Bristol is a suburban city located in Hartford County, United States, 20 miles southwest of Hartford. The city is 120 miles southwest from Boston, 100 miles northeast of New York City; as of the 2010 census, the population of the city was 60,477. Bristol is best known as the home of ESPN. Bristol is home to Lake Compounce, America's oldest continuously operating theme park. Bristol was known as a clock-making city in the 19th century, is home to the American Clock & Watch Museum. For silver enthusiasts, Bristol is known as the site of the former American Silver Company and its predecessor companies. Bristol's nicknames include the "Bell City", because of a history manufacturing innovative spring-driven doorbells, the "Mum City", because it was once a leader in chrysanthemum production and still holds an annual Bristol Mum Festival. In 2010, Bristol was ranked 84th on Money magazine's "Best Places to Live". In 2013, Hartford Magazine ranked Bristol as Greater Hartford's top municipality in the "Best Bang for the Buck" category.
Incorporated in 1785, the town is named in England. The city is governed under a Mayor-council form of government. Both the mayor and councilpersons are elected every two years; the city's Treasurer, Board of Assessment Appeals, Board of Education are elected every two years. The current mayor is Ellen Zoppo-Sassu, elected in the 2017 municipal election; the last municipal election was held on November 7, 2017. The City Council is made up of 6 members, elected every two years from three two member districts; as of the 2017 municipal elections, the members of the city council are:Gregory Hahn, District 1 Joshua Mederios, District 1 David Preleski, District 2 Peter Kelley, District 2 Dave Mills, District 3 Mary Fortier, District 3 Bristol is represented in the Connecticut House of Representatives by State Reps. Cara Pavalock D’Amato, Whit Betts, Chris Ziogas. State Sen. Henri Martin represents Bristol in Connecticut Senate. Bristol is in Connecticut's 1st congressional district, represented by Democrat John Larson.
According to the United States Census Bureau, Bristol has a total area of 26.8 square miles, of which 26.4 square miles is land and 0.39 square miles, or 1.51%, is water. Bristol contains several distinct sections, including Cedar Lake in the southwestern quarter, Chippens Hill in the northwestern quarter, Edgewood in the northeastern quarter, Forestville in the southeastern quarter and the city in the approximate middle of Bristol; the majority of Bristol's area is residential in character, though since 2008 there has been a push for commercial development in the city. The city is part of the Naugatuck Valley Regional Planning Organization following the closure of the Central Connecticut Regional Planning Agency, the metropolitan planning organization for Bristol, New Britain, surrounding towns for decades. Forestville was the hunting grounds of the Tunxis tribe until the 19th century; the village was named Forestville for its wooded surroundings. Forestville today has grown into a mini-metropolis of local businesses.
The boundaries of Forestville go from the Plainville town line, south to the Southington town line, west up to the industrial development along Middle street and crosses King Street, including properties on Kingswood Drive and Bernside Drive, north up to Bristol Eastern High School north up to the south edge of properties on Louisiana Avenue to the west of properties on the west side of Brook Street and from there, goes up to commercial development along Farmington Avenue. Within the Forestville area, there are two subsections known as East Bristol and the Stafford District. Forestville village has a library branch, post office, meeting hall, community group, fire station, funeral home, two urban parks, Pequabuck Duck Race, Memorial Day Parade, Summer Concert Night, Pumpkin Festival, a railroad station. At one time all of Forestville had its own zip code; as of the 2010 census, there were 60,477 people, 25,189 households, 16,175 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,265.8 inhabitants per square mile.
There were 26,125 housing units at an average density of 985.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city is 87.74% White, 3.84% African American, 9.64% Hispanic, 0.19% Native American, 1.94% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 3.72% from other races, 2.54% from two or more races. In 2000 there were 24,886 households in Bristol, of which 29.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.6% were married couples living together, 11.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.0% were non-families. 28.9% of all households were made up of individuals, 10.7% consisted of a sole resident, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38, the average family size was 2.94. The age diversity at the 2000 census was 23.2% under the age of 18, 7.2% from 18 to 24, 32.5% from 25 to 44, 22.2% from 45 to 64, 14.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.6 males.
The median income for a household in the city in 2010 was $57,610. The per capita income for the city was $30,573. 10.5% of the population was living below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 8.7% of those under the age of 18 and 5.9% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. Education in Bristol is conducted using seven elementary
Lake Simcoe is a lake in southern Ontario, the fourth-largest lake wholly in the province, after Lake Nipigon, Lac Seul, Lake Nipissing. At the time of the first European contact in the 17th century the lake was called Ouentironk by the Wyandot people, it was known as Lake Taronto until it was renamed by John Graves Simcoe, the first Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada, in memory of his father, Captain John Simcoe, Royal Navy. The lake is bordered by Simcoe County, Durham Region, York Region; the city of Barrie is located on Kempenfelt Bay, Orillia is located at the entrance to Lake Couchiching. The watershed draining into the lake contains a population of half a million people, including the northern portion of the Greater Toronto Area; the town of Georgina lies along the entire south shore of Lake Simcoe and consists of smaller residential towns and communities, including Keswick on Cook's Bay, Jackson's Point and Udora. The town of Innisfil occupies north of Bradford. Eastside Simcoe includes the towns of Beaverton and Lagoon City.
Lake Simcoe is a remnant of a much bigger, prehistoric lake known as Lake Algonquin. This lake's basin included Lake Huron, Lake Michigan, Lake Superior, Lake Nipigon, Lake Nipissing; the melting of an ice dam at the close of the last ice age reduced water levels in the region, leaving the lakes of today. At the time of the first European contact in the 17th century, the lake was called Ouentironk by the Wyandot natives. A 1675 map by Pierre Raffeix referred to the lake with the French term Lac Taronto and a 1687 map by Lahontan called it Lake Taronto, while the name Tarontos Lac appeared on a 1678 map of New France by cartographer Jean-Baptiste-Louis Franquelin; the term Taranto refers to an Iroquoian expression meaning pass. Taronto had referred to The Narrows, a channel of water through which Lake Simcoe discharges into Lake Couchiching. Since many subsequent mapmakers adopted this name for it, though cartographer Vincenzo Coronelli is thought to have introduced the more used spelling of Toronto in a map he created in 1695.
The name'Toronto' found its way to the current city through its use in the name for the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail, a portage running between Lake Ontario and Georgian Bay, that passed through Lake Toronto, which in turn was used as the name for an early French fort located at the foot of the Toronto Passage, on Lake Ontario. The Severn River, its outlet stream, was once called'Rivière de Toronto' which flows into Georgian Bay's Severn Sound called the'Baie de Toronto'. French traders referred to it as Lac aux Claies, meaning "Lake of Grids" in reference to the Huron fishing weirs in the lake, it was renamed by John Graves Simcoe in 1793 in memory of Captain John Simcoe. Captain Simcoe was born on 28 November 1710, in Staindrop, in County Durham, northeast England and served as an officer in the Royal Navy, dying of pneumonia aboard his ship, HMS Pembroke, on 15 May 1759; the lake is 25 kilometres wide and 722 square kilometres in area. It is shaped somewhat like a fist with the index thumb extended.
The thumb forms Kempenfelt Bay on the west, the wrist Lake Couchiching to the north, the extended finger is Cook's Bay on the south. Couchiching was at one time thought of as a third bay of Simcoe, known as the Bristol Channel; the narrows, known as "where trees stand in the water", an interpretation of the word'Toronto', was an important fishing point for the First Nations peoples who lived in the area, the Mohawk term toran-ten gave its name to Toronto by way of the portage route running south from that point, the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail. Regarding the translation of'Toronto' as meaning "where trees stand in the water", this would have been the outcome of the Huron practise of driving stakes into the channel sediments to corral fish. Fresh-cut saplings placed in the water and sediments would have sprouted branches and leaves, persisting for some time, leading to a place "where trees stand in the water". A number of southern Ontario rivers flow north, into the lake, draining 2,581 km2 of land.
From the east, the Talbot River, part of the Trent–Severn Waterway is the most important river draining into Lake Simcoe, connecting the lake with the Kawartha lakes system and Lake Ontario. From its connection to Lake Couchiching, the Severn River is the only drainage from the lake to Georgian Bay, part of Lake Huron; the canal locks of the Trent-Severn Waterway make this connection navigable. A number of creeks and rivers flow into the lake: Black River Bluffs Creek Beaver River Holland River Maskinonge River Pefferlaw River Talbot River White's Creek Duclos Creek Burnie Creek White's Creek Virginia CreekA Virginia CreekB Virginia CreekD Lake Simcoe contains a large island, which along with Snake Island and Fox Island forms the reserve of the Chippewas of Georgina Island First Nation
United States dollar
The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its territories per the United States Constitution since 1792. In practice, the dollar is divided into 100 smaller cent units, but is divided into 1000 mills for accounting; the circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars. Since the suspension in 1971 of convertibility of paper U. S. currency into any precious metal, the U. S. dollar is, de facto, fiat money. As it is the most used in international transactions, the U. S. dollar is the world's primary reserve currency. Several countries use it as their official currency, in many others it is the de facto currency. Besides the United States, it is used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories in the Caribbean: the British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. A few countries use the Federal Reserve Notes for paper money, while still minting their own coins, or accept U. S. dollar coins. As of June 27, 2018, there are $1.67 trillion in circulation, of which $1.62 trillion is in Federal Reserve notes.
Article I, Section 8 of the U. S. Constitution provides that the Congress has the power "To coin money". Laws implementing this power are codified at 31 U. S. C. § 5112. Section 5112 prescribes the forms; these coins are both designated in Section 5112 as "legal tender" in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper alloy dollar; the pure silver dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle. Section 5112 provides for the minting and issuance of other coins, which have values ranging from one cent to 100 dollars; these other coins are more described in Coins of the United States dollar. The Constitution provides that "a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time"; that provision of the Constitution is made specific by Section 331 of Title 31 of the United States Code. The sums of money reported in the "Statements" are being expressed in U. S. dollars. The U. S. dollar may therefore be described as the unit of account of the United States.
The word "dollar" is one of the words in the first paragraph of Section 9 of Article I of the Constitution. There, "dollars" is a reference to the Spanish milled dollar, a coin that had a monetary value of 8 Spanish units of currency, or reales. In 1792 the U. S. Congress passed a Coinage Act. Section 9 of that act authorized the production of various coins, including "DOLLARS OR UNITS—each to be of the value of a Spanish milled dollar as the same is now current, to contain three hundred and seventy-one grains and four sixteenth parts of a grain of pure, or four hundred and sixteen grains of standard silver". Section 20 of the act provided, "That the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars, or units... and that all accounts in the public offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation". In other words, this act designated the United States dollar as the unit of currency of the United States. Unlike the Spanish milled dollar, the U.
S. dollar is based upon a decimal system of values. In addition to the dollar the coinage act established monetary units of mill or one-thousandth of a dollar, cent or one-hundredth of a dollar, dime or one-tenth of a dollar, eagle or ten dollars, with prescribed weights and composition of gold, silver, or copper for each, it was proposed in the mid-1800s that one hundred dollars be known as a union, but no union coins were struck and only patterns for the $50 half union exist. However, only cents are in everyday use as divisions of the dollar. XX9 per gallon, e.g. $3.599, more written as $3.599⁄10. When issued in circulating form, denominations equal to or less than a dollar are emitted as U. S. coins while denominations equal to or greater than a dollar are emitted as Federal Reserve notes. Both one-dollar coins and notes are produced today, although the note form is more common. In the past, "paper money" was issued in denominations less than a dollar and gold coins were issued for circulation up to the value of $20.
The term eagle was used in the Coinage Act of 1792 for the denomination of ten dollars, subsequently was used in naming gold coins. Paper currency less than one dollar in denomination, known as "fractional currency", was sometimes pejoratively referred to as "shinplasters". In 1854, James Guthrie Secretary of the Treasury, proposed creating $100, $50 and $25 gold coins, which were referred to as a "Union", "Half Union", "Quarter Union", thus implying a denomination of 1 Union = $100. Today, USD notes are made from cotton fiber paper, unlike most common paper, made of wood fiber. U. S. coins are produced by the United States Mint. U. S. dollar banknotes are printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and, since 1914, have been issued by t
Cornell University is a private and statutory Ivy League research university in Ithaca, New York. Founded in 1865 by Ezra Cornell and Andrew Dickson White, the university was intended to teach and make contributions in all fields of knowledge—from the classics to the sciences, from the theoretical to the applied; these ideals, unconventional for the time, are captured in Cornell's founding principle, a popular 1868 Ezra Cornell quotation: "I would found an institution where any person can find instruction in any study."The university is broadly organized into seven undergraduate colleges and seven graduate divisions at its main Ithaca campus, with each college and division defining its own admission standards and academic programs in near autonomy. The university administers two satellite medical campuses, one in New York City and one in Education City and Cornell Tech, a graduate program that incorporates technology and creative thinking; the program moved from Google's Chelsea Building in New York City to its permanent campus on Roosevelt Island in September 2017.
Cornell is one of ten private land grant universities in the United States and the only one in New York. Of its seven undergraduate colleges, three are state-supported statutory or contract colleges through the State University of New York system, including its agricultural and human ecology colleges as well as its industrial labor relations school. Of Cornell's graduate schools, only the veterinary college is state-supported; as a land grant college, Cornell operates a cooperative extension outreach program in every county of New York and receives annual funding from the State of New York for certain educational missions. The Cornell University Ithaca Campus comprises 745 acres, but is much larger when the Cornell Botanic Gardens and the numerous university-owned lands in New York City are considered; as of October 2018, 58 Nobel laureates, four Turing Award winners and one Fields Medalist have been affiliated with Cornell University. Since its founding, Cornell has been a co-educational, non-sectarian institution where admission has not been restricted by religion or race.
Cornell counts more than 245,000 living alumni, its former and present faculty and alumni include 34 Marshall Scholars, 30 Rhodes Scholars, 29 Truman Scholars, 7 Gates Scholars, 55 Olympic Medalists, 14 living billionaires. The student body consists of more than 14,000 undergraduate and 8,000 graduate students from all 50 American states and 116 countries. Cornell University was founded on April 27, 1865. Senator Ezra Cornell offered his farm in Ithaca, New York, as a site and $500,000 of his personal fortune as an initial endowment. Fellow senator and educator Andrew Dickson White agreed to be the first president. During the next three years, White oversaw the construction of the first two buildings and traveled to attract students and faculty; the university was inaugurated on October 7, 1868, 412 men were enrolled the next day. Cornell developed as a technologically innovative institution, applying its research to its own campus and to outreach efforts. For example, in 1883 it was one of the first university campuses to use electricity from a water-powered dynamo to light the grounds.
Since 1894, Cornell fulfill statutory requirements. Cornell has had active alumni since its earliest classes, it was one of the first universities to include alumni-elected representatives on its Board of Trustees. Cornell was among the Ivies that had heightened student activism during the 1960s related to cultural issues, civil rights, opposition to the Vietnam War. Today the university has more than 4,000 courses. Cornell is known for the Residential Club Fire of 1967, a fire in the Residential Club building that killed eight students and one professor. Since 2000, Cornell has been expanding its international programs. In 2004, the university opened the Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar, it has partnerships with institutions in India and the People's Republic of China. Former president Jeffrey S. Lehman described the university, with its high international profile, a "transnational university". On March 9, 2004, Cornell and Stanford University laid the cornerstone for a new'Bridging the Rift Center' to be built and jointly operated for education on the Israel–Jordan border.
Cornell's main campus is on East Hill in Ithaca, New York, overlooking Cayuga Lake. Since the university was founded, it has expanded to about 2,300 acres, encompassing both the hill and much of the surrounding areas. Central Campus has laboratories, administrative buildings, all of the campus' academic buildings, athletic facilities and museums. North Campus is composed of ten residence halls that house first-year students, although the Townhouse Community houses transfer students; the five main residence halls on West Campus make up the West Campus House System, along with several Gothic-style buildings, referred to as "the Gothics". Collegetown contains two upper-level residence halls and the Schwartz Performing Arts Center amid a mixed-use neighborhood of apartments and businesses; the main campus is marked by an irregular layout and eclectic architectural styles, including ornate Collegiate Gothic and Neoclassical buildings, the more spare international and modernist structures. The more ornat
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Harriet Elisabeth Beecher Stowe was an American abolitionist and author. She came from the Beecher family, a famous religious family, is best known for her novel Uncle Tom's Cabin, which depicts the harsh conditions for enslaved African Americans; the book reached millions as a novel and play, became influential in the United States and Great Britain, energizing anti-slavery forces in the American North, while provoking widespread anger in the South. Stowe wrote 30 books, including novels, three travel memoirs, collections of articles and letters, she was influential for both her writings and her public stances and debates on social issues of the day. Harriet Elisabeth Beecher was born in Litchfield, Connecticut, on June 14, 1811, she was the seventh of 13 children born to outspoken Calvinist preacher Lyman Beecher. Her mother was his first wife, Roxana, a religious woman who died when Stowe was only five years old. Roxana's maternal grandfather was General Andrew Ward of the Revolutionary War.
Her notable siblings included a sister, Catharine Beecher, who became an educator and author, as well as brothers who became ministers: including Henry Ward Beecher, who became a famous preacher and abolitionist, Charles Beecher, Edward Beecher. Harriet enrolled in the Hartford Female Seminary run by her older sister Catharine. There she received a traditional academic education only reserved for males at the time, with a focus in the classics, including studies of languages and mathematics. Among her classmates was Sarah P. Willis, who wrote under the pseudonym Fanny Fern. In 1832, at the age of 21, Harriet Beecher moved to Cincinnati, Ohio to join her father, who had become the president of Lane Theological Seminary. There, she joined the Semi-Colon Club, a literary salon and social club whose members included the Beecher sisters, Caroline Lee Hentz, Salmon P. Chase, Emily Blackwell and others. Cincinnati's trade and shipping business on the Ohio River was booming, drawing numerous migrants from different parts of the country, including many free blacks, as well as Irish immigrants who worked on the state's canals and railroads.
Areas of the city had been wrecked in the Cincinnati riots of 1829, when ethnic Irish attacked blacks, trying to push competitors out of the city. Beecher met a number of African Americans who had suffered in those attacks, their experience contributed to her writing about slavery. Riots took place again in 1836 and 1841, driven by native-born anti-abolitionists, it was in the literary club that she met Calvin Ellis Stowe, a widower, a professor at the seminary. The two married on January 6, 1836, he was an ardent critic of slavery, the Stowes supported the Underground Railroad, temporarily housing several fugitive slaves in their home. Most slaves continued north to secure freedom in Canada; the Stowes had seven children together, including twin daughters. In 1850, Congress passed the Fugitive Slave Law, prohibiting assistance to fugitives and strengthening sanctions in free states. At the time, Stowe had moved with her family to Brunswick, where her husband was now teaching at Bowdoin College.
Their home near the campus is protected as a National Historic Landmark. Stowe claimed to have a vision of a dying slave during a communion service at Brunswick's First Parish Church, which inspired her to write his story. However, what more allowed her to empathize with slaves was the loss of her eighteen-month-old son, Samuel Charles Stowe, she stated the following, "Having experienced losing someone so close to me, I can sympathize with all the poor, powerless slaves at the unjust auctions. You will always be in my heart Samuel Charles Stowe." On March 9, 1850, Stowe wrote to Gamaliel Bailey, editor of the weekly anti-slavery journal The National Era, that she planned to write a story about the problem of slavery: "I feel now that the time is come when a woman or a child who can speak a word for freedom and humanity is bound to speak... I hope every woman who can write will not be silent."Shortly after in June, 1851, when she was 40, the first installment of her Uncle Tom's Cabin was published in serial form in the newspaper The National Era.
She used the subtitle "The Man That Was A Thing", but it was soon changed to "Life Among the Lowly". Installments were published weekly from June 5, 1851, to April 1, 1852. For the newspaper serialization of her novel, Stowe was paid $400. Uncle Tom's Cabin was published in book form on March 20, 1852, by John P. Jewett with an initial print run of 5,000 copies; each of its two volumes included three illustrations and a title-page designed by Hammatt Billings. In less than a year, the book sold an unprecedented 300,000 copies. By December, as sales began to wane, Jewett issued an inexpensive edition at 37½ cents each to stimulate sales. According to Daniel R. Lincoln, the goal of the book was to educate northerners on the realistic horrors of the things that were happening in the south; the other purpose was to try to make people in the south feel more empathetic towards the people they were forcing into slavery. The book's emotional portrayal of the effects of slavery on individuals captured the nation's attention.
Stowe showed that slavery touched all of society, beyond the people directly involved as masters and slaves. Her novel added to the debate about abolition and slavery, aroused opposition in the South. In the South, Stowe was depicted as out of touch and guilty of slander. Within a year, 300 babies in Boston alone were named Eva, a play based on the book opened in New York in November. Southerners responded with numerous works of
Brooklyn is the most populous borough of New York City, with an estimated 2,648,771 residents in 2017. Named after the Dutch village of Breukelen, it borders the borough of Queens at the western end of Long Island. Brooklyn has several bridge and tunnel connections to the borough of Manhattan across the East River, the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge connects Staten Island. Since 1896, Brooklyn has been coterminous with Kings County, the most populous county in the U. S. state of New York and the second-most densely populated county in the United States, after New York County. With a land area of 71 square miles and water area of 26 square miles, Kings County is New York state's fourth-smallest county by land area and third-smallest by total area, though it is the second-largest among the city's five boroughs. Today, if each borough were ranked as a city, Brooklyn would rank as the third-most populous in the U. S. after Los Angeles and Chicago. Brooklyn was an independent incorporated city until January 1, 1898, after a long political campaign and public relations battle during the 1890s, according to the new Municipal Charter of "Greater New York", Brooklyn was consolidated with the other cities and counties to form the modern City of New York, surrounding the Upper New York Bay with five constituent boroughs.
The borough continues, however. Many Brooklyn neighborhoods are ethnic enclaves. Brooklyn's official motto, displayed on the Borough seal and flag, is Eendraght Maeckt Maght, which translates from early modern Dutch as "Unity makes strength". In the first decades of the 21st century, Brooklyn has experienced a renaissance as an avant garde destination for hipsters, with concomitant gentrification, dramatic house price increases, a decrease in housing affordability. Since the 2010s, Brooklyn has evolved into a thriving hub of entrepreneurship and high technology startup firms, of postmodern art and design; the name Brooklyn is derived from the original Dutch colonial name Breuckelen, meaning marshland. Established in 1646, the name first appeared in print in 1663; the Dutch colonists named it after the scenic town of Netherlands. Over the past two millennia, the name of the ancient town in Holland has been Bracola, Brocckede, Brocklandia, Broikelen and Breukelen; the New Amsterdam settlement of Breuckelen went through many spelling variations, including Breucklyn, Brucklyn, Brookland, Brockland and Brookline/Brook-line.
There have been so many variations of the name. The final name of Brooklyn, however, is the most accurate to its meaning; the history of European settlement in Brooklyn spans more than 350 years. The settlement began in the 17th century as the small Dutch-founded town of "Breuckelen" on the East River shore of Long Island, grew to be a sizeable city in the 19th century, was consolidated in 1898 with New York City, the remaining rural areas of Kings County, the rural areas of Queens and Staten Island, to form the modern City of New York; the etymology of Breuckelen may be directly from the dialect word Breuckelen meaning buckle or from the Plattdeutsch Brücken meaning bridge. The Dutch were the first Europeans to settle Long Island's western edge, largely inhabited by the Lenape, an Algonquian-speaking American Indian tribe who are referred to in colonial documents by a variation of the place name "Canarsie". Bands were associated with place names, but the colonists thought their names represented different tribes.
The Breuckelen settlement was named after Breukelen in the Netherlands. The Dutch West India Company lost little time in chartering the six original parishes: Gravesend: in 1645, settled under Dutch patent by English followers of Anabaptist Lady Deborah Moody, named for's-Gravenzande, Netherlands, or Gravesend, England Brooklyn Heights: as Breuckelen in 1646, after the town now spelled Breukelen, Netherlands. Breuckelen was located along Fulton Street between Smith Street. Brooklyn Heights, or Clover Hill, is where the village Brooklyn was founded in 1816. Flatlands: as Nieuw Amersfoort in 1647 Flatbush: as Midwout in 1652 Nieuw Utrecht: in 1657, after the city of Utrecht, Netherlands Bushwick: as Boswijck in 1661 The colony's capital of New Amsterdam, across the East River, obtained its charter in 1653 than the village of Brooklyn; the neighborhood of Marine Park was home to North America's first tide mill. It was built by the Dutch, the foundation can be seen today, but the area was not formally settled as a town.
Many incidents and documents relating to this period are in Gabriel Furman's 1824 compilation. What is Brooklyn today left Dutch hands after the final English conquest of New Netherland in 1664, a prelude to the Second Anglo–Dutch War. New Netherland was taken in a naval action, the conquerors renamed their prize in honor of the overall English naval commander, Duke of York, brother of the monarch King Charles II of England and future king himself as King James II of England and James VII of Scotland; the English reorganized the six old Dutch towns on southwestern Long Island as Kings County on November 1, 1683, one of the "original twelve counties" established in New York Pro
A commemorative plaque, or plaque, or in other places referred to as a historical marker or historic plaque, is a plate of metal, stone, wood, or other material attached to a wall, stone, or other vertical surface, bearing text or an image in relief, or both, to commemorate one or more persons, an event, a former use of the place, or some other thing. Many modern plaques and markers are used to associate the location where the plaque or marker is installed with the person, event, or item commemorated as a place worthy of visit. A monumental plaque or tablet commemorating a deceased person or persons, can be a simple form of church monument. Most modern plaques affixed in this way are commemorative of something, but this is not always the case, there are purely religious plaques, or those signifying ownership or affiliation of some sort. A plaquette is a small plaque, but in English, unlike many European languages, the term is not used for outdoor plaques fixed to walls; the Benin Empire, which flourished in present-day Nigeria between the thirteenth and nineteenth centuries, had an exceedingly rich sculptural tradition.
One of the kingdom's chief sites of cultural production was the elaborate ceremonial court of the Oba at the palace in Benin. Among the wide range of artistic forms produced at the court were rectangular brass or bronze plaques. At least a portion of these plaques, which were created from the thirteenth through sixteenth centuries, commemorate significant persons and events associated with the Oba's court, including important battles during Benin's sixteenth century expansionary period. Brass or bronze memorial plaques were produced throughout medieval Europe from at least the early thirteenth through the sixteenth centuries as a form of sepulchral memorial inset into the walls of churches or surfaces of tombs. Surviving in great numbers, they were manufactured from sheet brass or latten occasionally coloured with enamels, tend to depict conventional figures with brief inscriptions. Historical markers are put on display by the owners of sites listed by national agencies concerned with historic preservation such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation and the National Register of Historic Places, the National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, An Taisce, National Historical Commission of the Philippines, the National Trusts of other countries.
Other historical markers are created by local municipalities, non-profit organizations, companies, or individuals. In addition to geographically defined regions, individual organizations, such as E Clampus Vitus or the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, can choose to maintain a national set of historical markers that fit a certain theme; the Royal Society of Arts established the first scheme in the world for historical commemoration on plaques in 1866. The scheme was established under the influence of the British politician William Ewart and the civil servant Henry Cole; the first plaque was unveiled in 1867 to commemorate Lord Byron at his birthplace, 24 Holles Street, Cavendish Square. The earliest historical marker to survive, commemorates Napoleon III in King Street, St James's, was put up in 1867; the original plaque colour was blue, but this was changed by the manufacturer Minton, Hollins & Co to chocolate brown to save money. In 1901, the scheme was first taken over by the local government authority - the London County Council.
Bundesdenkmalamt Institut du Patrimoine National Historic Sites of Canada Index: National Historic Sites of Canada National Monuments of Chile Monument historique Plaque commémorative Deutsche Stiftung Denkmalschutz Kulturdenkmal Declared monuments of Hong Kong List of Grade I historic buildings in Hong Kong List of Grade II historic buildings in Hong Kong List of Grade III historic buildings in Hong Kong Fondo per l'Ambiente Italiano Rijksmonument New Zealand Historic Places Trust National Monuments of Singapore Kulturgüterschutz — or: Protection des biens culturels. They are installed by the National Historical Commission of the Philippines; this practice started in 1933, with NHCP's predecessor, the Philippine Historical Research and Markers Committee, which only marked antiquities in Manila. The initial markers were placed in 1934. Markers have their texts in Filipino, while there are markers in the English language for markers that were installed during the American occupation. Markers in regional languages such as Cebuano and Kapampangan, are available and issued by the NHCP.
Markers are found all over the country, there have been markers installed outside the country. The plaques themselves are permanent signs installed in publicly visible locations on buildings, monuments, or in special locations. There are more than 1,500 markers to date. Most markers are located within Luzon in Metro Manila, which has prompted the NHCP to install more markers in Visayas and Mindanao, for their greater inclusion in the national historical narrative. Issues and controversies have been the concern of several individual markers, from the commemoration of the late dictator Ferdinand Marcos to the reaction of the Japanese embassy to the comfort women statue and marker. There have been some markers replaced by new ones because of rectified information, theft, or loss due to war or disasters. Many American-era mark