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Henryk Sienkiewicz

Henryk Adam Aleksander Pius Sienkiewicz known by the pseudonym Litwos, was a Polish journalist and Nobel Prize laureate. He is best remembered for his historical novels for his internationally known best-seller Quo Vadis. Born into an impoverished Polish noble family in Russian-ruled Congress Poland, in the late 1860s he began publishing journalistic and literary pieces. In the late 1870s he traveled to the United States, sending back travel essays that won him popularity with Polish readers. In the 1880s he began serializing novels, he soon became one of the most popular Polish writers of the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, numerous translations gained him international renown, culminating in his receipt of the 1905 Nobel Prize in Literature for his "outstanding merits as an epic writer." Many of his novels remain in print. In Poland he is best known for his "Trilogy" of historical novels – With Fire and Sword, The Deluge, Sir Michael – set in the 17th-century Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

The Trilogy and Quo Vadis have been filmed, the latter several times, with Hollywood's 1951 version receiving the most international recognition. Sienkiewicz was born on 5 May 1846 in Wola Okrzejska, now a village in the central part of eastern Polish region of Lubelskie part of the Russian Empire, his family were impoverished Polish nobles, on his father's side deriving from Tatars who had settled in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. His parents were Józef Sienkiewicz of the Oszyk coat of Stefania Cieciszowska, his mother descended from an affluent Podlachian family. He had five siblings: an older brother and four sisters, Helena and Maria, his family were entitled to use the Polish Oszyk coat of arms. Wola Okrzejska belonged to Felicjana Cieciszowska, his family moved several times, young Henryk spent his childhood on family estates in Grabowce Górne, Wężyczyn and Burzec. In September 1858 he began his education in Warsaw, where the family would settle in 1861, having bought a tenement house in eastern Warsaw's Praga district.

He received poor school grades except in the humanities, notably Polish language and history. Due to the hard times, 19-year-old Sienkiewicz took a job as tutor to the Weyher family in Płońsk, it was in this period that he wrote his first novel, Ofiara. He worked on his first novel to be published, Na marne, he completed extramural secondary-school classes, in 1866 he received his secondary-school diploma. He first tried to study medicine law, at the Imperial University of Warsaw, but he soon transferred to the university's Institute of Philology and History, where he acquired a thorough knowledge of literature and Old Polish Language. Little is known about this period of his life, other than that he moved out of his parents' home, tutored part-time, lived in poverty, his situation improved somewhat in 1868. In 1867 he wrote a rhymed piece, "Sielanka Młodości", rejected by Tygodnik Ilustrowany. In 1869 he debuted as a journalist, he completed his university studies in 1871, though he failed to receive a diploma because he did not pass the examination in Greek language.

Sienkiewicz wrote for Gazeta Polska and Niwa, under the pen name "Litwos". In 1873 he began writing a column, "Bez tytułu", in The Polish Gazette, he collaborated on a Polish translation, published in 1874, of Victor Hugo's last novel, Ninety-Three. In June that year, he became co-owner of Niwa. Meanwhile, in 1872, he had debuted as a fiction writer with his short novel Na marne, published in the magazine Wieniec; this was followed by Humoreski z teki Woroszyłły, Stary Sługa and Selim Mirza. The last three are known as the "Little Trilogy"; these publications made him a prominent figure in Warsaw's journalistic-literary world, a guest at popular dinner parties hosted by actress Helena Modrzejewska. In 1874 Sienkiewicz was engaged to Maria Keller, traveled abroad to Brussels and Paris. Soon after he returned, his fiancée's parents cancelled the engagement. In 1876 Sienkiewicz went to the United States with her husband, he traveled via London to New York and on to San Francisco, staying for some time in California.

His travels were financed by Gazeta Polska in exchange for a series of travel essays: Sienkiewicz wrote Listy z podróży and Listy Litwosa z Podróży, which were published in The Polish Gazette in 1876–78 and republished as a book in 1880. Other articles by him appeared in Przegląd Tygodniowy and Przewodnik Naukowy i Lite

Engine block

An engine block is the structure which contains the cylinders, other parts, of an internal combustion engine. In an early automotive engine, the engine block consisted of just the cylinder block, to which a separate crankcase was attached. Modern engine blocks have the crankcase integrated with the cylinder block as a single component. Engine blocks also include elements such as coolant passages and oil galleries; the term "cylinder block" is used interchangeably with engine block, although technically the block of a modern engine would be classified as a monobloc. Another common term for an engine block is "block"; the main structure of an engine consists of the cylinders, coolant passages, oil galleries and cylinder head. The first production engines of the 1880s to 1920s used separate components for each of these elements, which were bolted together during engine assembly. Modern engines, however combine many of these elements into a single component, in order to reduce production costs; the evolution from separate components to an engine block integrating several elements has been a gradual progression throughout the history of internal combustion engines.

The integration of elements has relied on the development of machining techniques. For example, a practical low-cost V8 engine was not feasible until Ford developed the techniques used to build the Ford flathead V8 engine; these techniques were applied to other engines and manufacturers. A cylinder block is the structure which contains the cylinder, plus any cylinder sleeves and coolant passages. In the earliest decades of internal combustion engine development, cylinders were cast individually, so cylinder blocks were produced individually for each cylinder. Following that, engines began to combine two or three cylinders into a single cylinder block, with an engine combining several of these cylinder blocks combined together. In early engines with multiple cylinder banks — such as a V6, V8 or flat-6 engine — each bank was a separate cylinder block. Since the 1930s, mass production methods have developed to allow both banks of cylinders to be integrated into the same cylinder block. Wet liner cylinder blocks use cylinder walls that are removable, which fit into the block by means of special gaskets.

They are referred to as "wet liners" because their outer sides come in direct contact with the engine's coolant. In other words, the liner is the entire wall, rather than being a sleeve. Advantages of wet liners are a lower mass, reduced space requirement and that the coolant liquid is heated quicker from a cold start, which reduces start-up fuel consumption and provides heating for the car cabin sooner. Dry liner cylinder blocks use either the block's material or a discrete liner inserted into the block to form the backbone of the cylinder wall. Additional sleeves are inserted within, which remain "dry" on their outside, surrounded by the block's material. For either wet or dry liner designs, the liners can be replaced allowing overhaul or rebuild without replacement of the block itself, although this is not a practical repair option. An engine where all the cylinders share a common block is called a monobloc engine. Most modern engines use a monoblock design of some type, therefore few modern engines have a separate block for each cylinder.

This has led to the term "engine block" implying a monobloc design and the term monobloc itself is used. In the early years of the internal combustion engine, casting technology could produce either large castings, or castings with complex internal cores to allow for water jackets, but not both simultaneously. Most early engines those with more than four cylinders, had their cylinders cast as pairs or triplets of cylinders bolted to a single crankcase; as casting techniques improved, an entire cylinder block of 4, 6, or 8 cylinders could be produced in one piece. This monobloc construction was more cost effective to produce. For engines with an inline configuration, this meant that all the cylinders, plus the crankcase, could be produced in a single component. One of the early engines produced using this method is the 4-cylinder engine in the Ford Model T, introduced in 1908; the method spread to straight-six engines and was used by the mid-1920s. Up until the 1930s, most V engines retained a separate block casting for each cylinder bank, with both bolted onto a common crankcase.

For economy, some engines were designed to use identical castings for each bank and right. A rare exception is the Lancia 22½° narrow-angle V12 of 1919, which used a single block casting combining both banks; the Ford flathead V-8 — introduced in 1932 — represented a significant development in the production of affordable V engines. It was the first V8 engine with a single engine block casting, putting a V8 into an affordable car for the first time; the communal water jacket of monobloc designs permitted closer spacing between cylinders. The monobloc design improved the mechanical stiffness of the engine against bending and the important torsional twist, as cylinder numbers, engine lengths, power ratings increased. Most engine blocks today, except some unusual V or radial engines and large marine engines, are a monobloc for all the cylinders, plus an integrated crankcase. In such cases, the skirts of the cylinder banks form a crankcase area of sorts, still called a crankcase despite no longer being a discrete part.

Use of steel cylinder liners and b

Russian Census (2002)

The Russian Census of 2002 was the first census of the Russian Federation since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, carried out on October 9 through October 16, 2002. It was carried out by the Russian Federal Service of State Statistics; the census data were collected as of midnight October 9, 2002. The census was intended to collect statistical information about the resident population of Russian Federation; the resident population included: Russian citizens living in Russia. All detailed census tables are for the resident population. All participants were asked question on their gender, birth date, marital status, household composition, citizenship, ethnic or tribal self-identification, education level, language competence, sources of income, employment status. A sample of the participants were asked more detailed questions about their economic and housing situation; the census counted two more groups of people: Russian citizens living abroad for more than one year in connection with the employment with the federal government.

Persons permanently residing abroad, but temporarily present in Russia. Foreign citizens present in Russia as employees of foreign diplomatic missions or international organizations, members of their household, were excluded from the census altogether; the Census recorded the resident population of 145,166,731 persons, including 67,605,133 men and 77,561,598 women. That included urban population of 106,429,000 and rural population of 38,738,000; the non-resident populations included: Russian citizens living abroad in connection with the federal government service: 107,288. Census participants were asked. 142,442,000 respondents reported being Russian citizens. Among Russia's resident population, 1,025,413 foreign citizens and 429,881 stateless persons were counted. 1,269,023 persons did not report their citizenship. Among the questions asked were "Are you competent in the Russian language?" and "What other languages are you competent in?". As the census manual explained, "competence" meant either the ability to speak and write a language, or only the ability to speak it.

The questions did not distinguish native and non-native speakers, nor did they try to measure the degree of language competence. For small children the recorded answer was based on the language spoken by the parents. 142.6 million of the responders claimed competence in Russian. Other reported languages are listed in the table below. 1.42 million responders did not provide language information. For a more detailed list, see List of languages of Russia. Demographics of Russia Russian Empire Census Soviet Census Official census home page Population of Chechnya: was the Census correct