MP3 and Ogg Vorbis files are hosted separately by the Internet Archive. Recordings are available through other means, such as iTunes, being free of copyright, they are distributed independently of LibriVox on the Internet and otherwise. LibriVox only records material, in the public domain in the United States, all LibriVox books are released with a public domain dedication.
Because of copyright restrictions, LibriVox produces recordings of only a limited number of contemporary books. These have included, for example, the 9/11 Commission Report, a work of the US Federal Government therefore in the Public Domain; the LibriVox catalogue is varied. It contains much popular classic fiction, but includes less predictable texts, such as Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason and a recording of the first 500 digits of pi; the collection features poetry, religious texts and non-fiction of various kinds. In January 2009, the catalogue contained 55 percent fiction and drama, 25 percent non-fiction and 20 percent poetry. By the end of 2018, the most viewed item was The Adventures of Tom Sawyer in a 2006 solo recording by John Greenman. Around 90 percent of the catalogue is recorded in English, but recordings exist in 31 languages altogether. Chinese and German are the most popular languages other than English amongst volunteers, but recordings have been made in languages including Urdu and Tagalog.
LibriVox has garnered significant interest, in particular from those interested in the promotion of volunteer-led content and alternative approaches to copyright ownership on the Internet. It has received support from the Internet Project Gutenberg. Intellectual freedom and commons proponent Mike Linksvayer described it in 2008 as "perhaps the most interesting collaborative culture project this side of Wikipedia"; the project has been featured in press around the world and has been recommended by the BBC's Click, MSNBC's The Today Show, Wired, the US PC Magazine and the UK Metro and Sunday Times newspapers. A frequent concern of listeners is the site's policy of allowing any recording to be published as long as it is understandable and faithful to the source text; this means. While some listeners may object to those books with chapters read by multiple readers, others find this to be a non-issue or a feature, though many books are narrated by a single reader. Virtual volunteering Voice acting LibriVox siteLibriVox home page and LibriVox Catalogue of Audio BooksArticlesXeni Tech story from NPR's Day to Day, "Amateur Audio Books Cat
Mary Drew, was a political secretary and hostess. She was the daughter of the British Prime Minister William Ewart Gladstone, achieved notability as his advisor and private secretary, she attained a fair degree of political influence by controlling access to him. The Gladstones were a eccentric family. Mary's mother and her mother's sister Mary, Lady Lyttelton, married on the same day in the same church, kept both families in the same house. Lord Lyttelton, Mary's uncle, recalled finding "seventeen children upon the floor, all under the age of twelve, all inkstands, carpets, ornaments, in intimate intermixture and in every form of fracture and confusion". In all, there were seven Gladstone and twelve Lyttelton children. Mary's father's rescue work amongst the prostitutes of London is well known and was considered by many contemporaries unbecoming of a Prime Minister, his sister went insane after converting to Roman Catholicism, subsequently used tracts written by Protestant theologians as lavatory paper, an act which incensed the zealously Anglican Prime Minister.
She and her sister lived a privileged life and she and Helen had their own maid named Auguste Schlüter. Gladstone, growing up against this outré background, was her father's favourite, a plain girl and studious, but with little serious education, her considerable gumption, won her the nickname Von Moltke. After a few infatuations with several uninterested men, she resigned herself to life as a spinster. In 1880, on becoming Prime Minister for a third term at the age of seventy, her father created her one of his Downing Street secretaries, thus began her political career: she soon became the door to her father. It was a powerful position. On 2 February 1886, at the age of 38, Mary Gladstone astounded her friends and family by marrying the Rev. Harry Drew, curate of Hawarden, ten years her junior, they lived in the home of her parents, Hawarden Castle. They had one surviving daughter, Dorothy Mary Catherine Drew, born 11 March 1890, known as "Dossie", a favourite of her grandfather. After the Prime Minister's final retirement in 1894, her political influence waned.
Although a great friend to his successor Lord Rosebery, she was never again able to wield influence. A keen diarist, Gladstone kept copious notes of her father's meetings and conversations, in addition to her own observations of late 19th-century political events, her archives, "The Mary Gladstone Papers", are a much-used source of many 20th- and 21st-century biographies of leading figures of the day. The diary, which served as an emotional outlet, diminished in its thoroughness after her marriage, when what she had committed to paper she found she could instead commit to her husband, she wrote nothing at all for the seven years between 1904 and 1911, but picked it up again immediately after her husband died. She had intended for a time to publish the diaries herself, according to Lucy Masterman, the proofs "were considerably'edited' and much of the raciness and individuality taken from them, they have therefore been discarded, except as evidence of an intention to publish, wherever the original MS. exists."Gladstone had an eccentric grammar, employing a sort of long dot as her generic period.
Masterman took pains to edit out both this and the many banal lists of attendees at parties and dinners, along with the myriad accounts and analyses of symphony concerts, evidence of her congenital dayums: "Anniversaries of births, confirmations, betrothals and funerals were noted, together, of course, with Saints' Days and Festivals of the Church." BibliographyDrew, Mary. Lucy Masterman, ed. Mary Gladstone: Her Diaries and Letters. London: Methuen. Gooddie, Sheila. Mary Gladstone: A Gentle Rebel. John Welly and Sons Ltd. ISBN 978-0-470-85423-5. Weliver, Phyllis. Mary Gladstone and the Victorian Salon: music, liberalism. Cambridge University press. ISBN 978-1-107-18480-0. "Archival material relating to Mary Gladstone". UK National Archives. National Portrait Gallery portraits of Mary Drew
Dumbleton Hall is based in the village of Dumbleton between the towns of Evesham and Tewkesbury and on the boundary of Worcestershire and Gloucestershire. The Hall is a Grade II* listed building; the original Dumbleton Hall can be traced from around 1690 as the home of the Cocks family for over 200 years. After the death of Sir Richard Cocks in the late 18th century the Hall fell into disrepair and was demolished c1780. In 1830 the agriculturalist Edward Holland employed George Stanley Repton to build the present Hall using the local Cotswold stone; the Hall was completed in 1832. Elizabeth Gaskell, the novelist and cousin of Edward Holland, was a frequent visitor to the Hall. Holland's eldest son married Mrs Gaskell's daughter. Holland knew Charles Darwin, Charles Dickens and the Wedgwood family and they are to have been visitors. From 1881, Dumbleton Hall became home to the Eyres-Monsell family and in the 1920s and 1930s the Hall held house and society parties with regular guests including John Betjeman to become Poet Laureate, the Mitford sisters.
The German Ambassador Joachim von Ribbentrop was invited to stay at Dumbleton. During the Second World War the Hall was considered as a suitable alternative venue for the House of Lords. In the 1940s the Women's Land Army were billeted on the top floor of the Hall; the Hall became a private hotel in 1959 when it was purchased by the Post Office Fellowship of Remembrance for the benefit of its members for the sum of £180,000. In 1960 the Hall opened to provided holiday facilities to Post Office employees, it was funded as a living memory to those men and women of the Post Office who had died in the First and Second World Wars. A memorial garden was laid out in the former swimming pool area. Books of Remembrance listing all 12,830 postal workers killed in the two world wars were kept at the Hall, but these are now on permanent display at the Postal Museum in London; the Hall has been open to the general public as a hotel since 1996 under the trading name of Classic Hotels, although it remains under the ownership of the Post Office Fellowship of Remembrance.
It is used as a wedding venue. Dumbleton Hall