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Hera

Hera is the goddess of women, marriage and childbirth in ancient Greek religion and myth, one of the Twelve Olympians and the sister-wife of Zeus. She is the daughter of the Titans Rhea. Hera rules over Mount Olympus as queen of the gods. A matronly figure, Hera served as both the patroness and protectress of married women, presiding over weddings and blessing marital unions. One of Hera's defining characteristics is her jealous and vengeful nature against Zeus' numerous lovers and illegitimate offspring, as well as the mortals who cross her. Hera is seen with the animals she considers sacred including the cow and the peacock. Portrayed as majestic and solemn enthroned, crowned with the polos, Hera may hold a pomegranate in her hand, emblem of fertile blood and death and a substitute for the narcotic capsule of the opium poppy. Scholar of Greek mythology Walter Burkert writes in Greek Religion, "Nevertheless, there are memories of an earlier aniconic representation, as a pillar in Argos and as a plank in Samos."Her Roman counterpart is Juno.

The name of Hera has several mutually exclusive etymologies. According to Plutarch, Hera was an anagram of aēr. So begins the section on Hera in Walter Burkert's Greek Religion. In a note, he records other scholars' arguments "for the meaning Mistress as a feminine to Heros, Master." John Chadwick, a decipherer of Linear B, remarks "her name may be connected with hērōs, ἥρως,'hero', but, no help since it too is etymologically obscure." A. J. van Windekens, offers "young cow, heifer", consonant with Hera's common epithet βοῶπις. R. S. P. Beekes has suggested a Pre-Greek origin, her name is attested in Mycenaean Greek written in the Linear B syllabic script as e-ra, appearing on tablets found in Pylos and Thebes. Hera may have been the first deity to whom the Greeks dedicated an enclosed roofed temple sanctuary, at Samos about 800 BCE, it was replaced by the Heraion of Samos, one of the largest of all Greek temples. There were many temples built on this site so evidence is somewhat confusing and archaeological dates are uncertain.

The temple created by the Rhoecus sculptors and architects was destroyed between 570–560 BCE. This was replaced by the Polycratean temple of 540–530 BCE. In one of these temples we see a forest of 155 columns. There is no evidence of tiles on this temple suggesting either the temple was never finished or that the temple was open to the sky. Earlier sanctuaries, whose dedication to Hera is less certain, were of the Mycenaean type called "house sanctuaries". Samos excavations have revealed votive offerings, many of them late 8th and 7th centuries BCE, which show that Hera at Samos was not a local Greek goddess of the Aegean: the museum there contains figures of gods and suppliants and other votive offerings from Armenia, Iran, Egypt, testimony to the reputation which this sanctuary of Hera enjoyed and to the large influx of pilgrims. Compared to this mighty goddess, who possessed the earliest temple at Olympia and two of the great fifth and sixth century temples of Paestum, the termagant of Homer and the myths is an "almost... comic figure", according to Burkert.

Though greatest and earliest free-standing temple to Hera was the Heraion of Samos, in the Greek mainland Hera was worshipped as "Argive Hera" at her sanctuary that stood between the former Mycenaean city-states of Argos and Mycenae, where the festivals in her honor called Heraia were celebrated. "The three cities I love best," the ox-eyed Queen of Heaven declares in the Iliad, book iv, "are Argos and Mycenae of the broad streets." There were temples to Hera in Olympia, Tiryns and the sacred island of Delos. In Magna Graecia, two Doric temples to Hera were constructed at Paestum, about 550 BCE and about 450 BCE. One of them, long called the Temple of Poseidon was identified in the 1950s as a second temple there of Hera. In Euboea, the festival of the Great Daedala, sacred to Hera, was celebrated on a sixty-year cycle. Hera's importance in the early archaic period is attested by the large building projects undertaken in her honor; the temples of Hera in the two main centers of her cult, the Heraion of Samos and the Heraion of Argos in the Argolis, were the earliest monumental Greek temples constructed, in the 8th century BCE.

According to Walter Burkert, both Hera and Demeter have many characteristic attributes of Pre-Greek Great Goddesses. According to Homeric Hymn III to Delian Apollo, Hera detained Eileithyia to prevent Leto from going into labor with Artemis and Apollo, since the father was Zeus; the other goddesses present at the birthing on Delos sent Iris to bring her. As she stepped upon the island, the divine birth began. In the myth of the birth of Heracles, it is Hera herself who sits at the door, delaying the birth of Heracles until her protégé, had been born first; the Homeric Hymn to Pythian Apollo makes the monster Typhaon the offspring of archaic Hera in her Minoan form, produced out of herself, like a monstrous version of Hephaestus, whelped in a cave in Cilicia. She gave the creature to Python to raise. In the Temple of Hera, Hera's seated cult figure was older than the warrior figure of Zeus that accompanied it. Homer expressed her relationship with Zeus delicately in the Iliad, in which she declares to Zeus, "I am C

Music of Game of Thrones

The music for the fantasy TV series Game of Thrones is composed by Ramin Djawadi. The music is non-diegetic and instrumental with the occasional vocal performances, is created to support musically the characters and plots of the show, it features various themes, the most prominent being the "main title theme" that accompanies the series' title sequence. In every season, a soundtrack album was released; the music for the show has won a number of awards, including a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Music Composition for a Series in 2018 and 2019. A series of concerts which featured Game of Thrones music, Game of Thrones Live Concert Experience with composer Ramin Djawadi, took place in 2017–2018. First to be performed in Saint Paul, Minnesota, it went on to tour across the United States and Europe; this is followed by a world tour starting May 2018 in Madrid. The music of Game of Thrones has inspired many cover versions. There are decidedly non-medieval renditions of songs from the series's source novels by indie bands.

These adaptations, according to Wired, create attention for the series in media that wouldn't cover it, but are notable for their musical merits independent of the series. A different composer, Stephen Warbeck, was hired for the pilot episode of Game of Thrones but he left the project; the music consultant for HBO and music supervisor of Game of Thrones Evyen Klean suggested Ramin Djawadi to David Benioff and D. B. Weiss. Djawadi, although interested, declined the offer three days as the schedule conflicted with a film project he was working on. However, after a few meetings, Djawadi was persuaded to take on the project; the showrunners Benioff and Weiss sent Djawadi the first two episodes of the series, which impressed Djawadi. He arranged a meeting with Benioff and Weiss to discuss the concept of the series, after which he began to compose the music for the series. According to Djawadi and Weiss were interested in using music to support the different characters and plots, they wanted the music to express the emotion and mood of each scene in the series, that distinct themes should be created for the main characters.

Benioff and Weiss wanted a soundscape, distinct from other productions in the fantasy genre, therefore flutes and solo vocals were avoided. Cello became a prominent feature of the music of Game of Thrones, notably in its title theme; the process of composition is the same throughout the series. Once the filming is nearly completed, episodes are sent to Djawadi either singly or in batches of multiple episodes as they were being edited together but before any special effects added to the footage. Benioff and Weiss would inform Djawadi in advance of the need to expand a theme or create new themes for characters. Djawadi wrote all the music in California. Asked in an interview about the overall process of composing the music and how it is used in the series, Djawadi said: "I sit with David and Dan and we do what's called a spotting session where we watch the entire episode and discuss when music should start and stop. Everybody's involved with that, and it gets played with. What I love about Game of Thrones is that the positioning of the music is so well done, because it's not overdone.

When the music cuts in, it has something to say."The recordings of most of the soundtracks were conducted in Prague with The Czech Film Orchestra and Choir. Djawadi interacted with the orchestra over the internet and was present during the entire recording session, giving comments on the recordings via the internet. According to Djawadi, the series creators wanted the main title theme that accompanies the Game of Thrones title sequence to be about a journey as there are many locations, characters in the series and involves much traveling. After Djawadi had seen the preliminary animated title sequence the visual effect artists were still working on, he was inspired to write the piece. Djawadi said; the title theme is unusually long for a television series at nearly two minutes long, cello was chosen as the main instrument for the music as he thought it has a "darker sound" that suited the series. The main title theme may be incorporated into other music segments within the show at climactic moments.

Djawadi composed an individual leitmotif or theme for each of the major houses, as well as for some locations and some characters. These themes are played in scenes involving them and they can be used to tell a story. Not all characters would have their own themes due to the large number of characters in the series; the theme for House Stark is played on a cello. Most of the Stark characters only have variations on the same theme on cello. Arya Stark is the first of the house to have her own theme, first heard when she started her lesson on swordplay in episode three of season one, with the music featuring a hammered dulcimer. A new theme for Jon Snow using only the House Stark theme, was created in the sixth season and prominently featured in the episode "Battle of the Bastards", it was first heard at the end of episode three when he said "My watch is ended", signifying a shift in the character after he had been resurrected. Due to the large number of themes, the introductions of different themes are deliberately spaced over a longer period so as not to confuse the audience, for example, the theme for Theon Greyjoy or House Greyjoy was not introduced until the second season though he first appeared in the first season.

House Lannister has an associated song, "The Rains of Castamere", which

Call-through telecom

Call-through telecom companies are alternative telecommunications companies in Europe that provide services to make inexpensive international phone calls. All a user needs to do to take advantage of these savings is to dial the call-through access number followed by the destination number. Different phone companies specializes in a different types of international phone call deals, which means that the cheap long distance call plan that works for one country won't work for another. Most call-through telecom companies charge different telephone call prices at different times of day for local and national calls while others offer cheap international phone calls; these call-through telecom companies require no sign up or account, they don't require a credit card, users do not need to change their phone provider, purchase any special devices or buy a phone card. Call through companies update their rates thereby making it imperative for users to get a view on rates across the market before calling.

Call-through telecom providers use Voice over IP call termination to connect the caller to the recipient. Most of the call is carried over IP network, where cost of carrying of the audio signal is cheaper than traditional phone carriers; the calls that are initiated on the Internet use VoIP. These calls can terminate at other point on Internet or at the point, not on the Internet, e.g. traditional telephone line - this is known as call termination. The calls do not have to originate on Internet in order to use VoIP. A caller can dial a physical phone number, routed over VoIP to the point when it is terminated at the recipient's physical phone line in another country; this is what call-through telecom operators do - they provide call termination at both ends of the call. There are several cheap call-through numbers in Austria, for example toolani. Quite a lot of call-through companies are active in the German market offering their services via 0180 Shared Cost Service numbers charged at 0.039 € to 0.14 € per minute from German landlines, up to 0.42 € per minute from German mobile phones.

In the UK, most call-through access services use non-geographic revenue share 0843, 0844, 0871 and 0872 numbers or premium rate 0905, 0906 and 0911 numbers. The revenue share or "service charge" part of the price paid is set by the terminating telecoms company; this in turn depends on the exact number dialled. The lowest rates are on 084 numbers, higher on 087 numbers and the highest rates are on 09 numbers. In a small number of cases, the "service charge" may vary based on the time of the day. Prices vary according to the "access charge" added by the originating telecoms company. Additionally, the access charge levied on a call from a mobile telephone will be a lot more than from a landline. United Kingdom of Great Britain Cheap international calls from UK compared Comparison of international call providers from UK