SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Henry Timberlake

Henry Timberlake was a colonial Anglo-American officer and cartographer. He was died in England, he is best known for his work as an emissary from the British colonies to the Overhill Cherokee during the 1761–1762 Timberlake Expedition. Timberlake's account of his journeys to the Cherokee, published as his memoirs in 1765, became a primary source for studies of their eighteenth-century culture, his detailed descriptions of Cherokee villages, townhouses and tools have helped historians and anthropologists identify Cherokee structures and cultural objects uncovered at modern archaeological excavation sites throughout the southern Appalachian region. During the Tellico Archaeological Project, which included a series of salvage excavations conducted in the Little Tennessee River basin in the 1970s, archaeologists used Timberlake's Draught of the Cherokee Country to help locate important Overhill village sites. Henry Timberlake was born in Virginia to Francis and Sarah Austin Timberlake; the Dictionary of American Biography states that Timberlake was born in 1730, though Timberlake's age on his marriage license implies that he was born in 1735.

Timberlake was a third-generation American. Although he inherited a small fortune when his father died, Timberlake still had to support himself, sought a military career. In 1756, at the outset of the French and Indian War, he joined a Virginia militia company known as the "Patriot Blues", it had embarked on a campaign to expel French and Native American raiders from the western part of the colony. Shortly thereafter, he applied for a commission in the Virginia regiment—then commanded by George Washington—but was denied due to a lack of vacancies. In 1758, Timberlake applied for a commission in Colonel William Byrd's formed 2nd Virginia Regiment. Commissioned as an Ensign, Timberlake accompanied the regiment on its march to Fort Duquesne, but illness kept him from proceeding. In 1759, he took part in several minor operations in the present-day Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania area overseeing the construction of defensive works. In 1760, British relations with the Cherokee, moderately friendly for several decades, grew sour after several Cherokee chiefs were imprisoned and killed in South Carolina.

In early 1760, the Cherokee laid siege to a remote outpost in what is now Tennessee. The garrison held out until August of that year, but was forced to surrender due to lack of provisions. A relief column under Archibald Montgomerie failed to reach the fort after burning the Cherokee Lower Towns and being stopped at the Battle of Echoee. In spite of the garrison leaving the fort under a flag of truce, the Cherokee killed 22 of its members on their march home in retaliation for the colonists' earlier killing of 22 Cherokee held as prisoners at Fort Prince George. In 1761, Jeffery Amherst, the British commander in North America, responded with a larger invasion force, sending James Grant against the Middle Towns and sending Byrd to threaten the Overhill towns. While Byrd proceeded to destroy the Cherokee Middle towns in North Carolina, he dispatched Colonel Adam Stephen into the Holston River valley to attack the Overhill towns. Timberlake accompanied Stephen to Long Island of the Holston, where they began building a base known as "Fort Robinson", made preparations for a march south.

On November 19, 1761, as Fort Robinson was nearing completion, a 400-man Cherokee force led by Chief Kanagatucko arrived at the camp and asked for peace, granted by Col. Stephen. Kanagatucko asked for an officer to accompany him to the Overhill towns as proof that hostilities had ended. Stephen granted the request when Timberlake volunteered. Timberlake was accompanied by Sergeant Thomas Sumter, an interpreter named John McCormack, an unnamed servant; the group purchased ten days' worth of provisions with money Sumter had borrowed. The plan was to follow the Holston River to its confluence with the French Broad River, proceed to the Little Tennessee River, where the Overhill towns were situated. Timberlake's party left Long Island on November 28, 1761; the Holston River's unusually low water levels immediately stalled the journey, as the party was forced to drag their canoe over exposed shoals and sandbars. The party ran out of provisions after several days, but McCormack managed to shoot a bear, supplying them with several days' worth of meat.

Around December 7, the party explored a stalactite-filled cave situated 50 feet above the river. Timberlake described an incident in which Sumter swam nearly a half-mile in the near-freezing river waters to retrieve their canoe, which had somehow drifted away while they were exploring the cave. On December 13, the expedition reached a series of treacherous cascades that Timberlake called "Great Falls"; the party spent a whole day maneuvering their way down the cascades only to find the Holston frozen over downstream. The ice slowed the expedition's progress, but rains on the night of December 14 thawed the ice, the party passed through the mouth of the Holston into what is now the Tennessee River on December 15; the deeper waters of the Tennessee River allowed the Timberlake expedition to proceed much more quickly. A hunting party led by the Cherokee chief Slave Catcher met the Timberlake expedition near the mouth of the Little Tennessee River, supplied the weary expedition with provisions of "dried venison and boiled corn".

The following day, Slave Catcher guided the expeditio

Cemetery of Saint-Louis, Versailles

The Cemetery of Saint-Louis, Versailles is one of several cemeteries in Versailles, Yvelines. It is among the oldest urban cemeteries in France, having been established in 1770 by the parish of Saint-Louis, the church of, now Versailles Cathedral. Although it may house fewer graves of well-known persons than the Cemetery of Notre-Dame, Versailles, it is of significant interest for the artistic quality of many of the tombs and for the quantity of graves of aristocratic families and military officers based at the nearby Palace of Versailles. A small column against the wall marks the site of the common ditch where some 40 persons were buried, victims of the September Massacres on 9 September 1792; the massacre itself took place at the Quatre Bornes, at the present crossroads between the Rue de Satory and the Rue d'Orléans. The victims had been transferred from the prison at Orléans, were former senior government officials, officers of the Royal army or refractory priests. Certain monuments are distinguished by their unusual workmanship, for example that of the naval lieutenant Édouard Villaret-Joyeuse, in the form of a rostral column.

Comte Ferdinand de Bertier de Sauvigny and prefect of Calvados Gustave Borgnis-Desbordes, noted for his victories in the colonies Alexandre-François Caminade, painter Jean-Arnaud de Castellane, Bishop of Mende, in the common ditch François Chabas, Egyptologist Édouard Charton, Saint-Simonist journalist Louis Hercule Timoléon de Cossé-Brissac, duc de Brissac, former governor of Paris, in the common ditch Jean-François Ducis, dramaturgist Charles Durand, comte de Linois, vice-admiral, governor of Guadeloupe Louis-Étienne Dussieux, historian Léonce d'Escayrac-Lauture, marquis d'Escayrac, peer of France, deputy Stanislas d'Escayrac de Lauture, explorer François Franchet d'Esperey, ambassador to Berlin, grandfather of Maréchal Franchet d'Esperey Charles-Xavier Franqueville d'Abancourt Minister of War, nephew of Calonne, in the common ditch Abbé Paul de Geslin, known as Jean Loyseau, journalist Henri-Constant Groussau, monarchist deputy Augusta Holmes, composer Jean-Baptiste-Antoine Lassus, architect Claudius Lavergne, glass painter, pupil of Ingres.

He lies next to his wife, Julie Lavergne, writer Henri Le Sidaner, brother-in-law of Georges Rouault Jean-Baptiste Mathieu, Master of the King's Chapel Anders Osterlind, painter Paul Pierret, Egyptologist Georges Rouault, brother-in-law of Henri Le Sidaner Jean Tharaud, writer Claude Antoine de Valdec de Lessart Minister of Finance and Foreign Affairs of the Constituante, in the common ditch Cimetière des Gonards Cemetery of Notre-Dame, Versailles Description of the cemetery

Monte Meta

Monte Meta is a mountain of the Apennine Mountains, in central Italy. The mountain is part of the Monti della Meta range and lies in the Parco Nazionale d'Abruzzo, Lazio e Molise, it includes a tripoint where the Italian regions of Lazio and Molise meet. The tripoint is located on its western sub-summit, at 2185 m, the highest point of Molise. More than Monte Meta the mountain is called in the spoken language la Meta. Due to an important population of Rupicapra pyrenaica ssp. ornata living on the mountain, the access to the area is regulated in order to reduce disturbance. A single foothpath is accessible to hikers during the summer; the days of the week for hikes and the number of hikers admitted pro day are fixed, a previous authorization must be requested to the natural park administration. List of Italian regions by highest point "L1 foothpat description". "Anello della Meta da Campitelli (a short trekking in the area". Media related to Monte Meta at Wikimedia Commons