The term was used more rarely for a bishop who, as a territorial lord, had to provide the king and his entourage with board and lodging, a duty referred to as Gastungspflicht. Kaiserpfalz is a German word that is a combination of Kaiser, meaning emperor, which is derived from caesar, and Pfalz, meaning palace, likewise Königspfalz is a combination of König and Pfalz, meaning royal palace. This was so-called itinerant kingship, a sort of travelling kingdom, because pfalzen were built and used by the king as a ruler within the Holy Roman Empire, the correct historical term is Königspfalz or royal palace. The term Kaiserpfalz is a 19th-century appellation that overlooks the fact that the king did not bear the title of the Roman Emperor until after his imperial coronation. Moreover, they were not always grand palaces in the sense, some were small castles or fortified hunting lodges. In Latin, such a royal manor was known as a villa regia or curtis regia and they were located either near the bishops residences, near important abbeys, near towns the king held or in the countryside in the middle of royal estates.
Pfalzen were generally built at intervals of 30 kilometres, which represented a journey by horse at that time. At a minimum, a pfalz consisted of a palas with its Great Hall or Aula Regia, an imperial chapel and it was here that kings and emperors carried out the business of state, held their imperial court sessions and celebrated important church festivals. Each was administered by a count palatine, who executed jurisdiction in the emperors stead, one of the most important of them would eventually rise to the title of Prince-elector. The pfalzen that the rulers visited varied depending on their function, especially important were those palaces in which the kings spent the winter, and the festival palaces, Easter being the most important and celebrated at Easter palaces. The larger palaces were often in towns that had special rights, in the Hohenstaufen era of the Roman-German kingdom, important imperial princes began to demonstrate their claims to power by building their own pfalzen. Important examples of these include Henry the Lions Dankwarderode Castle in Brunswick, both buildings followed the basic design of Hohenstaufen pfalzen and had the same dimensions.
Examples of surviving imperial palaces may be found in the town of Goslar, palace Palas Imperial castle Adolf Eggers, Der königliche Grundbesitz im 10. Jahrhundert, Veröffentlicht von H. Darmstadt,1996, ISBN 3-534-12548-7, alexander Thon, Kaiserpfalz, Königspfalz oder Casimirschloss. Studien zu Relevanz und Gültigkeit des Begriffes „Pfalz“ im Hochmittelalter anhand des Beispiels Lautern, in, Kaiserslauterer Jahrbuch für pfälzische Geschichte und Volkskunde. Kaiserslautern,1.2001, ISSN 1619-7283, pp. 109–144, alexander Thon. ut nostrum regale palatium infra civitatem vel in burgo eorum non hedificent. Studies of relevance and validity to do with the term Pfalz for the research of castles of the 12th and 13th centuries in, pub. by the Wartburg-Gesellschaft for the research of castles and palaces in Verb. with the Germanic National Museum. Deutscher Kunstverlag, Munich,2002, ISBN 3-422-06361-7, pp. 45–72
Duchy of Saxony
Upon the 843 Treaty of Verdun, Saxony was one of the five German stem duchies of East Francia, Duke Henry the Fowler was elected German king in 919. In 1296 the remaining lands were divided between the Ascanian dukes of Saxe-Lauenburg and Saxe-Wittenberg, the obtaining the title of Electors of Saxony by the Golden Bull of 1356. In the late 12th century, Duke Henry the Lion occupied the adjacent area of Mecklenburg, more probably, Saxon tribes from Land Hadeln under the leadership of legendary Hengist and Horsa in the late days of the Roman Empire had invaded Britannia. In 747 their rebellious brother Grifo allied with Saxon tribes and temporarily conquered the duchy of Bavaria. Pepin, Frankish king from 750, again invaded Saxony and subdued several Westphalian tribes until 758, in 772 Pepins son Charlemagne started the final conquest of the Saxon lands. Widukind finally had to pledge allegiance in 785, having himself baptised, Saxon uprisings continued until 804, when the whole stem duchy had been incorporated into the Carolingian Empire.
Afterwards, Saxony was ruled by Carolingian officials, e. g, among the installed dukes were already nobles of Saxon descent, like Walas successor Count Ekbert, husband of Saint Ida of Herzfeld, a close relative of Charlemagne. Subdued only a few decades earlier, the Saxons rose to one of the tribes in East Francia, it is however uncertain. Liudolfs elder son Bruno, progenitor of the Brunswick cadet branch of the Brunonen, was killed in a battle with invading Vikings under Godfrid in 880. He was succeeded by his younger brother Otto the Illustrious, mentioned as dux in the annals of Hersfeld Abbey. His position was enough to wed Hedwiga of Babenberg, daughter of mighty Duke Henry of Franconia. One year later, Ottos son Henry the Fowler succeeded his father as Duke of Saxony, Henrys eastern campaigns to Brandenburg and Meissen, the establishment of Saxon marches as well as the surrender of Duke Wenceslaus of Bohemia marked the beginning of the German eastward expansion. Upon Henrys death in 936 at Memleben, his son Otto I succeeded him, according to Widukind, he was crowned king at Aachen Cathedral, with the other German dukes Gilbert of Lorraine, Eberhard of Franconia, Arnulf of Bavaria and Herman of Swabia paying homage to him.
He thereby disregarded the claims of Hermans elder brother Wichmann, who in turn joined the revolt by Ottos half-brother Thankmar. In 953 and again in 961 King Otto elevated Hermann Billung to a viceduke in Saxony,973, Otto I dies in Memleben, Otto II becomes Emperor. Hermann Billung dies in Quedlinburg, Bernhard I Billung becomes duke of Saxony,1002, The death of Otto III marks the end of the Saxon emperors. 1011, Duke Bernhard I Billung dies, his son Bernhard II becomes duke,1042, Ordulf Billung, son of Bernhard II, marries Wulfhild, the half-sister of King Magnus of Denmark and Norway. Danes and Saxons fight against the Wends,1059, Ordulf Billung becomes Duke after the death of his father
Otto I, Duke of Saxony
Otto, called the Illustrious by authors, was the Duke of Saxony from 880 to his death. He was father of Henry the Fowler and grandfather of Otto the Great and he was father-in-law of Zwentibold, Carolingian King of Lotharingia. He was the son of Duke Liudolf of Saxony and his wife Oda of Billung. His family, named after his father, is called the Liudolfing, by a charter of King Louis the Younger to Gandersheim Abbey dated 26 January 877, the pago Suththuringa is described as in comitatu Ottonis. In a charter of 28 January 897, Otto is described as marchio and he was the lay abbot of Hersfeld Abbey in 908. He was described as magni ducis Oddonis by Widukind of Corvey when describing the marriage of his sister, Liutgard, to King Louis. He was a prince and his overlords, Louis the Younger and Emperor Arnulf of Carinthia. In Saxony, Otto was king in practice and he established himself as ruler over the neighbouring Slav tribes. The truthfulness of this report is considered doubtful, ottos wife was Hathui of Babenberg, daughter of Henry of Franconia.
Otto was and is buried in the church of Gandersheim Abbey and he had two sons and Liudolf, who predeceased him, but his third son Henry succeeded him as duke of Saxony and was elected king. His daughter Oda married the Carolingian King Zwentibold of Lotharingia, a Companion to Hrotsvit of Gandersheim and Interpretive Approaches, ed. Phyllis R. Brown and Stephen L. Wailes, Brill,2013. Germany in the Early Middle Ages 800–1056
Rudolph of France
Rudolph or Rudolf was the elected King of France from 923 until his death in 936. Prior to his election as king, he was Duke of Burgundy and he was the son of Richard, Duke of Burgundy and Adelaide of Auxerre inheriting the Duchy of Burgundy from his father. He married Emma of France, daughter of king Robert I of France and he is frequently confused with his uncle Rudolph I of Burgundy. Rudolph was elected king of West Francia in 923 by an assembly of Frankish nobles and he was crowned by Walter, Archbishop of Sens at St. Médard in Soissons on Sunday,13 July 923. On assuming the crown he passed the Duchy of Burgundy to his younger brother Hugh the Black, in contemporary Latin documents, his name is usually Rodulfus, from the Germanic roots hruod and wulf, wolf. Rodulf and Rudolf are variants of this name, the French form is Rodolphe, by contrast, the king is normally known as Raoul in modern French, a name which derives from Radulfus, from Germanic rad and wulf. Although this name is of different origin, it was used interchangeably by contemporaries with Rodulfus.
The king himself, always, used Rodulfus, as on his personal seal, nonetheless, he is sometimes called Ralph or Radulf in English. The deposed Charles the Simple was still alive and claimed the throne and this was solved when Rudolphs brother-in-law, Herbert II, Count of Vermandois, who was married to Emmas sister, tricked Charles, a fellow Carolingian, into meeting and took him prisoner. Rudolphs first act was to lead an army against the king of East Francia Henry the Fowler, after trying to annex Lotharingia Henry met Rudolph with a considerably-sized army and made peace again. However, in 925 Henry attacked Gilbert, Duke of Lorraine and took over Lotharingia permanently, in 924 Vikings made a fresh series of raids into West Francia. From the Loire Valley they threatened Hugh the Great, brother of Queen Emma, soon they attacked Burgundy, domain of Rudolphs brother and were repulsed, moving on to Melun, where they threatened the royal lands. Joined only by his vassals and Herbert, he recruited troops in Burgundy.
After Vikings left, the Normans, whom Charles the Simple had settled in Duchy of Normandy in 911, in that year, Rudolph conversed with Louis the Blind, king of Provence, over the Magyars, the newest barbarian migrants to Europe, menacing Louis. In 930 Magyars invaded the region around Rheims, but left before the king could engage them, in 935 Magyars invaded Burgundy and Rudolph brought a large army against them, causing their retreat without a battle. West Francia was temporarily safe from both Vikings and Magyars at Rudolphss death, the complaints from Rudolph led Herbert II to bring Charles before William Longsword, Count of Rouen, for homage and to Rheims to press Charles claim on Pope John X. In 928 Herbert II finally got possession of Laon, but the next year Charles died at Péronne, in 929 Rudolph attempted to reduce the power of Ebalus, Duke of Aquitaine. He withdrew from him access to Berry, and in 932 granted the title of prince of Gothia to the count of Toulouse, Raymond Pons and he transferred the title Count of Auvergne to Raymond
Matilda of Ringelheim
Saint Matilda was Duchess of Saxony from 912 and German queen from 919 by her marriage with Henry the Fowler, the first king of the Ottonian dynasty. Upon her husbands death in 936, she founded Quedlinburg Abbey to commemorate the late king, Matilda lived to see Western Imperial rule restored when her eldest son Otto was crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 962. Her surname refers to Ringelheim, where her comital Immedinger relatives established a nunnery about 940, the details of St. Matilda was born in Enger near Herford, in the Westphalian part of the German stem duchy of Saxony. She was the daughter of the local count Dietrich and his wife Reinhild, Matildas biographers traced her ancestry back to the legendary Saxon leader Widukind, who presumably was buried in the Enger church. Her sister Frederuna married Count Wichmann the Elder, a member of the Billung dynasty, by the conjugal union, the Ottonian dynasty considerably enlarged their possessions in the western parts of Saxony. Henrys previous marriage with Hatheburg of Merseburg was annulled and they were married at the Pfalz of Wallhausen in 909.
As the eldest surviving son, Henry succeeded his father as Duke of Saxony in 912, in 929 Matilda received the estates of Quedlinburg, Pöhlde, Nordhausen in Thuringia and Duderstadt as her wittum. After her husband died in 936 at Memleben and her son, now King Otto I of East Francia, the abbey was a convent of noble canonesses, where her granddaughter, named Matilda, became abbess in 966. At first the Queen Mother remained at the court of her son, during quarrels between the new king and his rebellious brother Henry, Matilda seemed to have favoured her younger son, as he was born after his fathers accession to the throne. In turn, a cabal of royal advisors is reported to have accused her of decreasing the royal treasury in order to pay for her charitable activities. Matilda died after long illness on 14 March 968 in Quedlinburg Abbey, outliving her husband by 32 years and her and Henrys mortal remains are buried in the crypt of St. Servatius Church in Quedlinburg. Medieval chroniclers like Liutprand of Cremona and Thietmar of Merseburg celebrated Matilda for her devotion to prayer and her first biographer depicted her leaving her husbands side in the middle of the night and sneaking off to church to pray.
St. Matilda founded many religious institutions, including the canonry of Quedlinburg and she founded the convents of St. Wigbert in Quedlinburg, in Pöhlde and Nordhausen, likely the source of at least one of her vitae. She was canonized, with her cult largely confined to Saxony, St. Matildas feast day according to the regional German calendar of saints is 14 March. In 1856–58 the Neo-Gothic St. Matildas Church was erected in Quedlinburg, another St. Matildas Church was consecrated in Laatzen, Lower Saxony in 1938. The Melkite Greek Catholic community of Aleppo built a dedicated to Saint Matilda in 1964. There is a glass window dedicated to Saint Matilda in the parish church of Coole. Widukind, Res gestae Saxonicae, ed. Paul Hirsch and H. -E, Die Sachsengeschichte des Widukind von Korvei
Hungarian invasions of Europe
The westward raids were stopped only with the Magyar defeat of the Battle of Lechfeld of 955, which led to a new political order in Western Europe centered on the Holy Roman Empire. Georgius Monachus work mentions that around 837 the Bulgarian Empire sought an alliance with the Hungarians, constantine Porphyrogenitus wrote in his work On Administering the Empire that the Khagan and the Bek of the Khazars asked the Emperor Teophilos to have the fortress of Sarkel built for them. In the 10th century, Ahmad ibn Rustah wrote that earlier, in 860–861, Hungarian soldiers attacked Saint Cyrils convoy but the meeting is said to have ended peacefully. Saint Cyril was traveling to the Khagan at Chersonesos Taurica, which had captured by the Khazars. Muslim geographers recorded that the Magyars regularly attacked the neighboring East Slavic tribes, there is some information about Hungarian raids into the eastern Carolingian Empire in 862. In 881, the Hungarians and the Kabars invaded East Francia, in 892, according to the Annales Fuldenses, King Arnulf of East Francia invaded Great Moravia and the Magyars joined his troops.
After 893, Magyar troops were conveyed across the Danube by the Byzantine fleet, in 894, the Magyars invaded Pannonia in alliance with King Svatopluk I of Moravia. Around 896, probably under the leadership of Árpád, the Hungarians crossed the Carpathians, in 899, these Magyars defeated Berengars army in the Battle of Brenta River and invaded the northern regions of Italy. They pillaged the countryside around Treviso, Verona, Brescia and they defeated Braslav, Duke of Lower Pannonia. In 901, they attacked Italy again, in 902, they led a campaign against northern Moravia and defeated the Moravians whose country was annihilated. Almost every year after 900 they conducted raids against the Catholic west, in 905, the Magyars and King Berengar formed an amicitia, and fifteen years passed without Hungarian troops entering Italy. The Magyars defeated no fewer than three large Frankish imperial armies between 907 and 910, as follows, in 907 they defeated the invading Bavarians near Brezalauspurc, destroying their army, successfully defending Hungary and laying Great Moravia, Germany and Italy open to Magyar raids.
On 3 August 908 the Hungarians won the battle of Eisenach, Duke of Thuringia was killed, along with Burchard, Duke of Thuringia and Rudolf I, Bishop of Würzburg. The Magyars defeated Louis the Childs united Frankish Imperial Army at the first Battle of Lechfeld in 910, smaller units penetrated as far as Bremen in 915. In 919, after the death of Conrad I of Germany, in 921, they defeated King Berengars enemies at Verona and reached Apulia in 922. Between 917 and 925, the Magyars raided through Basel, Burgundy, Provence, in 926, they ravaged Swabia and Alsace, campaigned through present-day Luxembourg and reached as far as the Atlantic Ocean. In 927, brother of Pope John X, called on the Magyars to rule Italy and they marched into Rome and imposed large tribute payments on Tuscany and Tarento. In 933, a substantial Magyar army appeared in Saxony but was defeated by Henry I at Merseburg, Magyar attacks continued against Upper Burgundy and against Saxony
Heavy cavalry is a class of cavalry whose primary role was to engage in direct combat with enemy forces. Although some form of cavalry had been in use in Mesopotamia since 3000 BC, by 600 BC armoured cavalry began seeing use, though it was not until the ancient Greek era that true heavy cavalry emerged. Iranian tribes such as the Massagetae were believed to be the originator of the class of heavy cavalry known as cataphract, by the time of Alexanders invasion cataphract units with both men and beasts being fully encased in armour were already in use by the Persians. The Celts of western and central Europe are among the first peoples in the known to have made use of heavy cavalry. It is generally accepted that the Celts were the originators of chainmail, at the Battle of Carrhae, Gallic auxiliary cavalry met with the completely armoured Parthian cataphracts. Despite being outmatched the Gauls fought fiercely and well before being annihilated in a protracted melee, for close combat the main weapon was the spear, around 7 feet in length with a leaf-bladed head, and a heavy wooden shield with an iron spindle-type boss.
The most prestigious weapon was the sword, a blade ranging anywhere from 2 ft to 3 ft in length, Celtic swords were typically of good quality, with some being of such quality that archeologists have classed them as being equal to modern, high-quality steel replicas. The heavy cavalry of the Celtiberi, widely employed by the Carthaginians, known to the Romans as Lanciarii, they are represented in several Iberian carvings of the period. They may have carried the soliferrum, the all-iron javelin unique to Iberia, in addition to a spear and shield, together with the Gallic nobles, it was likely these horsemen who at Cannae charged broke superior numbers of Roman and Italian cavalry. The ancient Greeks called armoured cavalry Kataphraktos which translated means roughly covered, protected or armoured, the term was borrowed by the Romans and until the Middle Ages in Europe, continued to be used to designate armoured cavalry. The exception was in Northern Greece, where large areas of grassland made cavalry much more practical.
Eventually, encounters with Persian cavalry led the Greeks to create their own cavalry arm, while cavalry played an increasingly greater part in Greek warfare, its roles were generally restricted to scouting and pursuit. Its likely that Phillip of Macedon organized his famed Companions after the Theban model, in both role and equipment, the Companions was the first cavalry force that was known to represent archetypal heavy cavalry. The Companion cavalry, or Hetairoi, were the arm of the Macedonian army. In the aftermath of the Macedonian Empire, the Diadochi, successor states created by Alexander the Greats generals, continued the usage of heavy cavalry in their own forces. Up to the 5th century, Sarmatian cavalry units were stationed in Britain as part of the Roman army, the stirrup, which gives greater stability to a rider, has been described as one of the most significant inventions in the history of warfare, prior to gunpowder. As a tool allowing expanded use of horses in warfare, the stirrup is often called the third step in equipment, after the chariot.
The basic tactics of mounted warfare were significantly altered by the stirrup, a rider supported by stirrups was less likely to fall off while fighting, and could deliver a blow with a weapon that more fully employed the weight and momentum of horse and rider
Bruno the Great
Bruno the Great or Bruno I, was Archbishop of Cologne, from 953 until his death and Duke of Lotharingia from 954. He was the brother of Otto I, king of Germany, Bruno was the youngest son of Henry the Fowler and his second wife Matilda. While he was still a child, it was decided that he should pursue an ecclesiastical career, in the early 940s he was educated in Trier by the leading scholar, Israel the Grammarian. In 951, Otto appointed Bruno as his archchaplain, in 953, the Archbishopric of Cologne fell vacant just when Conrad the Red, Duke of Lotharingia and Ottos son-in-law, had joined a rebellion against Otto. By appointing Bruno to the vacant position, Otto provided himself with an ally against Conrad in Lotharingia just when he needed one most. By the next year, the rebellion had collapsed, Otto deposed Conrad as Duke of Lotharingia and appointed Bruno in his place. Bruno was to be almost the last duke of the whole of Lotharingia, both margraves were recognised as dukes after Brunos death.
The two duchies would only be reunited between 1033 and 1044 under Gothelo I, Duke of Lotharingia. The combined positions of archbishop and duke — or archduke, as his biographer Ruotger called him — made Bruno the most powerful man after Otto not just in Germany, from 962 onwards, Bruno was appointed as Ottos regent in Germany while Otto was absent in Italy. Bruno died in Reims in 965 and was buried in the monastery of St Pantaleon, Brunos position in Cologne was little short of royal. Even though Brunos successors as archbishops would not be dukes as well, Brunos court in Cologne was the main intellectual and artistic centre of its period in Germany — far more so than that of his brother Otto, which was far more peripatetic and militarily oriented. Among others and Liutprand of Cremona spent time at the court, many of the next generation of German ecclesiastical leaders were educated at Brunos court, like Everaclus of Liège, Gerard bishop of Toul, bishop of Verdun, and Theoderic, bishop of Metz.
Brunos effect on medieval Cologne was immense, apart from building a palace, he extended the cathedral to the point where it was regarded as rivalling St Peters in Rome. Bruno translated St. Patroclus relics from Troyes and buried them in 964 at St Patrokli Dom in Soest, santiebeati. it Literature by and about Brun in the German National Library catalogue Bruno I of Cologne in the Ecumenical Lexicon of Saints
Gerberga of Saxony
Gerberga of Saxony was Regent of France during the minority of her son in 954–959. She was a member of the Ottonian dynasty and a descendant of Charlemagne and her first husband was Gilbert, Duke of Lorraine. Her second husband was Louis IV of France, contemporary sources describe her as a highly educated and forceful political player. She was the oldest daughter of Henry the Fowler, King of Germany and her older brother was Otto I of Germany. In 928, Gerberga married her first husband, Duke of Lorraine and they had four children, Alberade of Lorraine b. about 929. Married Renaud, a Viking chieftain who became the Count of Roucy Henry, giselbert was defeated by Otto I in 939 at the Battle of Andernach and, while trying to escape, drowned in the Rhine. When Gilbert died, Gerberga was about 26 years old and she married secondly Louis IV of France in 939. At this time, his son and heir with Gerberga, Lothair of France, was only thirteen, Gerberga took action to ensure that Lothar could succeed his father.
She reached an agreement with her brother-in-law Hugh the Great, who had been an adversary to Lothairs father, after the death of Hugh the Great in 956, Gerberga and her sister Hadwig were the heads of the two most powerful dynasties in West Francia. Along with their brother, who was archbishop of Cologne and duke of Lotharingia and Hadwig ruled the kingdom, until Lothair came of age. In 959, after Lothair had come of age, Gerberga became abbess of the Benedictine monastery of Notre Dame in Soissons, in 961 she was involved in choosing the new archbishop of Reims, Odalric. In 965 she was present at the court in Cologne, when her son Lothair married Emma of Italy. There is some debate about when Gerberga died and she is last documented in May 968. Since necrology records indicate that she died on 5 May, her date of death is given as 968 or 969. She is buried in the Abbey of Saint-Remi in Reims, bouchard, Constance Brittain, Those of My Blood, Constructing Noble Families in Medieval Francia. Studien zur Familienpolitik und zur Genealogie des sächsischen Kaiserhauses, D.
Schwennicke, Europäische Stammtafeln Neue Folge Band I.1 A. 256–257, Gerberga von Sachsen
Conrad I of Germany
Conrad I, called the Younger, was the first non-Carolingian king of East Francia from 911 to 918. He was the first elected king of East Francia and the first one to be anointed and he was chosen as the king by the rulers of the East Frankish stem duchies after the death of young king Louis the Child. Prior to this election he had ruled the Duchy of Franconia from 906, Conrad was the son of duke Conrad of Thuringia and his wife Glismut, probably related to Ota, wife of the Carolingian emperor Arnulf of Carinthia and mother of Louis the Child. The Conradines, counts in the Franconian Lahngau region, had been supporters of the Carolingians. At the same time, they competed vigorously for predominance in Franconia with the sons of the Babenbergian duke Henry of Franconia at Bamberg Castle, in 906 the two parties battled each other near Fritzlar. Conrad the Elder was killed, as were two of the three Babenberg brothers, Conrad became the undisputed duke of all Franconia. Nevertheless, he failed in his attempts to extend the rule of Conradines over the western Lotharingia after the death of his uncle, duke Gebhard.
After the death of Louis the Child, Conrad was elected king of the East Francia on November 10,911 at Forchheim by the rulers of Saxony, the dukes prevented the succession to throne of Louis Carolingian relative Charles the Simple, king of West Francia. They chose the Conradine scion, who was related to the late king. Only Conrads rival, duke of Lotharingia refused to him his allegiance. Exactly because Conrad I was one of the dukes, he found it hard to establish his authority over them. Duke Henry of Saxony was in rebellion against Conrad I until 915 and struggle against Arnulf, Burchard II, Duke of Swabia demanded and received more autonomy. Arnulf of Bavaria called on Magyars for assistance in his uprising, for this he was condemned to death as a traitor, but the powerful duke managed to avoid execution. In 913 Conrad I married the sister of the Swabian count Erchanger, widow of Liutpold and mother of Duke Arnulf of Bavaria, gave him two children and Herman, both born in 913. In 913 Erchanger revolted against Conrad I, in 914 He captured Solomon III, Bishop of Constance, who was Conrad’s chief counselor.
Erchanger was exiled but still managed to defeat royal army in a battle near the lake Constance and he was finally arrested for treason in assembly of nobles at Hohenaltheim in Swabia and on January 21,917 he was executed together with his brother Berthold. Conrads reign was a continuous and generally unsuccessful struggle to uphold the power of king against the power of the local dukes. His military campaigns against Charles the Simple to regain Lotharingia and the Imperial city of Aachen were failures, Archbishop Ratbod of Trier even became West Frankish chancellor in 913
Some Franks raided Roman territory, while other Frankish tribes joined the Roman troops of Gaul. In times, Franks became the rulers of the northern part of Roman Gaul. The Salian Franks lived on Roman-held soil between the Rhine, Scheldt and Somme rivers in what is now Northern France, the kingdom was acknowledged by the Romans after 357 CE. Following the collapse of Rome in the West, the Frankish tribes were united under the Merovingians, who succeeded in conquering most of Gaul in the 6th century, which greatly increased their power. The Merovingian dynasty, descendants of the Salians, founded one of the Germanic monarchies that would absorb large parts of the Western Roman Empire, the Frankish state consolidated its hold over the majority of western Europe by the end of the 8th century, developing into the Carolingian Empire. This empire would gradually evolve into the state of France and the Holy Roman Empire, in the Middle Ages, the term Frank was used in the east as a synonym for western European, as the Franks were rulers of most of Western Europe.
The Franks in the east kept their Germanic language and became part of the Germans, Flemings, the Franconian languages, which are called Frankisch in Dutch or Fränkisch in German, originated at least partly in the Old Frankish language of the Franks. Nowadays, the German and Dutch names for France are Frankreich and Frankrijk, the name Franci was originally socio-political. To the Romans and Suebi, the Franks must have seemed alike, they looked the same and spoke the same language, so that Franci became the name by which the people were known. Within a few centuries it had eclipsed the names of the tribes, though the older names have survived in some place-names, such as Hesse. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English and it has been suggested that the meaning of free was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation. It is traditionally assumed that Frank comes from the Germanic word for javelin, there is another theory that suggests that Frank comes from the Latin word francisca meaning.
Words in other Germanic languages meaning fierce, bold or insolent, eumenius addressed the Franks in the matter of the execution of Frankish prisoners in the circus at Trier by Constantine I in 306 and certain other measures, Ubi nunc est illa ferocia. Feroces was used often to describe the Franks, contemporary definitions of Frankish ethnicity vary both by period and point of view. According to their law and their custom, writing in 2009, Professor Christopher Wickham pointed out that the word Frankish quickly ceased to have an exclusive ethnic connotation. North of the River Loire everyone seems to have considered a Frank by the mid-7th century at the latest. Two early sources describe the origin of the Franks are a 7th-century work known as the Chronicle of Fredegar. Neither of these works are accepted by historians as trustworthy, compared with Gregory of Tourss Historia Francorum, the chronicle describes Priam as a Frankish king whose people migrated to Macedonia after the fall of Troy
The pope is the Bishop of Rome and, the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church. The current pope is Francis, who was elected on 13 March 2013, the office of the pope is the papacy. The pope is considered one of the worlds most powerful people because of his diplomatic and he is head of state of Vatican City, a sovereign city-state entirely enclaved within the Italian capital city of Rome. The papacy is one of the most enduring institutions in the world and has had a prominent part in world history, the popes in ancient times helped in the spread of Christianity and the resolution of various doctrinal disputes. In the Middle Ages, they played a role of importance in Western Europe. Currently, in addition to the expansion of the Christian faith and doctrine, the popes are involved in ecumenism and interfaith dialogue, charitable work, who originally had no temporal powers, in some periods of history accrued wide powers similar to those of temporal rulers. In recent centuries, popes were gradually forced to give up temporal power, the word pope derives from Greek πάππας meaning father.
The earliest record of the use of title was in regard to the by deceased Patriarch of Alexandria. Some historians have argued that the notion that Peter was the first bishop of Rome, the writings of the Church Father Irenaeus who wrote around AD180 reflect a belief that Peter founded and organised the Church at Rome. Moreover, Irenaeus was not the first to write of Peters presence in the early Roman Church, Clement of Rome wrote in a letter to the Corinthians, c. 96, about the persecution of Christians in Rome as the struggles in our time and presented to the Corinthians its heroes, the greatest and most just columns, the good apostles Peter and Paul. St. Ignatius of Antioch wrote shortly after Clement and in his letter from the city of Smyrna to the Romans he said he would not command them as Peter and Paul did. Given this and other evidence, many agree that Peter was martyred in Rome under Nero. Protestants contend that the New Testament offers no proof that Jesus established the papacy nor even that he established Peter as the first bishop of Rome, using Peters own words, argue that Christ intended himself as the foundation of the church and not Peter.
First-century Christian communities would have had a group of presbyter-bishops functioning as leaders of their local churches, episcopacies were established in metropolitan areas. Antioch may have developed such a structure before Rome, some writers claim that the emergence of a single bishop in Rome probably did not occur until the middle of the 2nd century. In their view, Linus and Clement were possibly prominent presbyter-bishops, documents of the 1st century and early 2nd century indicate that the Holy See had some kind of pre-eminence and prominence in the Church as a whole, though the detail of what this meant is unclear. It seems that at first the terms episcopos and presbyter were used interchangeably, the consensus among scholars has been that, at the turn of the 1st and 2nd centuries, local congregations were led by bishops and presbyters whose offices were overlapping or indistinguishable