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Henry VII Chapel

The Henry VII Lady Chapel, now more known just as the Henry VII Chapel, is a large Lady chapel at the far eastern end of Westminster Abbey, paid for by the will of King Henry VII. It is separated from the rest of the abbey by a flight of stairs; the structure of the chapel is a three-aisled nave composed of four bays. The apse of the chapel contains the altar, behind that, the tombs of Henry VII and his wife as well as of James I. There are five apsidal chapels; the chapel is noted for its pendant fan vault ceiling. The chapel is built in a late Perpendicular Gothic style, the magnificence of which caused John Leland to call it the orbis miraculum; the tombs of several monarchs including Henry VII, Edward VI, Mary I, Elizabeth I, James I, Charles II and Mary, Queen of Scots are found in the chapel. The chapel has been the mother church of the Order of the Bath since 1725, the banners of members hang above the stalls. In the 13th century, a movement toward devotion to the Virgin Mary inspired the building of chapels in her honour across Europe.

Henry III’s Lady Chapel at Westminster Abbey was part of this trend. In 1502, Henry VII planned a new chapel; the old one was demolished in 1502 and construction of the new foundation began January 24, 1503. Henry VII had three goals; the first was to build a shrine to honour and hold the body of Henry VI, expected to be canonized. Canonization did not occur and Henry VII and his wife, Elizabeth of York, were interred in the tomb intended for Henry VI. Second, Henry VII wished to dedicate a more elaborate chapel to the Virgin to replace the older, simpler structure. Henry VII allocated more than £14,000 for its construction between 1503 and 1509. In his will, he stipulated; the final cost of the chapel is estimated at £20,000. According to one nobleman, Lord Bacon, “He lieth at Westminster in one of the stateliest and daintiest monuments of Europe…So that he dwelleth more richly dead in the monument of his tomb than he did alive at Richmond or in any of his palaces.” In the eighteenth century, one observer commented that “his chapel, it has been said, was designed as a sepulchre in which none but such as were of the royal-blood should be interred.

In the intervening years, some people not of aristocratic descent, including Oliver Cromwell, were buried there, but during the Restoration of the monarchy many of those people were disinterred. The Henry VII Chapel is best known for its combination of pendant fan vault ceiling. Andrew Reynolds refers to the vault as “the most perfect example of a pendant fan vault, the most ambitious kind of vaulting current in the perpendicular period.” Notably, this ceiling was the first to combine pendants with fan vaulting. The fan vault is created by first dividing the ceiling into groin vaulted compartments; these groin vaults are created by the combination of arches along the wall and larger, transverse arches bridging the nave of the chapel. In the fan vault at the Henry VII Chapel, the compartments are nearly square in shape; the compartments are ribbed and paneled. Ribs, of the same curve and size, are cut from single pieces of stone and rebated so to best fit with the panels; the curved ribs, extending from the same point on the wall, are spaced equidistant from each other, forming conoid shapes.

The resulting conoids, require great compressive forces to keep shape. Spandrels provide pressure along the upper edge of the conoids. In the Henry VII Chapel, these spandrels are replaced with hanging pendants; the pendants still provide the compression necessary to support the conoids and add complexity to the aesthetics of the room. The pendants serve an additional structural purpose; the pendants are inserted as wedge stones in the transverse arches. By combining with the transverse arches, the pendants do not require additional structural support. At the time of the construction of the chapel, pendant vaults were new; the chapel’s architect is unknown, but it is believed that Robert Janyns the Younger was responsible for the design of much of the structure. The structure of the chapel is a three-aisled nave composed of four bays; the aisles are divided by rows of mahogany stalls into the North and Central aisles. All contain numerous monuments and floor stones dedicated to various nobles. Above the stalls, at the triforium level, are many sculptures.

Interspersed between the sculptures are the heraldic banners of the Knights of the Order of the Bath. Above this is the clerestory, with three rows of smaller windows; the window tracery articulates four larger windows, one in each bay, each composed of these three rows of smaller lancet windows. As much of the original glass was destroyed during the English Commonwealth, the East Window, over the centre apsidal chapel, as well as the Donor Windows, in the chapels themselves, are new additions, installed in 2000 and 1995, respectively. In 2013, two new stained glass windows designed by Hughie O'Donoghue were installed on either side of the East Window; the apse of the chapel contains the altar, behind that, the tombs of Henry VII and his wife as well as of James I. There are five apsidal chapels; these chapels contained altars—they were screened off and intended for private prayer for mem

Live at the Top

Live at the Top is a live album by jazz pianist Junior Mance, released on the Atlantic label in 1969. Allmusic awarded the album 3 stars with the review by Dave Nathan stating, "This is another satisfying session by Mance, who never received the attention and credit he merited for his playing". "Before This Time Another Year" - 9:32 "I Wish I Knew" - 9:38 "That's All" - 9:13 "Turning Point" - 7:50 Junior Mance - piano David Newman - flute, tenor saxophone Wilbur Little - bass Rudy Collins, Paul Gusman - drums

13 Chapters

13 Chapters is a compilation album of Sweetbox with singer and songwriter Jade Villalon as frontwoman. It was released in 2004 in Europe, in 2005 in Taiwan, it has a blend of various hit songs both from her new album After the Lights and her previous one, Adagio. The Taiwanese edition comes with a VCD, its main purpose was to blend an array of popular songs from albums and upcoming After the Lights, for promotion purposes, to sell in a region Sweetbox had not released many albums in. Many of Adagio's songs were left out, with only 3 from Adagio on making it to this album, some songs from After The Lights, such as "Girl from Tokyo", "Crown of Thorns", "Don't Wanna Kill You", others did not make it as well. All tracks are written by Jade Villalon. Artwork – Sweetbox Bass Guitar – Oliver Poschmann Drums – Bertil, Robbie Siemens, Heiko Traber Photography – Armin Zedler Producer, Recorded By, Mixed By – Lazy Eye "Hate Without Frontiers" samples'Stabat Mater' from Giovanni Battista Pergolesi "Life Is Cool" samples'Canon in D Major' from Johann Pachelbel "Sorry" samples'Palladio' from Karl Jenkins

Lakandon Chʼol

The Lakandon Chʼol were a former Chʼol-speaking Maya people inhabiting the Lacandon Jungle in what is now Chiapas in Mexico and the bordering regions of northwestern Guatemala, along the tributaries of the upper Usumacinta River and the foothills of the Sierra de los Cuchumatanes. The Lakandon Chʼol of the time of the Spanish conquest should not be confused with the modern Yucatec-speaking Lacandon people occupying the same region. At the time of Spanish contact in the 16th century, the Lacandon Jungle was inhabited by Chʼol people referred to as Lakam Tun; this name was hispanicised, first to El Acantun to Lacantun and to Lacandon. The main Lakandon village was situated on an island in Lake Miramar referred to as Lakam Tun by the inhabitants; the Lakandons, together with their unconquered Itza enemies to the northeast, had an warlike reputation among the Spanish. Hernán Cortés first heard of the existence of the Lakandon when he was passing through Kejache territory in 1524, although he did not contact them.

During the 16th century, the Spanish colonial authorities in Verapaz, within the Captaincy General of Guatemala, complained that baptised Maya were fleeing colonial towns in order to find refuge among the independent Lakandon and their Manche Chʼol neighbours. The first Spanish expedition against the Lakandons was carried out in 1559, commanded by Pedro Ramírez de Quiñones. At the end of the 16th century, under pressure from the advancing Spanish frontier, the Lakandon Chʼol abandoned Lakam Tun and withdrew deeper into the forest to the southeast where they founded a new town, Sakbʼajlan, within a wide curve of the Lacantún River; the name of the town translated as "white jaguar". The Lakandons had two other settlements further east, called Peta. During the course of the 17th century, the Lakandon Chʼol raided the Guatemalan Highlands to such an extent that it was considered unsafe to travel in the region surrounding San Mateo Ixtatán and Santa Eulalia in the Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, within the colonial Corregimiento de Totonicapán y Huehuetenango administrative division.

In response, the colonial authorities placed garrisons in both towns in order to protect the local inhabitants against Lakandon raids, with limited success. The Lakandon Chʼol traded with the colonial Maya towns of Cobán and Cahabón in Alta Verapaz, receiving quetzal feathers, chile, cotton and Spanish-produced iron tools in exchange for cacao and achiote. From time to time the Spanish launched punitive military expeditions against the Lakandons to try to stabilise the northern frontier of the Guatemalan colony. Franciscan friars Antonio Margil and Melchor López were active among the Lakandon and Manche Chʼol between 1692 and 1694. Most of the Lakandon Chʼol were forcibly relocated to the Huehuetenango area by the Spanish in the early 18th century; the resettled Lakandon Chʼol were soon absorbed into the local Maya populations there and ceased to exist as a separate ethnicity. The last known Lakandon Chʼol were three Indians that were recorded as living in Santa Catarina Retalhuleu in 1769. Acala Chʼol Amerindian Indigenous peoples of the Americas Genetic history of indigenous peoples of the Americas


Camaleones is a 2009/2010 Mexican neo-noir vigilante heist thriller telenovela produced by Televisa. The soap opera premiered on Mexico's Canal de las Estrellas, replacing the completed TV series Verano de Amor. Camaleones is produced by Rosy Ocampo, who has produced several popular telenovelas, such as Amor sin Maquillaje, Las Tontas No Van al Cielo and La Fea Mas Bella. Filming took place in Mexico City and Xochitepec in June 2009, lasted 7 months; the telenovela premiered on Univision in the United States on May 4, 2010. Belinda, Alfonso Herrera and Edith González star as the protagonists, while Guillermo García Cantú, José Luis Reséndez, Grettell Valdez, Karla Álvarez and Manuel "Flaco" Ibáñez star as the antagonists. Camaleones is the story of Sebastian, who are both skilled thieves, they are united when a man they call "El Amo" forces them to commit crimes posing as a prefect and an art teacher at the school of San Bartolome. They have to play along, they say they are brother and sister. They become friends and fall in love, although something always seems to come between them and their love.

They discover many things about "El Amo", they begin to hate each other because of the lies which "El Amo" had told them. They decide to go separate ways: Sebastian with his father and Valentina as far away as she can, but before they can leave the area, the police arrive, when they are about to take Valentina and Sebastian, she shouts Sebastian's name and says she is pregnant. While in jail, the captain receives a video saying Valentina and Sebastian are innocent, they are scheduled for release. Valentina gets out a few hours earlier; when she sees one of the teachers on top of the roof of the school building crying, she goes up there to speak to her, she says that "Augusto" killed many people. Augusto decides to kill Valentina with his gun. "El Amo" shows up too and tells him he is the father of the man whom he killed years ago, revealing himself to be Leonidas, the school gardener. When Leonidas fights off Augusto, Augusto shoots him Leonidas pushes Augusto off the roof, killing him. Leonidas dies from the wound.

Meanwhile, Solange's mom shows up with Sebastian, she sees that Augusto and Leonidas are dead. Two months Valentina and Sebastian are together and happy because she is pregnant. Everyone is celebrating that everyone is graduating from school, Solange decides to stay and not go to the United States for college, a decision that makes Francisca and Ulises happy; the soap opera ends with Sebastian kissing, while the band Camaleones sings a song. Edith González as Francisca Campos Belinda as Valentina Izaguirre Guillermo García Cantú as Augusto Ponce Alfonso Herrera as Sebastián Jaramillo Camaleones: Música De La Telenovela is the soundtrack album for the Mexican telenovela Camaleones and the debut studio album by Camaleones, it was released in Mexico on November 24, 2009. As they released a CD with the songs of the telenovela, the May 14, 2010 was released a DVD. Official website

Ned Norris Jr.

Ned Norris, Jr. is chairman of the Tohono O'odham Nation of southern Arizona. He held the office for two consecutive terms from 2007–2015, was returned to the office in 2019. Norris worked as the director of marketing and public relations for the O'odham Gaming Authority. Ned Norris, Jr. was raised in Tucson, Arizona. Norris attended both elementary school and middle school in Flagstaff, Arizona before graduating from Sunnyside High School in Tucson, he received a certification in social work from Pima Community College and enrolled at some classes at the University of Arizona, where he was awarded an honorary Human of Letters doctorate. Norris began working for the government of the Tohono O'odham nation in 1978 as a nonattorney tribal judge, he served as a trial judge until 1993. He served on the school board of the Sunnyside Unified School District in Pima County, from 1997 until 2000. Additionally, Norris was employed as the director of public relations and marketing for the Tohono O’odham Gaming Authority.

He resigned from this position in 2003 when he was elected the Vice Chairman of the Tohono O'odham nation. Norris has worked for the Desert Diamond Casino as assistant director of public relations. In 1999, Vivian Juan-Saunders announced her intention to challenge incumbent Tohono O'odham Chairman Edward Manuel, seeking a second term in office. Juan-Saunders chose Norris as her running mate in the election. Manuel defeated Juan-Saunders to win a second term as chairman. In 2003, Vivian Juan-Saunders once again sought the chairmanship with Ned Norris Jr. as her running mate. She and Norris won the election with 59% of the vote in a rematch with Edward Manuel, seeking a third term. Norris became the Vice Chairman of the Tohono O'odham under Chairman Vivian Juan-Saunders, the first woman to lead the Tohono O'odham, he held the post until his resignation in June 2006. In 2007, Norris challenged incumbent Chairman Juan-Saunders in the Tohono O'odham executive election. Norris ousted Juan-Saunders in the election, held on May 26, 2007.

He received 1,766 of the 3,105 total votes cast by Tohono O'odham voters. His running mate, Isidro Lopez, became the Vice Chairman of the Tohono O'odham. Norris and Lopez were formally inaugurated as Chairman and Vice Chairman of the Tohono O'odham Nation on Friday, August 3, 2007, he announced that his priorities as Chairman are to attract college educated Tohono O'odham back to the reservation, as well as focus on health care and the alleviation of unemployment. In 2011, Norris announced his candidacy for re-election as chairman. Wavalene Marie Romero, a Tohono O'odham councilwoman, is Norris' running mate for vice chairman. Vice Chairman Isidro Lopez chose to retire rather than seek a second term. On Saturday, May 28, 2011, Ned Norris Jr. was re-elected to a second term as Chairman of the Tohono O'odham Nation. The total number of votes was 3,729. Norris received 2,238 votes defeating Juan-Saunders. In May 2015, Norris and his running mate Romero were defeated by former Chairman Edward D. Manuel by 213 votes.

In May 2019, Norris won a runoff election to defeat Manuel and to return to the office of Chairman