French Grand Prix
The French Grand Prix known as the Grand Prix de l'ACF, is an auto race held as part of the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile's annual Formula One World Championship. It is one of the oldest motor races in the world as well as the first "Grand Prix", it ceased shortly after its centenary in 2008 with 86 races having been held, due to unfavourable financial circumstances and venues. The race returned to the Formula One calendar in 2018 with Circuit Paul Ricard hosting the race. Unusually for a race of such longevity, the location of the Grand Prix has moved with 16 different venues having been used over its life, a number only eclipsed by the 23 venues used for the Australian Grand Prix since its 1928 start, it is one of four races to have been held as part of the three distinct Grand Prix championships. The Grand Prix de l'ACF was tremendously influential in the early years of Grand Prix racing, leading the establishment of the rules and regulations of racing as well as setting trends in the evolution of racing.
The power of original organiser, the Automobile Club de France, established France as the home of motor racing organisation. Grand Prix motor racing originated in France and the French Grand Prix, open to international competition, is the oldest Grand Prix race, first run on 26 June 1906 under the auspices of the Automobile Club de France in Sarthe, with a starting field of 32 automobiles; the Grand Prix name referred to the prize of 45,000 French francs to the race winner. The franc was pegged to the gold at 0.290 grams per franc, which meant that the prize was worth 13 kg of gold, or €191,000 adjusted for inflation. The earliest French Grands Prix were held on circuits consisting of public roads near towns through France, they were held at different towns each year, such as Le Mans, Amiens, Lyon and Tours. Dieppe in particular was an dangerous circuit – 9 people in total were killed at the three French Grands Prix held at the 79 km circuit; the 1906 race was the first Grand Prix, an event that originated from the Gordon Bennett Cup races that had started in 1899.
This race was run on a 66-mile closed public road circuit starting at the western French town of Le Mans, through a series of villages and back again to Le Mans. Hungarian Ferenc Szisz won this long 12‑hour race on a Renault from Italian Felice Nazzaro in a Fiat, where laps on this circuit took around an hour and the horse carriage road surface was made of dirt; the 1908 race saw Mercedes humiliating the French organizers and finishing 1-2-3 at the lethal circuit at Dieppe, where no less than 4 people were killed during the weekend. The 1913 race was won by Georges Boillot on a one-off 19-mile circuit near Amiens in northern France. Amiens was another deadly circuit – it had a 7.1 mile straight and 5 people were killed during its use during pre-race testing and the race weekend itself. The 1914 race, run on a 24‑mile circuit near Lyon is the most legendary Grand Prix of the pre‑WWI racing era; this was a hard-fought battle between the German Mercedes. Although the Peugeots were fast and Boillot ended up leading for 12 of the 20 laps the Dunlop tyres they used wore out badly compared to the Continentials that the Mercedes cars were using.
Boillot's four-minute lead was wiped out by Christian Lautenschlager in a Mercedes while Boillot stopped an incredible eight times for tyres. Although Boillot drove hard to try to catch Lautenschlager, he had to retire on the last lap due to engine failure, for the second time in 6 years Mercedes finished 1–2–3. Thanks to World War I and the amount of damage it did to France, the Grand Prix was not brought back until 1921, that race was won by American Jimmy Murphy with a Duesenberg at the Sarthe circuit on Le Mans, the now legendary circuit's first year of operation. Bugatti made its debut at the 1922 race at an 8.3‑mile off-public road circuit near Strasbourg near the French-German border –, close to Bugatti's headquarters in Molsheim. It rained, the muddy circuit was in a dreadful condition; this race became a duel between Bugatti and Fiat – and Felice Nazzaro won in a Fiat, although his nephew and fellow competitor Biagio Nazzaro was killed after the axle on his Fiat broke, threw a wheel and hit a tree.
The 1923 race at another one-off circuit near Tours featured another new Bugatti – the Type 32. This car was unkindly dubbed the "Tank", owing to its streamlined shape and short wheelbase; this car was fast on the straights of this high-speed public road circuit – but it handled badly and was outpaced by Briton Henry Seagrave in a Sunbeam. Seagrave won the race, the Sunbeam would be the last British car to win an official Grand Prix until Stirling Moss's victory with a Vanwall at the 1957 British Grand Prix; the 1924 race was held again at Lyon, but this time on a shortened 14‑mile variant of the circuit used in 1914. Two of the most successful Grand Prix cars of all time, the Bugatti Type 35 and the Alfa Romeo P2 both made their debuts at this race; the Bugattis, with their advanced alloy wheels suffered tyre failure, Italian Giuseppe Campari won his Alfa P2. In 1925, the first permanent autodrome in France was built, it was called Autodrome de Linas-Montlhéry, located 20 miles south of the centre of the French capital of Paris.
Land speed record
The land speed record is the highest speed achieved by a person using a vehicle on land. There is no single body for regulation; the land speed record is standardized as the speed over a course of fixed length, averaged over two runs. Two runs are required in opposite directions within one hour, a new record mark must exceed the previous one by at least one percent to be validated; the first regulators were the Automobile Club de France, who proclaimed themselves arbiters of the record in about 1902. Different clubs had different standards and did not always recognize the same world records until 1924, when the Association Internationale des Automobile Clubs Reconnus introduced new regulations: two passes in opposite directions averaged with a maximum of 30 minutes between runs, average gradient of the racing surface not more than 1 percent, timing gear accurate within 0.01sec, cars must be wheel-driven. National or regional auto clubs had to be AIACR members to ensure; the AIACR became the FIA in 1947.
Controversy arose in 1963: Spirit of America was not recognized due to its being a three-wheeler and not wheel-driven so the FIA introduced a special wheel-driven class. No holder of the absolute record since has been wheel-driven. In 1906 Dorothy Levitt broke the women's world speed record for the flying kilometer, recording a speed of 91 mph and receiving the sobriquet the "Fastest Girl on Earth", she drove a six-cylinder Napier motorcar, a 100 hp development of the K5, in a speed trial in Blackpool. A subsequent record was held by Lee Breedlove, the wife of Craig Breedlove, who piloted her husband's Spirit of America - Sonic 1 to a record 308.506 mph in 1965, making her the fastest woman alive, as of 1974. According to author Rachel Kushner, Craig Breedlove had talked Lee into taking the car out for a record attempt in order to monopolize the salt flats for the day and block one of his competitors from making a record attempt; the current women's absolute record was set by Kitty O'Neil, in the jet-powered SMI Motivator, set at the Alvord Desert in 1976.
Held back by her contract with a sponsor and using only 60 percent of her car's power, O'Neil reached 512.710 mph. Craig Breedlove's mark of 407.447 miles per hour, set in Spirit of America in September 1963, was considered unofficial. The vehicle breached the FIA regulations on two grounds: it had only three wheels, it was not wheel-driven, since its jet engine did not supply power to its axles; some time the Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme created a non-wheel-driven category, ratified Spirit of America's time for this mark. On July 27, 1964, Donald Campbell's Bluebird CN7 posted a speed of 403.10 miles per hour on Lake Eyre, Australia. This became the official FIA LSR, although Campbell was disappointed not to have beaten Breedlove's time. In October, several four-wheel jet-cars surpassed the 1963 mark, but were eligible for neither FIA nor FIM ratification; the confusion of having three different LSRs lasted until December 11, 1964, when the FIA and FIM met in Paris and agreed to recognize as an absolute LSR the higher speed recorded by either body, by any vehicles running on wheels, whether wheel-driven or not.
Thus, Art Arfons' Green Monster was belatedly recognized as the absolute LSR holder, Bluebird the holder of the wheel-driven land speed record, Spirit of America the tricycle record holder. No wheel-driven car has since held the absolute record. List of vehicle speed records British land speed record Production car speed record Land speed record for rail vehicles Motorcycle land speed record Aero-engined car Pioneer 2M – Soviet Union attempt at the land speed record in early 1960s Budweiser Rocket – Claimed but not verified to have reached 739.666 miles per hour and to have broken the sound barrier in 1979 North American Eagle Project – Aiming for 808 mph to break current record. Bloodhound SSC – Project aiming for 1,050 mph. Rosco McGlashan – Australia's fastest man on the land, his Aussie Invader team is building a rocket-powered LSR car with an attempt at the record on hold pending funding. The Bullet Project – Australia's land speed record challenger Autoracing Speed Records at Curlie Aussie Invader official website - Australian challengers to the supersonic showdown Speed Record Club - The Speed Record Club seeks to promote an informed and educated enthusiast identity and impartially to the best of its ability on record-breaking engineering, events and history.
The Land Speed Record in the Sixties: an on-line collection
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland. The United Kingdom, having financed the European coalition that defeated France during the Napoleonic Wars, developed a large Royal Navy that enabled the British Empire to become the foremost world power for the next century; the Crimean War with Russia and the Boer wars were small operations in a peaceful century. Rapid industrialisation that began in the decades prior to the state's formation continued up until the mid-19th century; the Great Irish Famine, exacerbated by government inaction in the mid-19th century, led to demographic collapse in much of Ireland and increased calls for Irish land reform. The 19th century was an era of rapid economic modernisation and growth of industry and finance, in which Britain dominated the world economy. Outward migration was heavy to the United States; the empire was expanded into much of South Asia. The Colonial Office and India Office ruled through a small number of administrators who managed the units of the empire locally, while democratic institutions began to develop.
British India, by far the most important overseas possession, saw a short-lived revolt in 1857. In overseas policy, the central policy was free trade, which enabled British and Irish financiers and merchants to operate in many otherwise independent countries, as in South America. London formed no permanent military alliances until the early 20th century, when it began to cooperate with Japan and Russia, moved closer to the United States. Growing desire for Irish self-governance led to the Irish War of Independence, which resulted in most of Ireland seceding from the Union and forming the Irish Free State in 1922. Northern Ireland remained part of the Union, the state was renamed to the current "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland" in 1927; the modern-day United Kingdom is the same country as the one from this period—a direct continuation of what remained after the secession—not an new successor state. A brief period of limited independence for Ireland came to an end following the Irish Rebellion of 1798, which occurred during the British war with revolutionary France.
The British government's fear of an independent Ireland siding against them with the French resulted in the decision to unite the two countries. This was brought about by legislation in the parliaments of both kingdoms and came into effect on 1 January 1801; the Irish had been led to believe by the British that their loss of legislative independence would be compensated with Catholic emancipation, that is, by the removal of civil disabilities placed upon Roman Catholics in both Great Britain and Ireland. However, King George III was bitterly opposed to any such Emancipation and succeeded in defeating his government's attempts to introduce it. During the War of the Second Coalition, Britain occupied most of the French and Dutch overseas possessions, the Netherlands having become a satellite state of France in 1796, but tropical diseases claimed the lives of over 40,000 troops; when the Treaty of Amiens ended the war, Britain agreed to return most of the territories it had seized. The peace settlement was in effect only a ceasefire, Napoleon continued to provoke the British by attempting a trade embargo on the country and by occupying the city of Hanover, capital of the Electorate, a German-speaking duchy, in a personal union with the United Kingdom.
In May 1803, war was declared again. Napoleon's plans to invade Great Britain failed, chiefly due to the inferiority of his navy, in 1805 a Royal Navy fleet led by Nelson decisively defeated the French and Spanish at Trafalgar, the last significant naval action of the Napoleonic Wars. In 1806, Napoleon issued the series of Berlin Decrees, which brought into effect the Continental System; this policy aimed to eliminate the threat from the British by closing French-controlled territory to foreign trade. The British Army remained a minimal threat to France. Although the Royal Navy disrupted France's extra-continental trade—both by seizing and threatening French shipping and by seizing French colonial possessions—it could do nothing about France's trade with the major continental economies and posed little threat to French territory in Europe. France's population and agricultural capacity far outstripped that of the British Isles, but it was smaller in terms of industry, mercantile marine and naval strength.
Napoleon expected that cutting Britain off from the European mainland would end its economic hegemony. On the contrary Britain possessed the greatest industrial capacity in the world, its mastery of the seas allowed it to build up considerable economic strength through trade to its possessions and the United States; the Spanish uprising in 1808 at last permitted Britain to gain a foothold on the Continent. The Duke of Wellington pushed the French out of Spain, in early 1814, as Napoleon was being driven back in the east by the Prussians and Russians, Wellington invaded southern France. After Napoleon's surrender and exile to the island of Elba, peace appeared to have returned. Napoleon reappeared in 1815; the Allies united and the armies of Wellington and Blücher defeated Napoleon once and for all at Waterloo. To defeat France, Britain put heavy pressure on the Americans
Southport is a large seaside town in Merseyside, England. At the 2001 census, it had a population of 90,336, making it the eleventh most populous settlement in North West England. Southport is fringed to the north by the Ribble estuary; the town is 16.7 miles north of Liverpool and 14.8 miles southwest of Preston. Part of Lancashire, the town was founded in 1792 when William Sutton, an innkeeper from Churchtown, built a bathing house at what is now the south end of Lord Street. At that time, the area, known as South Hawes, was sparsely populated and dominated by sand dunes. At the turn of the 19th century, the area became popular with tourists due to the easy access from the nearby Leeds and Liverpool Canal; the rapid growth of Southport coincided with the Industrial Revolution and the Victorian era. Town attractions include Southport Pier with its Southport Pier Tramway, the second longest seaside pleasure pier in the British Isles, Lord Street is an elegant tree-lined shopping street. Extensive sand dunes stretch for several miles from Woodvale to the south of the town.
The Ainsdale sand dunes have been designated as a Ramsar site. Local fauna include the Sand lizard; the town contains examples of Victorian architecture and town planning, on Lord Street and elsewhere. A particular feature of the town is the extensive tree planting; this was one of the conditions required by the Hesketh family when they made land available for development in the 19th century. Hesketh Park at the northern end of the town is named after them, having been built on land donated by Rev. Charles Hesketh. Southport today is still one of the most popular seaside resorts in the UK, it hosts various events, including an annual air show on and over the beach, the largest independent flower show in the UK and the British Musical Fireworks Championship. The town is at the centre of England's Golf Coast and has hosted the Open Championship at the Royal Birkdale Golf Club. There have been settlements in the area now comprising Southport since the Domesday Book, some parts of the town have names of Viking origin.
The earliest recorded human activity in the region was during the Middle Stone Age, when mesolithic hunter gatherers were attracted by the abundant red deer and elk population, as well as the availability of fish and woodland. Roman coins have been found at Halsall Moss and Crossens, although the Romans never settled southwest Lancashire; the first real evidence of an early settlement here is in the Domesday Book, in which the area is called Otergimele. The name is derived from Oddrgrimir meaning the son of Grimm and is linked to the Old Norse word melr meaning sandbank; the Domesday Book states that there were 50 huts in Otergimele, housing a population of 200. The population was scattered thinly across the region and it was at the northeast end of Otergimele, where blown sand gave way to alluvial deposits from the River Ribble estuary, that a small concentration of people occurred; the alluvium provided the river itself stocks of fish. It was here, it seems, that a primitive church was built, which gave the emerging village its name of Churchtown, the parish being North Meols.
A church called. With a booming fishing industry, the area grew and hamlets became part of the parish of North Meols. From south to north, these villages were South Hawes, Little London, Higher Blowick, Lower Blowick, Rowe-Lane, Marshside and Banks; as well as Churchtown, there were vicarages in Banks. Parts of the parish were completely surrounded by water until 1692 when Thomas Fleetwood of Bank Hall cut a channel to drain Martin Mere to the sea. From this point on, attempts at large-scale drainage of Martin Mere and other marshland continued until the 19th century, since when the water has been pumped away; this created a booming farming industry. In the late 18th century, it was becoming fashionable for the well-to-do to relinquish inland spa towns and visit the seaside to bathe in the salt sea waters. At that time, doctors recommended bathing in the sea to help cure pains. In 1792, William Sutton, the landlord of the Black Bull Inn in Churchtown and known to locals as "The Old Duke", realised the importance of the newly created canal systems across the UK and set up a bathing house in the uninhabited dunes at South Hawes by the seaside just four miles away from the newly constructed Leeds and Liverpool Canal and two miles southwest of Churchtown.
When a widow from Wigan built a cottage nearby in 1797 for seasonal lodgers, Sutton built a new inn on the site of the bathing house which he called the South Port Hotel, moving to live there the following season. The locals thought him mad and referred to the building as the Duke's Folly, but Sutton arranged transport links from the canal that ran through Scarisbrick, four miles from the hotel, trade was remarkably good; the hotel survived until 1854, when it was demolished to make way for traffic at the end of Lord Street, but its presence and the impact of its founder are marked by a plaque in the vicinity, by the name of one street at the intersection, namely Duke Street, by a hotel on Duke Street which bears the legacy name of Dukes Folly Hotel. Southport grew in the 19th century as it gained a reputation for being a more refined seaside resort than its neighbour-up-the-coast Blackpool. In fact Southport had a head start compared to all the other places on the Lancashire coast because it had easy
For the village in New Caledonia see Miramas, MaréMiramas is a commune in the Bouches-du-Rhône department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southern France. It is the second-largest commune in metropolitan Ouest-Provence and is located at the north end of the Étang de Berre lagoon, adjacent to and northeast of the city of Istres; the Circuit of Miramas is located within 2 km of the town. In 1926 it hosted the French Grand Prix, won by Frenchman Jules Goux driving a Bugatti T39A. Goux, the son of the superintendent at the Peugeot factory, had earlier became famous for winning the 1913 Indianapolis 500 while consuming four bottles of champagne during the course of the race. Goux had been the first foreign winner at Indianapolis. Today the racetrack is used as a vehicle test track. Communes of the Bouches-du-Rhône department INSEE Official website Historic Purpose Built Grand Prix Circuits on Google Maps
Talbot or Clément-Talbot Limited was a London automobile manufacturer founded in 1903. Clément-Talbot's products were named just Talbot from shortly after introduction, but the business remained Clément-Talbot Limited until 1938 when it was renamed Sunbeam-Talbot Limited; the founders, Charles Chetwynd-Talbot, 20th Earl of Shrewsbury and Adolphe Clément-Bayard, reduced their financial interests in their Clément-Talbot business during the First World War. Soon after the end of the war, Clément-Talbot was brought into a combine named S T D Motors. Shortly afterward, S T D Motors' French products were renamed Talbot instead of Darracq. In the mid-1930s, with the collapse of S T D Motors, Rootes bought the London Talbot factory and Antonio Lago bought the Paris Talbot factory, Lago producing vehicles under the marques Talbot and Talbot-Lago. Rootes renamed Clément-Talbot Limited Sunbeam-Talbot Limited in 1938, stopped using the brand name Talbot in the mid-1950s; the Paris factory closed a few years later.
Ownership of the marque came by a series of takeovers to Peugeot S. A. which revived use of the Talbot name from 1978 until 1994. In December 1919 A Darracq and Company Limited of London with its factory in Suresnes, bought the entire capital of Clément-Talbot and bought Sunbeam and renamed itself S. T. D. Motors Limited; those initials referred to Sunbeam and Darracq. But in the depth of the Great Depression S T D Motors became unable to pay its debts, its subsidiaries managed to find buyers and in 1936 S T D Motors ceased to exist. Clément-Talbot continued to be famous for the design and quality of its products and it remained profitable during the depression. Clément-Talbot was bought by Rootes Group and renamed Sunbeam-Talbot. Sunbeam alone twenty years after that. In 1920 Suresnes products were branded Talbot-Darracq but the word Darracq was dropped in 1922. If exported to England Paris-made Talbots were rebadged Darracq or Talbot-Darracq Dragged down by the 1924 borrowing to pay for the Sunbeam racing programme S T D Motors and Automobiles Talbot France suffered a financial collapse in late 1934.
Following the financial collapse of its parent, S T D Motors, Clément-Talbot remained financially sound with marketable products. Clément-Talbot was bought by Rootes Securities and continued to manufacture the same catalogue of vehicles introducing components from Hillman and Humber cars; as the genuine Talbot parts bins ran dry a modified Hillman Aero Minx was introduced to the production line and given the Talbot brand name. In 1938 this Talbot Ten and its stable mates were badged Sunbeam-Talbot and owner, Clément-Talbot Limited's, name changed to fit. Following the financial collapse of S T D Motors and Paris's Automobiles Talbot Antonio Lago, the Suresnes' manager, arranged a management buyout of the French operation. Antonio Lago involved Talbot in sports car and Grand Prix racing as well as producing high quality luxury cars. In the postwar world of austerity and socialism the French government introduced punitive annual taxation on cars with engines larger than 2.6-litres and Talbot sales were restricted.
Lago continued the Talbot business until 1958. The dormant Talbot marque was sold to Simca. Simca was bought by Chrysler Europe in 1970. PSA Peugeot Citroën acquired the still dormant Talbot marque when it bought Chrysler in 1978. PSA Peugeot Citroën began to use a Talbot badge on former Simca and Chrysler models Chrysler Europe had struggled to make a profit for much of its existence, had relied on government bailouts to ensure its survival. With mounting pressure on its core North American business, the decision was taken by Chrysler's CEO Lee Iacocca to offload the ailing European operations; the French Government persuaded both PSA Peugeot Citroën to bid for the company. In August 1978, PSA purchased Chrysler Europe for a nominal $1, resurrected the Talbot name — using it to re-badge the former Simca and Rootes models. Although PSA took responsibility for Chrysler Europe's considerable debts and liabilities, the move was a strategic one; the Peugeot takeover saw the end of the Rootes' Chrysler Hunter production, but the Simca-designed 1510, Horizon continued as Talbots.
All former Chrysler products registered in Britain after 1 August 1979 bore the Talbot badge. Talbot's UK branch manufactured the Alpine and Horizon at their aging Ryton plant in Coventry after the British developed cars had all been retired – excepting the UK arm's largest revenue source, building CKD kits of the Hillman Hunter to be sent to Iran where they were assembled as the Peykan; the last remaining car produced by the Rootes group, the Chrysler Avenger, remained in production as a Talbot until the end of 1981. The entry-level model in the Talbot range from 1982 onwards would be the Talbot Samba, a three-door hatchback based on the Peugeot 104. In 1981, Peugeot began producing the Talbot Tagora, a boxy four-door saloon marketed as a Ford Granada or Vauxhall Carlton/Opel Rekord rival, but it was not popular in either Britain or France and production ceased in 1983. At the end of 1984, the Alpine hatchback and its related Solara saloon were rebadged Minx and Rapier depending upon specification rather than body shape.
The new names were inherited
J. G. Parry-Thomas
John Godfrey Parry-Thomas was a Welsh engineer and motor-racing driver who at one time held the land speed record. He was the first driver to be killed in pursuit of the land speed record. Parry-Thomas was born in Wrexham, the son of the curate of Rhosddu; the family moved to nearby Oswestry when he was five years old, he was educated at Oswestry School. He went on to study engineering at The Guilds College in London. Parry-Thomas became chief engineer at Leyland Motors, a company whose main products were commercial vehicles, he filed for and received a number of patents, in the fields of electrical and automotive engineering. After the First World War he and his assistant Reid Railton designed the Leyland Eight luxury motor car, intended to compete with Rolls-Royce, his experience of driving this car around Brooklands in 1920 persuaded him to give up his career with Leyland to become a full-time motor-racing driver and engineer. In partnership with another engineer, Major Ken Thomson from New Zealand, he started Thomas Inventions Development Co. based inside the Brooklands circuit itself.
After his death, this company became Thomson & Taylor and went on to build such cars as Malcolm Campbell's Blue Bird. From 1923 he lived in the "flying village" there, in a bungalow converted from a First World War hut named The Hermitage, it was an ascetic life, shared only with two Alsatian dogs and his cars, in stark contrast to the hedonism of the Bentley Boys. Parry-Thomas achieved some success on the circuit, winning 38 races in five seasons and setting numerous records. By 1925 Parry-Thomas realised that commercial success required a higher profile than Brooklands could offer, switched his attention to the land speed record, he acquired the Higham Special from the estate of the deceased Count Zborowski and rebuilt the car with new bodywork for improved aerodynamics. The car was powered by a huge 27-litre Liberty V-12 aero-engine. Without Campbell's money and prestige, or Henry Segrave's factory connections, Parry-Thomas was unable to obtain a brand-new Napier Lion, as the other record contenders were planning.
The car did not perform as expected. In April 1926 the car, now named Babs, emerged with another new body, he celebrated by driving the lanes around Brooklands that same evening, despite his lack of headlamps. A few days despite the poor conditions and soft, wet sand, Parry-Thomas took the record at Pendine Sands, the same six-mile beach that Campbell had used in 1924 and 1925; the following day, 28 April 1926, he raised it to over 170 mph, a record that stood for a year. During the winter of 1926/7 Babs was fitted with yet another new body enclosing the drive and rear wheels by fairings. Parry-Thomas was killed at Pendine Sands on 3 March 1927 while trying to regain his own world land speed record, broken just weeks earlier by Malcolm Campbell on the same beach. At the time of the accident it was thought that the right-hand chain had broken and had hit Thomas, causing a fatal head injury as the car was rolling. During the subsequent restoration of the car, it was found that this could not have been the case and that it was more that Thomas had been killed as a result of the injuries he sustained while the car rolled and slid along the beach at more than 100 mph.
Parry-Thomas was buried in St Mary's Churchyard in Byfleet, close to the Brooklands Circuit. Following the inquest, Babs was buried in the dunes at Pendine Sands; some 42 years in 1969 it was controversially recovered, over the next 15 years was restored by Owen Wyn Owen, at the time a member of Bangor University. For part of every summer, Babs is on display at the Pendine Museum of Carmarthenshire. Notes Bibliography Wales and the History of the World BBC programme with archive footage of Babs. Short Biopic' made by Tom Tremayne regarding Parry Thomas's life etc. on YouTube British Pathé film of Babs being recovered from Pendine Sands in 1969