Kentucky, officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States. Kentucky is one of four U. S. states constituted as a commonwealth, originally a part of Virginia, in 1792 Kentucky became the 15th state to join the Union. Kentucky is the 37th most extensive and the 26th most populous of the 50 United States, Kentucky is known as the Bluegrass State, a nickname based on the bluegrass found in many of its pastures due to the fertile soil. One of the regions in Kentucky is the Bluegrass Region in central Kentucky. In 1776, the counties of Virginia beyond the Appalachian Mountains became known as Kentucky County, the precise etymology of the name is uncertain, but likely based on an Iroquoian name meaning the meadow or the prairie. Kentucky is situated in the Upland South, a significant portion of eastern Kentucky is part of Appalachia. Kentucky borders seven states, from the Midwest and the Southeast, West Virginia lies to the east, Virginia to the southeast, Tennessee to the south, Missouri to the west and Indiana to the northwest, and Ohio to the north and northeast.
Only Missouri and Tennessee, both of which border eight states, touch more, Kentuckys northern border is formed by the Ohio River and its western border by the Mississippi River. The official state borders are based on the courses of the rivers as they existed when Kentucky became a state in 1792, for instance, northbound travelers on U. S.41 from Henderson, after crossing the Ohio River, will be in Kentucky for about two miles. Ellis Park, a racetrack, is located in this small piece of Kentucky. Waterworks Road is part of the land border between Indiana and Kentucky. Kentucky has a part known as Kentucky Bend, at the far west corner of the state. It exists as an exclave surrounded completely by Missouri and Tennessee, Road access to this small part of Kentucky on the Mississippi River requires a trip through Tennessee. The epicenter of the powerful 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes was near this area, much of the outer Bluegrass is in the Eden Shale Hills area, made up of short and very narrow hills.
The Jackson Purchase and western Pennyrile are home to several bald cypress/tupelo swamps, located within the southeastern interior portion of North America, Kentucky has a climate that can best be described as a humid subtropical climate. Temperatures in Kentucky usually range from daytime summer highs of 87 °F to the low of 23 °F. The average precipitation is 46 inches a year, Kentucky experiences four distinct seasons, with substantial variations in the severity of summer and winter. The highest recorded temperature was 114 °F at Greensburg on July 28,1930 while the lowest recorded temperature was −37 °F at Shelbyville on January 19,1994, due to its location, Kentucky has a moderate humid subtropical climate, with abundant rainfall
A patent application or patent may contain drawings, called patent drawings, illustrating the invention, some of its embodiments, or the prior art. The drawings may be required by the law to be in a form. Under the European Patent Convention, Article 78 EPC provides that a European patent application shall contain any drawings referred to in the description or the claims, rule 46 EPC specifies the form in which the drawings must be executed. The European search report is drawn up in respect of a European patent application on the basis of the claims, with due regard to the description and any drawings. Under the Patent Cooperation Treaty, Article 7 PCT notably provides that the drawings are required when they are necessary for the understanding of the invention, rule 11.13 PCT specifies special physical requirements for drawings in an international application. In the United States, the applicant for a patent is required by law to furnish a drawing of the invention whenever the nature of the case requires a drawing to understand the invention and this drawing must be filed with the application.
This includes practically all inventions except compositions of matter or processes, the drawing must show every feature of the invention specified in the claims, and is required by the U. S. patent office rules to be in a particular form. The United States Patent and Trademark Office specifies the size of the sheet on which the drawing is made, the type of paper, the margins, and other details relating to the making of the drawing. No names or other identification are permitted within the “sight” of the drawing and this identification may consist of the attorney’s name and docket number or the inventor’s name and application number and may include the sheet number and the total number of sheets filed. The following rule, reproduced from title 37 of the Code of Federal Regulations, relates to the standards for drawings, From 1790 to 1880 in the US, patent models were required. A patent model was a miniature model no larger than 12 by 12 by 12, approximately 30 cm by 30 cm by 30 cm. Some inventors still willingly submitted models at the turn of the twentieth century, in some cases, an inventor may still want to present a working model as an evidence to prove actual reduction to practice in an interference proceeding.
In some jurisdictions patent models stayed an aid to demonstrate the operation of the invention, in applications involving genetics, samples of genetic material or DNA sequences may be required. The United States patent law was revised in 1793 and it stated that the Commissioner of the USPTO could ask for additional information, drawings, or diagrams if the description is not clear. By then, the rate of patent grants had grown to about 20 per year, Patent applications were no longer examined. Patents were granted simply by submitting a written description of an invention, a model of the invention, if appropriate, and paying a fee of $30 then, in utility and design patent applications, drawings can be in black ink or color. Black and white drawings are normally required and white photographs are not ordinarily permitted in utility and design patent applications, unless this is the only practicable medium for illustrating the claimed invention. For example, photographs of electrophoresis gels, autoradiographs, cell cultures, histological tissue sections, plants, in vivo imaging
In guns, particularly firearms, caliber or calibre is the approximate internal diameter of the barrel, or the diameter of the projectile it fires, in hundredths or sometimes thousandths of an inch. For example, a 45 caliber firearm has a diameter of.45 of an inch. Barrel diameters can be expressed using metric dimensions, as in 9mm pistol, when the barrel diameter is given in inches, the abbreviation cal can be used. Good performance requires a bullet to closely match the diameter of a barrel to ensure a good seal. While modern cartridges and cartridge firearms are referred to by the cartridge name. Firearm calibers outside the range of 17 to 50 exist, but are rarely encountered. Larger calibers, such as.577.585.600.700, the.950 JDJ is the only known cartridge beyond 79 caliber used in a rifle. Referring to artillery, caliber is used to describe the length as multiples of the bore diameter. A 5-inch 50 calibre gun has a diameter of 5 in. The main guns of the USS Missouri are 1650 caliber, makers of early cartridge arms had to invent methods of naming the cartridges, since no established convention existed then.
One of the early established cartridge arms was the Spencer repeating rifle, various derivatives were created using the same basic cartridge, but with smaller-diameter bullets, these were named by the cartridge diameter at the base and mouth. The original No.56 became the. 56-56, and the smaller versions. 56-52. 56-50, the. 56-52, the most common of the new calibers, used a 50-cal bullet. Optionally, the weight in grains was designated, e. g. 45-70-405. Variations on these methods persist today, with new cartridges such as the.204 Ruger, metric diameters for small arms refer to cartridge dimensions and are expressed with an × between the bore diameter and the length of the cartridge case, for example,7. 62×51 NATO. This indicates that the diameter is 7. 62mm, loaded in a case 51mm long. Similarly, the 6. 5×55 Swedish cartridge has a diameter of 6.5 mm. An exception to rule is the proprietary cartridge used by U. S. maker Lazzeroni. The following table lists commonly used calibers where both metric and imperial are used as equivalents
Battle of Franklin (1864)
The Battle of Franklin was fought on November 30,1864, in Franklin, Tennessee, as part of the Franklin–Nashville Campaign of the American Civil War. It was one of the worst disasters of the war for the Confederate States Army, after its defeat against Maj. Gen. George H. Following his defeat in the Atlanta Campaign, Hood had hoped to lure Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman into battle by disrupting his supply line from Chattanooga to Atlanta. After a brief period in which he pursued Hood, Sherman decided instead to cut his main army off from these lines, shermans march left the aggressive Hood unoccupied, and his Army of Tennessee had several options in attacking Sherman or falling upon his rear lines. The task of defending Tennessee and the rearguard against Hood fell to Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas, another 30,000 troops under Thomass command were in or moving toward Nashville. Hood spent the first three weeks of November quietly supplying the Army of Tennessee in northern Alabama in preparation for his offensive, with a series of fast marches that covered 70 miles in three days, Hood tried to maneuver between the two armies to destroy each in detail.
On November 28, Thomas directed Schofield to begin preparations for a north to Franklin. Meanwhile, early on the morning of November 29, Hood sent Cheathams, now that Hood had outflanked him by noon on November 29, Schofields army was in critical danger. Both the Union infantry and supply train managed to pass Spring Hill unscathed by dawn on November 30 and that morning, Hood was surprised and furious to discover Schofields unexpected escape. After an angry conference with his commanders in which he blamed everyone but himself for the mistakes. Schofields advance guard arrived in Franklin at about 4,30 a. m. on November 30, Brig. Gen. Schofield decided to defend at Franklin with his back to the river because he had no pontoon bridges available that would enable his men to cross the river. The bridges had been left behind in his retreat from Columbia because they lacked wagons to transport them, Schofield needed time to repair the permanent bridges spanning the river—a burned wagon bridge and an intact railroad bridge.
He ordered his engineers to rebuild the bridge and to lay planking over the undamaged railroad bridge to enable it to carry wagons. By the beginning of the assault, nearly all the wagons were across the Harpeth. By noon, the Union works were ready, the line formed an approximate semicircle around the town from northwest to southeast. The other half of the circle was the Harpeth River, counterclockwise from the northwest were the divisions of Kimball and Reilly. There was a gap in the line where the Columbia Pike entered the outskirts of the town, about 200 feet behind this gap, a 150-yard retrenchment line was constructed of dirt and rails, which was intended to be a barrier to traffic, not a full-fledged defensive earthwork. The actual earthworks in the portion of the line were formidable
Gunpowder, known as black powder, is the earliest known chemical explosive. It is a mixture of sulfur and potassium nitrate, the sulfur and charcoal act as fuels, and the saltpeter is an oxidizer. Black powder firearms are in limited use today in hunting, Black powder has been replaced for most industrial uses by high explosives such as dynamite. Black powder is assigned the UN number UN0027 and has a class of 1. 1D. It has a point of approximately 427–464 °C. The specific flash point may vary based on the composition of the gunpowder. Gunpowders specific gravity is 1. 70–1.82 or 1. 92–2.08, Gunpowder is classified as a low explosive because of its relatively slow decomposition rate and consequently low brisance. Low explosives deflagrate at subsonic speeds, whereas high explosives detonate, ignition of the powder packed behind a bullet must generate enough pressure to force it from the muzzle at high speed, but not enough to rupture the gun barrel. Gunpowder thus makes a good propellant, but is suitable for shattering rock or fortifications.
Gunpowder was widely used to fill artillery shells and in mining and civil engineering to blast rock until the half of the 19th century. Black powder is used as a delay element in various munitions where its slow-burning properties are valuable. The spread of gunpowder across Asia from China is widely attributed to the Mongols, the earliest record of a written formula for gunpowder appears in the 11th century Song dynasty text, Wujing Zongyao. This discovery led to the invention of fireworks and the earliest gunpowder weapons in China, in the centuries following the Chinese discovery, gunpowder weapons began appearing in the Muslim world and Europe. The technology spread from China through the Middle East or Central Asia, the earliest Western accounts of gunpowder appear in texts written by English philosopher Roger Bacon in the 13th century. The most ardent protagonists were Nathaniel Halhad, Johann Backmann, Quintin Craufurd, due to lack of sufficient proof, these theories have not been widely accepted. A major problem confronting the study of the history of gunpowder is ready access to sources close to the events described.
The translation difficulty has led to errors or loose interpretations bordering on artistic licence, early writings potentially mentioning gunpowder are sometimes marked by a linguistic process where old words acquired new meanings. For instance, the Arabic word naft transitioned from denoting naphtha to denoting gunpowder, saltpeter was known to the Chinese by the mid-1st century AD and there is strong evidence of the use of saltpeter and sulfur in various largely medicinal combinations
Benjamin Tyler Henry
Benjamin Tyler Henry was an American gunsmith and manufacturer. He was the inventor of the Henry rifle, the first reliable lever-action repeating rifle, Henry was born in Claremont, New Hampshire in 1821. He apprenticed to a gunsmith as a man and worked his way up to shop foreman at the Robins & Lawrence Arms Company of Windsor, Vermont where he worked with Horace Smith. Wesson on a known as the Volitional Repeater. In 1854, Horace Smith and Daniel B, Wesson formed a new company with Courtlandt Palmer, and further improved the operating mechanism, developing the Smith & Wesson Lever pistol, and a new Volcanic cartridge. Production was in the shop of Horace Smith in Norwich, originally using the name Smith & Wesson Company, the name was changed to Volcanic Repeating Arms Company in 1855, with the addition of new investors, one of which was Oliver Winchester. The Volcanic Repeating Arms Company obtained all rights for the Volcanic designs as well as the ammunition, Wesson remained as plant manager for 8 months before rejoining Smith to found the Smith & Wesson Revolver Company upon obtaining the licensing of the Rollin White rear loading cylinder patent.
On October 16,1860, he received a patent on the Henry, the first Henry rifles were not produced for army use until mid-1862. In 1864 Henry grew angry over what he believed was inadequate compensation, Oliver Winchester, hastening back from Europe, forestalled the move and reorganized New Haven Arms yet again as the Winchester Repeating Arms Company. Henry left the Winchester Repeating Arms Company over this dispute and worked as an individual gunsmith until his death in 1898, Winchester Repeating Arms Company Winchester rifle Henry repeating rifle The Henry Repeating Arms Company Web site
Winchester rifle is a comprehensive term describing a series of lever-action repeating rifles manufactured by the Winchester Repeating Arms Company. Developed from the 1860 Henry rifle, Winchester rifles were among the earliest repeaters, the Model 1873 was particularly successful, being colloquially known as The Gun that Won the West. In 1848, Walter Hunt of New York patented his Volition Repeating Rifle incorporating a tubular magazine, the Hunt rifle fired what he called the Rocket Ball, an early form of caseless ammunition in which the powder charge was contained in the bullets hollow base. Horace Smith and Daniel Wesson of Norwich, Connecticut acquired the Jennings patent from Robbins & Lawrence and its largest stockholder was Oliver Winchester. Smiths cartridge, the.22 Short, would be introduced commercially in 1857 with the landmark Smith & Wesson Model 1 revolver and is manufactured today. Wesson had left Volcanic soon after it was formed and Smith followed eight months later, Volcanic moved to New Haven in 1856, but by the end of that year became insolvent.
Oliver Winchester purchased the firms assets from the remaining stockholders. Benjamin Henry continued to work with Smiths cartridge concept, and perfected the much larger, Henry supervised the redesign of the rifle to use the new ammunition, retaining only the general form of the breech mechanism and the tubular magazine. This became the Henry rifle of 1860, which was manufactured by the New Haven Arms Company, confederates called the Henry that damned Yankee rifle that they load on Sunday and shoot all week. After the war, Oliver Winchester renamed New Haven Arms the Winchester Repeating Arms Company, the company modified and improved the basic design of the Henry rifle, creating the first Winchester rifle, the Model 1866. It retained the.44 Henry cartridge, was built on a bronze-alloy frame, and had an improved magazine. In 1873 Winchester introduced the steel-framed Model 1873 chambering the more potent. 44-40 centerfire cartridge, in 1876, in a bid to compete with the powerful single-shot rifles of the time, Winchester brought out the Model 1876.
The first Winchester rifle – the Winchester Model 1866 – was originally chambered for the rimfire.44 Henry. Nelson Kings improved patent remedied flaws in the Henry rifle by incorporating a loading gate on the side of the frame and integrating a round, france purchased 6,000 Model 1866 rifles along with 4.5 million.44 Henry cartridges during the Franco-Prussian War. The Ottoman Empire purchased 45,000 Model 1866 muskets and 5,000 carbines in 1870 and 1871, the Model 1866 compelled Russians to develop a new rifle, the Mosin–Nagant, after the war. The Swiss Army initially selected the Model 1866 to replace their existing single-shot Milbank-Amsler rifles, ensuing political pressure to adopt a domestic design resulted in the Vetterli Model 1867, a bolt-action design utilizing a copy of the Winchesters tubular magazine, being adopted instead. Due to public demand, the Model 1866 continued to be manufactured and sold until 1899, the Model 1873 was one of the most successful Winchester rifles of its day, with Winchester marketing it as The Gun that Won the West.
Still an icon in the day, it was manufactured between 1873 and 1923
George Armstrong Custer
George Armstrong Custer was a United States Army officer and cavalry commander in the American Civil War and the American Indian Wars. Raised in Michigan and Ohio, Custer was admitted to West Point in 1857, with the outbreak of the Civil War, Custer was called to serve with the Union Army. Custer developed a reputation during the Civil War. He participated in the first major engagement, the First Battle of Bull Run on July 21,1861, near Washington and his association with several important officers helped his career as did his success as a highly effective cavalry commander. He was wounded in the Battle of Culpeper Court House in Virginia on September 13,1863, in 1864, Custer was awarded another star and brevetted to major general rank. At the conclusion of the Appomattox Campaign, in which he and his troops played a role, Custer was present at General Robert E. Lees surrender to General Ulysses S. Grant. After the Civil War, Custer remained a general in the United States Volunteers until they were mustered out in February 1866.
He reverted to his permanent rank of captain and was appointed a lieutenant colonel in the 7th Cavalry Regiment in July 1866 and he was dispatched to the west in 1867 to fight in the American Indian Wars. The battle is known in American history as Custers Last Stand. Custer and his regiment were defeated so decisively at the Little Bighorn that it has overshadowed all of his prior achievements, according to family letters, Custer was named after George Armstrong, a minister, in his devout mothers hope that her son might join the clergy. Custer was born in New Rumley, Ohio, to Emanuel Henry Custer, a farmer and blacksmith and he had two younger brothers, Thomas Custer and Boston Custer, both of whom died with him on the battlefield at Little Bighorn. His other full siblings were the familys youngest child, Margaret Custer, and Nevin Custer, Custer had three older half-siblings. It was in large, close knit family that Custer. Emanuel Custer was an outspoken Democrat who taught his children politics, in a February 3,1887 letter to his sons widow, Libby, he related an incident when Autie was about four years old.
He had to have a tooth drawn, and he was much afraid of blood. When I took him to the doctor to have the tooth pulled, it was in the night and I told him if it bled well it would get right away. When he got to the doctor he took his seat, the forceps slipped off and he had to make a second trial. He pulled it out, and Autie never even scrunched, going home, I led him by the arm
Spencer repeating rifle
The Spencer repeating rifle was a manually operated lever-action, seven shot repeating rifle produced in the United States by three manufacturers between 1860 and 1869. Designed by Christopher Spencer, it was fed with cartridges from a magazine in the rifles buttstock. The Spencer carbine was a shorter and lighter version, the design for a magazine-fed, lever-operated rifle chambered for the. 56-56 Spencer rimfire cartridge was completed by Christopher Spencer in 1860. Called the Spencer Repeating Rifle, it was fired by cocking a lever to extract a used case, like most firearms of the time, the hammer had to be manually cocked in a separate action before the weapon could be fired. The weapon used copper rimfire cartridges based on the 1854 Smith & Wesson patent stored in a tube magazine. A spring in the tube enabled the rounds to be fired one after another, when empty, the spring had to be released and removed before dropping in fresh cartridges, replaced before resuming firing. Cartridges were loaded with 45 grains of powder, and were available as. 56-52. 56-50, and a wildcat. 56-46.
The fact that several Springfield rifle-muskets could be purchased for the cost of a single Spencer carbine influenced thinking. Lincoln was impressed with the weapon, and ordered Gen. James Wolfe Ripley to adopt it for production, after which Ripley disobeyed him and stuck with the single-shot rifles. The Spencer repeating rifle was first adopted by the United States Navy, and subsequently adopted by the United States Army, and used during the American Civil War, where it was a popular weapon. As the war progressed, Spencers were carried by a number of Union cavalry and mounted infantry regiments, president Lincolns assassin John Wilkes Booth was armed with a Spencer carbine at the time he was captured and killed. The Spencer showed itself to be reliable under combat conditions. Compared to standard muzzle-loaders, with a rate of fire of 2–3 rounds per minute, effective tactics had yet to be developed to take advantage of the higher rate of fire. Similarly, the chain was not equipped to carry the extra ammunition.
One of the advantages of the Spencer was that its ammunition was waterproof and hardy, the story goes that every round of paper and linen Sharps ammunition carried in the supply wagons was found useless after long storage in supply wagons. Spencer ammunition had no such problem, in the late 1860s, the Spencer company was sold to the Fogerty Rifle Company and ultimately to Winchester. Many Spencer carbines were sold as surplus to France where they were used during the Franco-Prussian War in 1870. Even though the Spencer company went out of business in 1869, many rifles and carbines were converted to centerfire, which could fire cartridges made from the centerfire. 50-70 brass
Battle of the Little Bighorn
The battle, which occurred June 25–26,1876, near the Little Bighorn River in eastern Montana Territory, was the most prominent action of the Great Sioux War of 1876. The fight was a victory for the Lakota, Northern Cheyenne. The U. S. 7th Cavalry, including the Custer Battalion, five of the 7th Cavalrys twelve companies were annihilated, Custer was killed, as were two of his brothers, a nephew, and a brother-in-law. The total U. S. casualty count included 268 dead and 55 severely wounded, including four Crow Indian scouts, the battle, and Custers actions in particular, have been studied extensively by historians. Even though many of the native peoples eventually agreed to relocate to ever-shrinking reservations, among the Plains Tribes, the long-standing ceremonial tradition known as the Sun Dance was the most important religious event of the year. It is a time for prayer and personal sacrifice on behalf of the community, towards the end of spring in 1876, the Lakota and the Cheyenne held a Sun Dance that was attended by a number of Agency Indians who had slipped away from their reservations.
Col. John Gibbons column of six companies of the 7th Infantry and four companies of the 2nd Cavalry marched east from Fort Ellis in western Montana on March 30 and they were accompanied by teamsters and packers with 150 wagons and a large contingent of pack mules that reinforced Custer. They were joined there by the steamboat Far West, which was loaded with 200 tons of supplies from Fort Lincoln, the coordination and planning began to go awry on June 17,1876 when Crooks column retreated after the Battle of the Rosebud. Unaware of Crooks battle and Terry proceeded, joining forces in early June near the mouth of the Rosebud Creek, as this was the likely location of Native encampments, all army elements were to converge around June 26 or 27, attempting to engulf the Native Americans. Custer had been offered the use of Gatling guns but declined, at sunrise on June 25, Custers scouts reported they could see a massive pony herd and signs of the Native American village roughly 15 miles in the distance.
After a nights march, the officer who was sent with the scouts could see neither. Custers scouts spotted the regimental cooking fires that could be seen from 10 miles away, assuming his presence had been exposed, Custer decided to attack the village without further delay. On the morning of June 25, Custer divided his 12 companies into three battalions in anticipation of the forthcoming engagement, three companies were placed under the command of Major Marcus Reno, and three were placed under the command of Capt. Frederick Benteen. Five companies remained under Custers immediate command, the 12th, Company B under Capt. Thomas McDougall, had been assigned to escort the slower pack train carrying provisions and additional ammunition. Unknown to Custer, the group of Native Americans seen on his trail were actually leaving the encampment on the Big Horn, Custers overriding concern was that the Native American group would break up and scatter. The command began its approach to the village at noon and prepared to attack in full daylight, the 7th Cavalry was created just after the American Civil War.
Many men were veterans of the war, including most of the leading officers, six other troopers had died of drowning and 51 from cholera epidemics. Half of the 7th Cavalrys companies had just returned from 18 months of duty in the Deep South
7th Cavalry Regiment
The 7th Cavalry Regiment is a United States Army cavalry regiment formed in 1866. Its official nickname is Garryowen, after the Irish air Garryowen that was adopted as its march tune, following its activation, the Seventh Cavalry Regiment patrolled the Western plains for raiding Native Americans and to protect the westward movement of pioneers. From 1866 to 1881, the regiment marched a total of 181,692 miles across Kansas, the regiment was constituted on 28 July 1866 in the regular army as the 7th United States Cavalry. It was organized on 21 September 1866 at Fort Riley, Kansas as part of an expansion of the army following the demobilization of the wartime volunteer. From 1866 through 1871, the regiment was posted to Fort Riley, in the Battle of the Washita in 1868, the regiment sustained 22 losses, while inflicting more that 150 deaths on a Cheyenne encampment, mostly women and children. This attack was led by George Armstrong Custer, who led the 7th Cavalry to the most calamitous defeat of U. S.
forces in the Indian Wars. Typical of post-Civil War cavalry regiments, the 7th Cavalry was organized as a regiment without a formal battalion organization. Battalions at this time were flexible tactical organizations, with companies being assigned and removed as the field commander desired or felt necessary. Throughout this period, the cavalryman was armed with the Colt Single Action Army.45 caliber revolvers and trapdoor Springfield carbines, the regiment used the McClellan saddle, and sabres were issued but not often carried on campaign. The 7th Cavalry, like the other U. S. Army regiments of the time, had a band, which performed mounted as well as on foot, and seated for concerts. Initially established with the support of Major Alfred Gibbs, the 7ths band adopted Garryowen as their favorite tune and thus gave the Seventh their nickname among the rest of the Army. From 1871 through 1873, 7th Cavalry companies participated in constabulary duties in the deep South in support of the Reconstruction Act, in 1873, the 7th Cavalry moved its garrison post to Fort Abraham Lincoln, Dakota Territory.
From here, the regiment carried out Custers 1874 Black Hills Expedition and this led to the discovery of gold in the Black Hills, starting a gold rush in 1874 that precipitated the Great Sioux War of 1876–77. In June,1876, Lieutenant Colonel George A. Custer was killed in the Battle of the Little Bighorn, on 29 December 1890, the regiment instigated the Wounded Knee Massacre in South Dakota, an event that signaled the end of the American Indian Wars. November 1866 – April 1869 Col. Andrew J. Smith May 1869 – June 1886 Col. Samuel D. Sturgis July 1886 – November 1894 Col. James W. From 1895 until 1899, the regiment served in New Mexico and Oklahoma, an enlisted trooper with the Seventh Cavalry, B Company, from May 1896 until March 1897 at Fort Grant Arizona Territory was author Edgar Rice Burroughs. The regiment served in the Philippines during the Philippine-American War from 1904 through 1907, in December 1917, 7th Cavalry was assigned to the 15th Cavalry Division, an on-paper organization designed for service in France during World War I that was never more than a simple headquarters.
This was because no significant role emerged for mounted troops on the Western Front during the 19 months between the entry of the United States into the war and the Armistice of 11 November 1918, the 7th Cavalry was released from this assignment in May 1918
A rifle is a firearm designed to be fired from the shoulder, with a barrel that has a helical groove or pattern of grooves cut into the barrel walls. The raised areas of the rifling are called lands, which contact with the projectile. When the projectile leaves the barrel, this spin lends gyroscopic stability to the projectile and prevents tumbling and this allows the use of aerodynamically-efficient bullets and thus improves range and accuracy. The word rifle originally referred to the grooving, and a rifle was called a rifled gun, the word rifle is now used for any long hand-held aimed device activated by a trigger, such as Air rifles and the Personnel halting and stimulation response rifle. Rifles are used in warfare and shooting sports, rifles only fired a single projectile with each squeeze of the trigger. Modern rifles are capable of firing more than one round per trigger squeeze, some fire in an automatic mode. Thus, modern automatic rifles overlap to some extent in design, in fact, many light machine guns are adaptations of existing automatic rifle designs. A militarys light machine guns are chambered for the same caliber ammunition as its service rifles.
Generally, the difference between a rifle and a machine gun comes down to weight, cooling system. Modern military rifles are fed by magazines, while machine guns are generally belt-fed, many machine guns allow the operator to quickly exchange barrels in order to prevent overheating, whereas rifles generally do not. Most machine guns fire from a bolt in order to reduce the danger of cook-off. Machine guns are often crewed by more than one soldier, the rifle is an individual weapon, the term rifle is sometimes used to describe larger crew-served rifled weapons firing explosive shells, for example, recoilless rifles. In many works of fiction a rifle refers to any weapon that has a stock and is shouldered before firing, the origins of rifling are difficult to trace, but some of the earliest practical experiments seem to have occurred in Europe during the 15th century. Archers had long realized that a twist added to the feathers of their arrows gave them greater accuracy. This might have led to a increase in accuracy.
Rifles were created as an improvement in the accuracy of smooth bore muskets, the black powder used in early muzzle-loading rifles quickly fouled the barrel, making loading slower and more difficult. Since musketeers could not afford to take the time to stop and clean their barrels in the middle of a battle, rifles were limited to use by sharpshooters, muskets were smoothbore, large caliber weapons using ball-shaped ammunition fired at relatively low velocity. Due to the high cost and great difficulty of manufacturing, and the need to load readily from the muzzle