Henry Sidgwick

Henry Sidgwick was an English utilitarian philosopher and economist. He was the Knightbridge Professor of Moral Philosophy at the University of Cambridge from 1883 until his death, is best known in philosophy for his utilitarian treatise The Methods of Ethics, he was one of the founders and first president of the Society for Psychical Research and a member of the Metaphysical Society and promoted the higher education of women. His work in economics has had a lasting influence. In 1875 he co-founded Newnham College, a women-only constituent college of the University of Cambridge, it was the second Cambridge college to admit women, after Girton College. Newnham College's co-founder was Millicent Garrett Fawcett. In 1856 Sidgwick joined the Cambridge Apostles intellectual secret society. Henry Sidgwick was born at Skipton in Yorkshire, where his father, the Reverend W. Sidgwick, was headmaster of the local grammar school, Ermysted's Grammar School. Henry's mother was née Crofts. Henry Sidgwick was educated at Rugby, at Trinity College, Cambridge.

While at Trinity, Sidgwick became a member of the Cambridge Apostles. In 1859, he was chancellor's medallist and Craven scholar. In the same year, he was elected to a fellowship at Trinity and soon afterwards he became a lecturer in classics there, a post he held for ten years; the Sidgwick Site, home to several of the university's arts and humanities faculties, is named after him. In 1869, he exchanged his lectureship in classics for one in moral philosophy, a subject to which he had been turning his attention. In the same year, deciding that he could no longer in good conscience declare himself a member of the Church of England, he resigned his fellowship, he retained his lectureship and in 1881 he was elected an honorary fellow. In 1874 he published The Methods of Ethics, by common consent a major work, which made his reputation outside the university. John Rawls called it the "first academic work in moral theory, modern in both method and spirit". In 1875, he was appointed praelector on moral and political philosophy at Trinity, in 1883 he was elected Knightbridge Professor of Philosophy.

In 1885, the religious test having been removed, his college once more elected him to a fellowship on the foundation. Besides his lecturing and literary labours, Sidgwick took an active part in the business of the university and in many forms of social and philanthropic work, he was a member of the General Board of Studies from its foundation in 1882 to 1899. He married Eleanor Mildred Balfour, a member of the Ladies Dining Society in Cambridge, with 11 other members, was sister to Arthur Balfour. A 2004 biography of Sidgwick by Bart Schultz sought to establish that Sidgwick was a lifelong homosexual, but it is unknown whether he consummated his inclinations. According to the biographer, Sidgwick struggled internally throughout his life with issues of hypocrisy and openness in connection with his own forbidden desires, he was one of the founders and first president of the Society for Psychical Research, was a member of the Metaphysical Society. He took in promoting the higher education of women.

He helped to start the higher local examinations for women, the lectures held at Cambridge in preparation for these. It was at his suggestion and with his help that Anne Clough opened a house of residence for students, which developed into Newnham College, Cambridge. When, in 1880, the North Hall was added, Sidgwick lived there for two years, his wife became principal of the college after Clough's death in 1892, they lived there for the rest of his life. During this whole period, Sidgwick took the deepest interest in the welfare of the college. In politics, he was a liberal, became a Liberal Unionist in 1886. Early in 1900 he was forced by ill-health to resign his professorship, died a few months later. Sidgwick, who died an agnostic, is buried in Terling All Saints Churchyard, Essex, with his wife. Sidgwick summarizes his position in ethics as utilitarianism “on an Intuitional basis”; this reflects, disputes, the rivalry felt among British philosophers between the philosophies of utilitarianism and ethical intuitionism, illustrated, for example, by John Stuart Mill’s criticism of ethical intuitionism in the first chapter of his book Utilitarianism.

Sidgwick developed this position due to his dissatisfaction with an inconsistency in Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill’s utilitarianism, between what he labels “psychological hedonism” and “ethical hedonism”. Psychological hedonism states that everyone always will do what is in their self interest, whereas ethical hedonism states that everyone ought to do what is in the general interest. Sidgwick believed neither Bentham nor Mill had an adequate answer as to how the prescription that someone ought to sacrifice their own interest to the general interest could have any force, given they combined that prescription with the claim that everyone will in fact always pursue their own individual interest. Ethical intuitions, such as those argued for by philosophers such as William Whewell, according to Sidgwick, provide the missing force for such normative claims; as Sidgwick sees it, one of the central issues of ethics is whether self-interest and duty always coincide. To a great extent they do, Sidgw

Internal and external forum

In the canon law of the Catholic Church, a distinction is made between the internal forum, where an act of governance is made without publicity, the external forum, where the act is public and verifiable. In canon law, internal forum, the realm of conscience, is contrasted with the external or outward forum; that the Church of Christ has judicial and coercive power is plain from the constitution given to it by its Divine Founder. This judicial jurisdiction is expressed by the word Forum, the Latin designation for a place containing a tribunal of justice; as the Church is a perfect society, she possesses within herself all the powers necessary to direct her members to the end for which she was instituted and she has a correlative right to be obeyed by those subject to her. This right is called jurisdiction, it is the source of all the Church's action, not derived from the power of Sacred orders, it is this jurisdiction, the foundation of ecclesiastical law, both externally and internally binding, from Apostolic times it has been put into practice by the Church's rulers.

The public judicial power of the Church is explicitly mentioned in Holy Scripture, the exercise of it is recorded. In other words, just as the civil state has the legitimate jurisdiction over its subjects to guide them to the end for which it is instituted, because it is a perfect society, so the Church, being constituted by Christ as a perfect society, possesses within itself all the powers necessary for lawfully and attaining the end for which it was established; as the power of the Church extends not only to its individual members but to the whole corporate body, not only to questions concerning the conscience but to the public actions of its subjects, ecclesiastical jurisdiction is distinguished into that of the internal and external forum. It may so chance that circumstances may bring about a conflict between the internal and external forum. Thus, for example, a marriage may be null and void in the forum of conscience, but binding in the external forum for want of judicial proofs to the contrary, vice versa.

The jurisdiction of the internal forum deals with questions concerning the welfare of individual Christians and with their relation to God. Hence it is called the forum of conscience, it is denominated the forum of Heaven because it guides the soul on the path to God. The internal forum is subdivided into the sacramental or penitential, exercised in the tribunal of penance or at least is connected with it, the extra penitential forum. Causes concerning the private and secret needs of the faithful can be expedited outside the sacramental confession. Thus, vows may be dispensed, secret censures may be absolved, occult impediments of matrimony may be dispensed outside of the tribunal of penance; the internal forum deals therefore directly with the spiritual welfare of the individual faithful. It has reference to the corporate body only secondarily, in as much as the good of the whole organization is promoted by that of the individual members. Owing to the nature of the civil state and the end for which it was instituted, it has no jurisdiction corresponding to the ecclesiastical forum of conscience.

Within the internal forum a distinction is made between the sacramental internal forum and the non-sacramental internal forum, according as matters are decided in the sacrament of Penance, thus additionally protected by the Seal of the Confessional, or outside of the sacrament. Thus the name of the parties in a marriage contracted in the external forum are noted in a public register, but a marriage celebrated secretly is to be noted instead in a special register kept in the secret archive of the diocesan curia. Sometimes power of governance is given for the sacramental forum only: in each diocese a priest is to be appointed who has the faculty, which he cannot delegate to others, of "absolving in the sacramental forum outsiders within the diocese and members of the diocese outside the territory of the diocese from undeclared latae sententiae censures not reserved to the Apostolic See". In the Roman Curia, the Apostolic Penitentiary has jurisdiction for matters of the internal forum, both sacramental and non-sacramental, but in some instances its decisions hold in the external forum, as when, unless it states otherwise, a dispensation that it grants in the non-sacramental internal forum from an occult impediment to marriage, is sufficient if the occult impediment becomes public.

The Church's jurisdiction in the external forum has reference to matters touching the public and social good of the corporate body. It corresponds very to the powers exercised by civil magistrates in affairs belonging to their competence. While the external forum may busy itself with the concerns of individuals, it does so only in as far as these affect the public good, thus the absolution of sins belongs to the internal forum, but the concession of the faculty for performing such absolution is an act of the external forum. The jurisdiction of the external forum is subdivided into necessary. Voluntary, or extrajudicial, is that which a superior can exercise towards those who invoke his power, or against those who are unwilling, but without his using the formalities prescribed in law. Necessary or contentious jurisdiction is that which the judge employs in punishing crimes or deciding disputes according to prescribed forms. In general, the acts of jurisdiction of the external forum are the decision of disputes concerning faith, morals or discipline

Don Dunphy

Don Dunphy was an American television and radio sports announcer specializing in boxing broadcasts. Dunphy was noted for his fast-paced enthusiasm for the sport, it is estimated. The Friday Night Fights were broadcast every Friday evening from (radio and television 9 P. M. to 10:45 P. M on ABC. In 1984, Dunphy was part of the American Sportscasters Association Hall of Fame's inaugural class which included sportscasting legends Red Barber, Ted Husing, Graham McNamee and Bill Stern, he was a member of the organization's Board of Directors. He was elected in 1986 to the National Sportscasters and Sportswriters Association Hall of Fame. Dunphy was inducted into the National Radio Hall of Fame in 1988 and had a memorable cameo appearance in the 1971 Woody Allen movie Bananas, he appears as the commentator in the 1977 biopic of Muhammad Ali, "The Greatest". He called all of the fights in the 1980 United Artists film Raging Bull, directed by Martin Scorsese. In 1982, he won the Sam Taub Award for Excellence in Broadcasting Journalism in boxing.

He is a member of the International Boxing Hall of Fame. Dunphy was a star track athlete and went on to graduate from Manhattan College in 1930. In 1984, he was inducted into the Manhattan College Athletic Hall of Fame, his son, Don Dunphy Jr. was an executive producer of Eyewitness News on WABC-TV in New York City in its early years, became vice president of news services at ABC. His other son, Bob Dunphy, has been a director of Showtime Championship Boxing since 1989. In 2015 he directed the Mayweather-Pacquiao fight, the highest-grossing pay-per-view event in history, he is buried in the Cemetery of the Holy Rood in New York. Joe Frazier vs. Manuel Ramos - Himself - Ringside Commentator Mac Foster vs. Jerry Quarry - Himself - Ringside Commentator Dick Tiger vs. Emile Griffith - Himself - Ring Announcer Bananas - Don Dunphy Floyd Patterson vs. Oscar Bonavena - Himself - Ring Announcer The Greatest - Commentator Matilda - Ringside announcer Thomas Hearns vs. Pipino Cuevas - Himself - Ringside Commentator Raging Bull - Himself - Radio Announcer for Dauthuille Fight The Last Fight - Radio Fight Announcer The Fighter - Fight Announcer Don Dunphy at the National Radio Hall of Fame Dunphy, Don - 1984 Hall of Fame Inductee Don Dunphy on IMDb Don Dunphy at Find a Grave