Henry the Young King was the eldest surviving son of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine. Beginning in 1170, he was titular King of Duke of Normandy, Count of Anjou and Maine. Henry the Young King was the only King of England since the Norman Conquest to be crowned during his father's reign, but was frustrated by his father's refusal to grant him meaningful autonomous power, he died aged 28, six years before his father. Little is known of the young Prince Henry before the events associated with his marriage and coronation, his mother's children by her first marriage to Louis VII of France were Marie of France, Countess of Champagne and Alix of France. He had one elder brother, William IX, Count of Poitiers, his younger siblings included Matilda. In June 1170, the fifteen-year-old Henry was crowned king during his father's lifetime, something practised by the French Capetian dynasty and adopted by the English kings Stephen and Henry II; the physical appearance of Henry at his coronation in 1170 is given in a contemporary court poem written in Latin, where the fifteen-year-old prince is described as being handsome, "tall but well proportioned, broad-shouldered with a long and elegant neck and freckled skin and wide blue eyes, a thick mop of the reddish-gold hair".
He was known in his own lifetime as "Henry the Young King" to distinguish him from his father. Because he was not a reigning king, he is not counted in the numerical succession of kings of England. According to one of Thomas Becket's correspondents, Henry was knighted by his father before the coronation, but the biographer of William Marshal asserts that the king was knighted by William in the course of the rebellion of 1173. Henry did not appear to have been interested in the day-to-day business of government, which distinguished him from his father and younger brothers, his father, however, is reputed to have failed to delegate authority to his son, retaining power in England. The majority opinion amongst historians is that of W. L. Warren: "The Young Henry was the only one of his family, popular in his own day....the only one who gave no evidence of political sagacity, military skill, or ordinary intelligence...", elaborated in a book, "He was gracious, affable, the soul of liberality and generosity.
He was shallow, careless, high-hoped, incompetent and irresponsible."The Young King's contemporary reputation, was positive. This was due to the enthusiastic tournament culture of his time. In the History of William Marshal, the biography of the knight assigned to him as a tutor in 1170 and his tournament team leader until 1182, he is described as a constant competitor at tournaments across northern and central France between 1175 and 1182. With his cousins, Philip I, Count of Flanders, Baldwin V, Count of Hainaut, he was a key patron of the sport, he is said to have spent over £200 a day on the great retinue of knights he brought to the tournament of Lagny-sur-Marne in November 1179. Though he lacked political weight, his patronage brought him celebrity status throughout western Europe; the baron and troubadour Bertran de Born knew him, stating: the best king who took up a shield, the most daring and best of all tourneyers. From the time when Roland was alive, before, never was seen a knight so skilled, so warlike, whose fame resounded so around the world – if Roland did come back, or if the world were searched as far as the River Nile and the setting sun.
There was a perception amongst his contemporaries, the next generation, that his death in 1183 marked a decline both in the tournament and knightly endeavour. His one-time chaplain, Gervase of Tilbury, said that "his death was the end of everything knightly"; the young Henry played an important part in the politics of his father's reign. On 2 November 1160, he was betrothed to Margaret of France, daughter of King Louis VII of France and his second wife, Constance of Castile, when he was 5 years of age and she was at least 2; the marriage was an attempt to settle the struggle between the counts of Anjou and the French kings over possession of the frontier district of the Norman Vexin, which Louis VII had acquired from Henry's grandfather, Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, in around 1144. By the terms of the settlement, Margaret would bring the castles of the Norman Vexin to her new husband. However, the marriage was pushed through by Henry II when Young Henry and Margaret were small children so that he could seize the castles.
A bitter border war followed between the kings. They were formally married on 27 August 1172 at Winchester Cathedral, when Henry, aged seventeen, was crowned King of England a second time, this time together with Margaret, by Rotrou, the Archbishop of Rouen. Young Henry fell out with his father in 1173. Contemporary chroniclers allege that this was owing to the young man's frustration that his father had given him no realm to rule, his feeling starved of funds; the rebellion seems, however, to have drawn strength from much deeper discontent with his father's rule, a formidable party of Anglo-Norman, Angevin and Breton magnates joined him. The revolt of 1173–1174 came close to toppling the king. Young Henry sought a reconciliation after the capture of his mother, Eleanor of Aquitaine, the failure of the rebellion, his funds were much incr
Christoph Langen is a German bobsledder who competed for the West German and German national team from 1985 to 2005. Competing in four Winter Olympics, he won four medals with two bronzes. Langen was slowed by injuries to his Achilles tendon, he attempted to compete for the 2006 Winter Olympics in Turin. He was a bobsleigh television commentator in Germany until promoted to head coach of the German national team in June 2010. Langen won twelve medals at the FIBT World Championships with eight golds and four silvers, he won the Bobsleigh World Cup combined event twice, the two-man event three times, the four-man event once. European champion 2-man crew: 1994, 1995, 1996, 2001, 2004 European champion 4-man crew: 1996, 1999 Bobsleigh two-man Olympic medalists 1932-56 and since 1964 Bobsleigh four-man Olympic medalists for 1924, 1932-56, since 1964 Bobsleigh two-man world championship medalists since 1931 Bobsleigh four-man world championship medalists since 1930 DatabaseOlympics.com profile List of combined men's bobsleigh World Cup champions: 1985-2007 List of four-man bobsleigh World Cup champions since 1985 List of two-man bobsleigh World Cup champions since 1985
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