The Circuito Lasarte was an 11.029-mile Grand Prix motor racing road course at Lasarte-Oria, Guipúzcoa, Spain in the Basque Country near the resort town of San Sebastián on the Bay of Biscay. The counterclockwise layout was used between 1923 and 1935 but racing ended with the eruption of the Spanish Civil War in 1936 and after the war auto racing resumed at new tracks near Barcelona; the Circuito Lasarte played host to the San Sebastian Grand Prix seven times, the Spanish Grand Prix five times and the 1926 European Grand Prix. No longer operational for auto racing, in 1965 the layout was used for the World Cycling Championship. 1923 Albert Guyot driving a Rolland-Pilain 1924 Henry Segrave driving a Sunbeam 1925 Albert Divo/André Morel driving a Delage 2LCV 1926 Jules Goux driving a Bugatti T39A 1926 Bartolomeo Costantini driving a Bugatti T35 1927 Robert Benoist driving a Delage 15-S8 1927 Emilio Materassi driving a Bugatti T35C 1928 Louis Chiron driving a Bugatti T35C 1929 Louis Chiron driving a Bugatti T35B 1930 Achille Varzi driving a Maserati 26M 1933 Louis Chiron driving an Alfa Romeo Type B/P3 1934 Luigi Fagioli driving a Mercedes-Benz W25/34 1935 Rudolf Caracciola driving a Mercedes-Benz W25/35 The Golden Age by Leif Snellman Lasarte auto racing photos
French Grand Prix
The French Grand Prix known as the Grand Prix de l'ACF, is an auto race held as part of the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile's annual Formula One World Championship. It is one of the oldest motor races in the world as well as the first "Grand Prix", it ceased shortly after its centenary in 2008 with 86 races having been held, due to unfavourable financial circumstances and venues. The race returned to the Formula One calendar in 2018 with Circuit Paul Ricard hosting the race. Unusually for a race of such longevity, the location of the Grand Prix has moved with 16 different venues having been used over its life, a number only eclipsed by the 23 venues used for the Australian Grand Prix since its 1928 start, it is one of four races to have been held as part of the three distinct Grand Prix championships. The Grand Prix de l'ACF was tremendously influential in the early years of Grand Prix racing, leading the establishment of the rules and regulations of racing as well as setting trends in the evolution of racing.
The power of original organiser, the Automobile Club de France, established France as the home of motor racing organisation. Grand Prix motor racing originated in France and the French Grand Prix, open to international competition, is the oldest Grand Prix race, first run on 26 June 1906 under the auspices of the Automobile Club de France in Sarthe, with a starting field of 32 automobiles; the Grand Prix name referred to the prize of 45,000 French francs to the race winner. The franc was pegged to the gold at 0.290 grams per franc, which meant that the prize was worth 13 kg of gold, or €191,000 adjusted for inflation. The earliest French Grands Prix were held on circuits consisting of public roads near towns through France, they were held at different towns each year, such as Le Mans, Amiens, Lyon and Tours. Dieppe in particular was an dangerous circuit – 9 people in total were killed at the three French Grands Prix held at the 79 km circuit; the 1906 race was the first Grand Prix, an event that originated from the Gordon Bennett Cup races that had started in 1899.
This race was run on a 66-mile closed public road circuit starting at the western French town of Le Mans, through a series of villages and back again to Le Mans. Hungarian Ferenc Szisz won this long 12‑hour race on a Renault from Italian Felice Nazzaro in a Fiat, where laps on this circuit took around an hour and the horse carriage road surface was made of dirt; the 1908 race saw Mercedes humiliating the French organizers and finishing 1-2-3 at the lethal circuit at Dieppe, where no less than 4 people were killed during the weekend. The 1913 race was won by Georges Boillot on a one-off 19-mile circuit near Amiens in northern France. Amiens was another deadly circuit – it had a 7.1 mile straight and 5 people were killed during its use during pre-race testing and the race weekend itself. The 1914 race, run on a 24‑mile circuit near Lyon is the most legendary Grand Prix of the pre‑WWI racing era; this was a hard-fought battle between the German Mercedes. Although the Peugeots were fast and Boillot ended up leading for 12 of the 20 laps the Dunlop tyres they used wore out badly compared to the Continentials that the Mercedes cars were using.
Boillot's four-minute lead was wiped out by Christian Lautenschlager in a Mercedes while Boillot stopped an incredible eight times for tyres. Although Boillot drove hard to try to catch Lautenschlager, he had to retire on the last lap due to engine failure, for the second time in 6 years Mercedes finished 1–2–3. Thanks to World War I and the amount of damage it did to France, the Grand Prix was not brought back until 1921, that race was won by American Jimmy Murphy with a Duesenberg at the Sarthe circuit on Le Mans, the now legendary circuit's first year of operation. Bugatti made its debut at the 1922 race at an 8.3‑mile off-public road circuit near Strasbourg near the French-German border –, close to Bugatti's headquarters in Molsheim. It rained, the muddy circuit was in a dreadful condition; this race became a duel between Bugatti and Fiat – and Felice Nazzaro won in a Fiat, although his nephew and fellow competitor Biagio Nazzaro was killed after the axle on his Fiat broke, threw a wheel and hit a tree.
The 1923 race at another one-off circuit near Tours featured another new Bugatti – the Type 32. This car was unkindly dubbed the "Tank", owing to its streamlined shape and short wheelbase; this car was fast on the straights of this high-speed public road circuit – but it handled badly and was outpaced by Briton Henry Seagrave in a Sunbeam. Seagrave won the race, the Sunbeam would be the last British car to win an official Grand Prix until Stirling Moss's victory with a Vanwall at the 1957 British Grand Prix; the 1924 race was held again at Lyon, but this time on a shortened 14‑mile variant of the circuit used in 1914. Two of the most successful Grand Prix cars of all time, the Bugatti Type 35 and the Alfa Romeo P2 both made their debuts at this race; the Bugattis, with their advanced alloy wheels suffered tyre failure, Italian Giuseppe Campari won his Alfa P2. In 1925, the first permanent autodrome in France was built, it was called Autodrome de Linas-Montlhéry, located 20 miles south of the centre of the French capital of Paris.
Strasbourg is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament. Located at the border with Germany in the historic region of Alsace, it is the capital of the Bas-Rhin department. In 2016, the city proper had 279,284 inhabitants and both the Eurométropole de Strasbourg and the Arrondissement of Strasbourg had 491,409 inhabitants. Strasbourg's metropolitan area had a population of 785,839 in 2015, making it the ninth largest metro area in France and home to 13% of the Grand Est region's inhabitants; the transnational Eurodistrict Strasbourg-Ortenau had a population of 915,000 inhabitants in 2014. Strasbourg is one of the de facto capitals of the European Union, as it is the seat of several European institutions, such as the Council of Europe and the Eurocorps, as well as the European Parliament and the European Ombudsman of the European Union; the city is the seat of the Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine and the International Institute of Human Rights.
Strasbourg's historic city centre, the Grande Île, was classified a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1988, the first time such an honour was placed on an entire city centre. Strasbourg is immersed in Franco-German culture and although violently disputed throughout history, has been a cultural bridge between France and Germany for centuries through the University of Strasbourg the second largest in France, the coexistence of Catholic and Protestant culture, it is home to the largest Islamic place of worship in France, the Strasbourg Grand Mosque. Economically, Strasbourg is an important centre of manufacturing and engineering, as well as a hub of road and river transportation; the port of Strasbourg is the second largest on the Rhine after Germany. Before the 5th century, the city was known as Argantorati, a Celtic Gaulish name Latinized first as Argentorate, as Argentoratum; that Gaulish name is a compound of -rati, the Gaulish word for fortified enclosures, cognate to the Old Irish ráth, arganto-, the Gaulish word for silver, but any precious metal gold, suggesting either a fortified enclosure located by a river gold mining site, or hoarding gold mined in the nearby rivers.
After the 5th century, the city became known by a different name Gallicized as Strasbourg. That name is of Germanic origin and means "Town of roads"; the modern Stras- is cognate to the German Straße and English street, all of which are derived from Latin strata, while -bourg is cognate to the German Burg and English borough, all of which are derived from Proto-Germanic *burgz. Gregory of Tours was the first to mention the name change: in the tenth book of his History of the Franks written shortly after 590 he said that Egidius, Bishop of Reims, accused of plotting against King Childebert II of Austrasia in favor of his uncle King Chilperic I of Neustria, was tried by a synod of Austrasian bishops in Metz in November 590, found guilty and removed from the priesthood taken "ad Argentoratensem urbem, quam nunc Strateburgum vocant", where he was exiled. Strasbourg is situated at the eastern border of France with Germany; this border is formed by the Rhine, which forms the eastern border of the modern city, facing across the river to the German town Kehl.
The historic core of Strasbourg however lies on the Grande Île in the river Ill, which here flows parallel to, 4 kilometres from, the Rhine. The natural courses of the two rivers join some distance downstream of Strasbourg, although several artificial waterways now connect them within the city; the city lies in the Upper Rhine Plain, at between 132 metres and 151 metres above sea level, with the upland areas of the Vosges Mountains some 20 km to the west and the Black Forest 25 km to the east. This section of the Rhine valley is a major axis of north–south travel, with river traffic on the Rhine itself, major roads and railways paralleling it on both banks; the city is some 397 kilometres east of Paris. The mouth of the Rhine lies 450 kilometres to the north, or 650 kilometres as the river flows, whilst the head of navigation in Basel is some 100 kilometres to the south, or 150 kilometres by river. In spite of its position far inland, Strasbourg's climate is classified as oceanic, but a "semicontinental" climate with some degree of maritime influence in relation to the mild patterns of Western and Southern France.
The city has warm sunny summers and cool, overcast winters. Precipitation is elevated from mid-spring to the end of summer, but remains constant throughout the year, totaling 631.4 mm annually. On average, snow falls 30 days per year; the highest temperature recorded was 38.5 °C in August 2003, during the 2003 European heat wave. The lowest temperature eve
The Liberty L-12 was an American 27-litre water-cooled 45° V-12 aircraft engine of 400 hp designed for a high power-to-weight ratio and ease of mass production. It was succeeded by the Packard 1A-2500. In May 1917, a month after the United States had declared war on Germany, a federal task force known as the Aircraft Production Board summoned two top engine designers, Jesse G. Vincent and Elbert J. Hall, to Washington, D. C.. They were given the task of designing as as possible an aircraft engine that would rival if not surpass those of Great Britain and Germany; the Board specified that the engine would have a high power-to-weight ratio and be adaptable to mass production. The Board brought Vincent and Hall together on 29 May 1917 at the Willard Hotel in Washington, where the two were asked to stay until they produced a set of basic drawings. After just five days and Hall left the Willard with a completed design for the new engine, which had adopted unchanged, the single overhead camshaft and rocker arm valvetrain design of the Mercedes D.
IIIa engines of 1917-18. In July 1917, an eight-cylinder prototype assembled by Packard's Detroit plant arrived in Washington for testing, in August, the 12-cylinder version was tested and approved. In the fall of 1917, the War Department placed an order for 22,500 Liberty engines, dividing the contract among the automobile and engine manufacturers Buick, Cadillac, Lincoln and Packard. Hall-Scott in California was considered too small to receive a production order. Manufacturing by multiple factories was facilitated by its modular design. Ford was asked to supply cylinders for the new engine and developed an improved technique for cutting and pressing steel, which resulted in cylinder production rising from 151 per day to over 2,000. Lincoln constructed a new plant in record time, devoted to Liberty engine production, assembled 2,000 engines in 12 months. By the time of the Armistice with Germany, the various companies had produced 13,574 Liberty engines, attaining a production rate of 150 engines per day.
Production continued after the war, for a total of 20,478 engines built between July 4, 1917 and 1919. Although it is reported otherwise, a few Liberty engines did see action in France as power for the American version of the British Airco DH.4. As the United States entered World War I, the Cadillac division of General Motors was asked to produce the new Liberty aircraft engine, but William C. Durant was a pacifist who did not want General Motors or Cadillac facilities to be used for producing war material; this led to Henry Leland leaving Cadillac to form the Lincoln Motor Company to make Liberty engines. He gained a $10,000,000 government contract to build 6,000 engines. Subsequently the order was increased to 9,000 units, with an option for 8,000 more if the government needed them. More than 16,000 Liberty engines were produced during the calendar year 1918. To November 11, 1918, more than 14,000 Liberty engines were produced. Lincoln had delivered 6,500 of the 400 hp V-12 overhead camshaft engines when production ceased in January 1919.
The Liberty engine was a modular design where four or six cylinders could be used in one or two banks, allowing for inline fours, V-8s, inline sixes, or the V-12. The design was held together by a two-part cast aluminium crankcase; the two pieces formed the upper and lower halves of the completed assembly and were held together with a series of bolts running around the outside perimeter. As was common for the era, the cylinders were separately formed from forged steel tubes with thin metal jackets surrounding them to provide cooling water flow. A single overhead camshaft for each cylinder bank operated two valves per cylinder, in an identical manner to the inline six-cylinder German Mercedes D. III and BMW III engines; each camshaft was driven by a vertical driveshaft, placed at the back of each cylinder bank, again identical to the Mercedes and BMW straight-six powerplants. Delco Electronics provided Zenith the carburetor. Dry weight was 844 lb. Fifty-two examples of a six-cylinder version, the Liberty L-6, which closely resembled the Mercedes and BMW powerplants in overall appearance, were produced but not procured by the Army.
A pair of the 52 engines produced were destroyed by William Christmas testing his so-called "Christmas Bullet" fighter. V-1650 An inverted Liberty 12-A referred to; the same designation was applied to the Packard V-1650 Merlin, an engine with nearly identical engine displacement. This was a World War II Packard produced version of the Rolls-Royce Merlin, is not to be confused with the earlier Liberty-based version. Allison VG-1410 The Allison VG-1410 was an air-cooled inverted Liberty L-12, with a geared super-charger, Allison epicyclic propeller reduction gear, bore reduced to 4 5⁄8 in, giving a lower displacement of 1,411 in3. Liberty L-6 A 6-cylinder version of the Liberty L-12, nicknamed the "Liberty Six", consisted of a single bank of cylinders, with the resulting engine bearing a strong external resemblance to both the Mercedes D. III and BMW III straight-six German aviation engines of World War I. Liberty L-8 An 8-cylinder V engine using Liberty cylinders in banks of four at 45°. Mikulin M-5 License production produced in the USSR.
Nuffield Liberty The Nuffield Liberty tank engine was licensed and produced in
For the village in New Caledonia see Miramas, MaréMiramas is a commune in the Bouches-du-Rhône department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southern France. It is the second-largest commune in metropolitan Ouest-Provence and is located at the north end of the Étang de Berre lagoon, adjacent to and northeast of the city of Istres; the Circuit of Miramas is located within 2 km of the town. In 1926 it hosted the French Grand Prix, won by Frenchman Jules Goux driving a Bugatti T39A. Goux, the son of the superintendent at the Peugeot factory, had earlier became famous for winning the 1913 Indianapolis 500 while consuming four bottles of champagne during the course of the race. Goux had been the first foreign winner at Indianapolis. Today the racetrack is used as a vehicle test track. Communes of the Bouches-du-Rhône department INSEE Official website Historic Purpose Built Grand Prix Circuits on Google Maps
Talbot or Clément-Talbot Limited was a London automobile manufacturer founded in 1903. Clément-Talbot's products were named just Talbot from shortly after introduction, but the business remained Clément-Talbot Limited until 1938 when it was renamed Sunbeam-Talbot Limited; the founders, Charles Chetwynd-Talbot, 20th Earl of Shrewsbury and Adolphe Clément-Bayard, reduced their financial interests in their Clément-Talbot business during the First World War. Soon after the end of the war, Clément-Talbot was brought into a combine named S T D Motors. Shortly afterward, S T D Motors' French products were renamed Talbot instead of Darracq. In the mid-1930s, with the collapse of S T D Motors, Rootes bought the London Talbot factory and Antonio Lago bought the Paris Talbot factory, Lago producing vehicles under the marques Talbot and Talbot-Lago. Rootes renamed Clément-Talbot Limited Sunbeam-Talbot Limited in 1938, stopped using the brand name Talbot in the mid-1950s; the Paris factory closed a few years later.
Ownership of the marque came by a series of takeovers to Peugeot S. A. which revived use of the Talbot name from 1978 until 1994. In December 1919 A Darracq and Company Limited of London with its factory in Suresnes, bought the entire capital of Clément-Talbot and bought Sunbeam and renamed itself S. T. D. Motors Limited; those initials referred to Sunbeam and Darracq. But in the depth of the Great Depression S T D Motors became unable to pay its debts, its subsidiaries managed to find buyers and in 1936 S T D Motors ceased to exist. Clément-Talbot continued to be famous for the design and quality of its products and it remained profitable during the depression. Clément-Talbot was bought by Rootes Group and renamed Sunbeam-Talbot. Sunbeam alone twenty years after that. In 1920 Suresnes products were branded Talbot-Darracq but the word Darracq was dropped in 1922. If exported to England Paris-made Talbots were rebadged Darracq or Talbot-Darracq Dragged down by the 1924 borrowing to pay for the Sunbeam racing programme S T D Motors and Automobiles Talbot France suffered a financial collapse in late 1934.
Following the financial collapse of its parent, S T D Motors, Clément-Talbot remained financially sound with marketable products. Clément-Talbot was bought by Rootes Securities and continued to manufacture the same catalogue of vehicles introducing components from Hillman and Humber cars; as the genuine Talbot parts bins ran dry a modified Hillman Aero Minx was introduced to the production line and given the Talbot brand name. In 1938 this Talbot Ten and its stable mates were badged Sunbeam-Talbot and owner, Clément-Talbot Limited's, name changed to fit. Following the financial collapse of S T D Motors and Paris's Automobiles Talbot Antonio Lago, the Suresnes' manager, arranged a management buyout of the French operation. Antonio Lago involved Talbot in sports car and Grand Prix racing as well as producing high quality luxury cars. In the postwar world of austerity and socialism the French government introduced punitive annual taxation on cars with engines larger than 2.6-litres and Talbot sales were restricted.
Lago continued the Talbot business until 1958. The dormant Talbot marque was sold to Simca. Simca was bought by Chrysler Europe in 1970. PSA Peugeot Citroën acquired the still dormant Talbot marque when it bought Chrysler in 1978. PSA Peugeot Citroën began to use a Talbot badge on former Simca and Chrysler models Chrysler Europe had struggled to make a profit for much of its existence, had relied on government bailouts to ensure its survival. With mounting pressure on its core North American business, the decision was taken by Chrysler's CEO Lee Iacocca to offload the ailing European operations; the French Government persuaded both PSA Peugeot Citroën to bid for the company. In August 1978, PSA purchased Chrysler Europe for a nominal $1, resurrected the Talbot name — using it to re-badge the former Simca and Rootes models. Although PSA took responsibility for Chrysler Europe's considerable debts and liabilities, the move was a strategic one; the Peugeot takeover saw the end of the Rootes' Chrysler Hunter production, but the Simca-designed 1510, Horizon continued as Talbots.
All former Chrysler products registered in Britain after 1 August 1979 bore the Talbot badge. Talbot's UK branch manufactured the Alpine and Horizon at their aging Ryton plant in Coventry after the British developed cars had all been retired – excepting the UK arm's largest revenue source, building CKD kits of the Hillman Hunter to be sent to Iran where they were assembled as the Peykan; the last remaining car produced by the Rootes group, the Chrysler Avenger, remained in production as a Talbot until the end of 1981. The entry-level model in the Talbot range from 1982 onwards would be the Talbot Samba, a three-door hatchback based on the Peugeot 104. In 1981, Peugeot began producing the Talbot Tagora, a boxy four-door saloon marketed as a Ford Granada or Vauxhall Carlton/Opel Rekord rival, but it was not popular in either Britain or France and production ceased in 1983. At the end of 1984, the Alpine hatchback and its related Solara saloon were rebadged Minx and Rapier depending upon specification rather than body shape.
The new names were inherited
J. G. Parry-Thomas
John Godfrey Parry-Thomas was a Welsh engineer and motor-racing driver who at one time held the land speed record. He was the first driver to be killed in pursuit of the land speed record. Parry-Thomas was born in Wrexham, the son of the curate of Rhosddu; the family moved to nearby Oswestry when he was five years old, he was educated at Oswestry School. He went on to study engineering at The Guilds College in London. Parry-Thomas became chief engineer at Leyland Motors, a company whose main products were commercial vehicles, he filed for and received a number of patents, in the fields of electrical and automotive engineering. After the First World War he and his assistant Reid Railton designed the Leyland Eight luxury motor car, intended to compete with Rolls-Royce, his experience of driving this car around Brooklands in 1920 persuaded him to give up his career with Leyland to become a full-time motor-racing driver and engineer. In partnership with another engineer, Major Ken Thomson from New Zealand, he started Thomas Inventions Development Co. based inside the Brooklands circuit itself.
After his death, this company became Thomson & Taylor and went on to build such cars as Malcolm Campbell's Blue Bird. From 1923 he lived in the "flying village" there, in a bungalow converted from a First World War hut named The Hermitage, it was an ascetic life, shared only with two Alsatian dogs and his cars, in stark contrast to the hedonism of the Bentley Boys. Parry-Thomas achieved some success on the circuit, winning 38 races in five seasons and setting numerous records. By 1925 Parry-Thomas realised that commercial success required a higher profile than Brooklands could offer, switched his attention to the land speed record, he acquired the Higham Special from the estate of the deceased Count Zborowski and rebuilt the car with new bodywork for improved aerodynamics. The car was powered by a huge 27-litre Liberty V-12 aero-engine. Without Campbell's money and prestige, or Henry Segrave's factory connections, Parry-Thomas was unable to obtain a brand-new Napier Lion, as the other record contenders were planning.
The car did not perform as expected. In April 1926 the car, now named Babs, emerged with another new body, he celebrated by driving the lanes around Brooklands that same evening, despite his lack of headlamps. A few days despite the poor conditions and soft, wet sand, Parry-Thomas took the record at Pendine Sands, the same six-mile beach that Campbell had used in 1924 and 1925; the following day, 28 April 1926, he raised it to over 170 mph, a record that stood for a year. During the winter of 1926/7 Babs was fitted with yet another new body enclosing the drive and rear wheels by fairings. Parry-Thomas was killed at Pendine Sands on 3 March 1927 while trying to regain his own world land speed record, broken just weeks earlier by Malcolm Campbell on the same beach. At the time of the accident it was thought that the right-hand chain had broken and had hit Thomas, causing a fatal head injury as the car was rolling. During the subsequent restoration of the car, it was found that this could not have been the case and that it was more that Thomas had been killed as a result of the injuries he sustained while the car rolled and slid along the beach at more than 100 mph.
Parry-Thomas was buried in St Mary's Churchyard in Byfleet, close to the Brooklands Circuit. Following the inquest, Babs was buried in the dunes at Pendine Sands; some 42 years in 1969 it was controversially recovered, over the next 15 years was restored by Owen Wyn Owen, at the time a member of Bangor University. For part of every summer, Babs is on display at the Pendine Museum of Carmarthenshire. Notes Bibliography Wales and the History of the World BBC programme with archive footage of Babs. Short Biopic' made by Tom Tremayne regarding Parry Thomas's life etc. on YouTube British Pathé film of Babs being recovered from Pendine Sands in 1969