The privileges associated with nobility may constitute substantial advantages over or relative to non-nobles, or may be largely honorary, and vary from country to country and era to era. There is often a variety of ranks within the noble class. g, san Marino and the Vatican City in Europe. Hereditary titles often distinguish nobles from non-nobles, although in many nations most of the nobility have been un-titled, some countries have had non-hereditary nobility, such as the Empire of Brazil. The term derives from Latin nobilitas, the noun of the adjective nobilis. In modern usage, nobility is applied to the highest social class in pre-modern societies and it rapidly came to be seen as a hereditary caste, sometimes associated with a right to bear a hereditary title and, for example in pre-revolutionary France, enjoying fiscal and other privileges. Nobility is a historical and often legal notion, differing from high socio-economic status in that the latter is based on income. Being wealthy or influential cannot, ipso facto, make one noble, various republics, including former Iron Curtain countries, Greece and Austria have expressly abolished the conferral and use of titles of nobility for their citizens.
Not all of the benefits of nobility derived from noble status per se, usually privileges were granted or recognised by the monarch in association with possession of a specific title, office or estate. Most nobles wealth derived from one or more estates, large or small and it included infrastructure such as castle and mill to which local peasants were allowed some access, although often at a price. Nobles were expected to live nobly, that is, from the proceeds of these possessions, work involving manual labour or subordination to those of lower rank was either forbidden or frowned upon socially. In some countries, the lord could impose restrictions on such a commoners movements. Nobles exclusively enjoyed the privilege of hunting, in France, nobles were exempt from paying the taille, the major direct tax. In some parts of Europe the right of war long remained the privilege of every noble. During the early Renaissance, duelling established the status of a respectable gentleman, Nobility came to be associated with social rather than legal privilege, expressed in a general expectation of deference from those of lower rank.
By the 21st century even that deference had become increasingly minimised, in France, a seigneurie might include one or more manors surrounded by land and villages subject to a nobles prerogatives and disposition. Seigneuries could be bought, sold or mortgaged, if erected by the crown into, e. g. a barony or countship, it became legally entailed for a specific family, which could use it as their title. Yet most French nobles were untitled, in other parts of Europe, sovereign rulers arrogated to themselves the exclusive prerogative to act as fons honorum within their realms. Nobility might be inherited or conferred by a fons honorum
William Hunt (officer of arms)
William George Hunt TD FCA currently serves as Windsor Herald of Arms in Ordinary at the College of Arms in London. Hunt worked for years as a City chartered accountant before being appointed as Portcullis Pursuivant of Arms in Ordinary in 1992. He was promoted as Windsor Herald in 1999, in 2007 he succeeded Timothy Duke as Registrar of the College of Arms until 2014. He has been a Member of Council of The Heraldry Society since 1997, Hunt was Clerk to HM Commission of Lieutenancy for the City of London before being appointed to the Lieutenancy in 2012. He was an elected Member of Common Council of the City of London Corporation and is a liveryman and he served in the Honourable Artillery Company retiring with the rank of Major in 2000. He was nominated as Genealogist of the Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem in 2010 and he married Michaela Wedel in 1998, the couple have two sons and live in London. orderofstjohn. org www. cityoflondon. gov. uk
Canadian Heraldic Authority
The Canadian Heraldic Authority is part of the Canadian honours system under the Canadian monarch, whose authority is exercised by the Governor General of Canada. The authority is responsible for the creation and granting of new coats of arms and this process was quite lengthy—and costly. In addition, the heralds of the College of Arms and the Court of the Lord Lyon could sometimes be unfamiliar with Canadian history, in time, many Canadians with an interest in heraldry began calling for an office which would offer armorial bearings designed by and for Canadians. As early as 1967, plans were reportedly in the works to transfer overview of heraldry from the College of Arms in the UK to Canada. The push for a wholly Canadian heraldic system came largely from the Heraldry Society of Canada almost from its inception, mr. Crombie had his department organise a meeting in Ottawa the following year, to which many national and international heraldic experts were invited. The meeting concluded with a recommendation to government that an Authority be created.
These letters patent were presented by Prince Edward to the general on behalf of the Crown. Subsequently, the Governor General, Jeanne Sauvé, authorised the creation of the Canadian Heraldic Authority on June 4,1988, as a result, Canada became the first Commonwealth realm outside the United Kingdom to have its own heraldic authority. Canada provides full equality to women in terms of inheriting and transmitting arms, all armigers within Canada may file for trademark protection of their grant of arms under the Trade-Marks Act. The authority is located at Rideau Hall, the residence of the monarch. The governor general, as the representative of the Canadian monarch, is the highest authority in Canadian heraldry. Below the governor general is the Herald Chancellor, a held by the secretary of the governor general. The CHA is currently organized in a called the Chancellery of Honours. The deputy secretary that administers the Chancellery of Honours is the Deputy Herald Chancellor, the position of chief herald was inaugurated by Robert Watt at the inception of the CHA in 1988 and held by him until his retirement in 2007.
Since June 26,2007, the office of chief herald has been held by Claire Boudreau, below the chief herald are the Heralds of Arms, full-time workers at the CHA and considered part of the Public Service of Canada. The names of the offices were taken from significant Canadian rivers. Though the titles are territorial designations, as per heraldic tradition, each is assigned a badge of office. The Heralds of Arms are, The authority allows for two types of positions, Heralds Emeritus and Heralds Extraordinary
Somerset Herald of Arms in Ordinary is an officer of arms at the College of Arms in London. On the death of that nobleman in 1536 the herald returned to the service of the crown, the badge of office is A Portcullis Or Royally Crowned. This is a version of the Beaufort badge, the current Somerset Herald of Arms in Ordinary is David Vines White, MA MA. Brackets indicate a date or approximate date for which there is evidence that the person was holder of this office. John Young, escorted Margaret Tudor to Edinburgh,1503, 1536-1542 Thomas Traheyron or Trahern, Esq. killed in Scotland,25 November 1542. 1660-1680 Sir Thomas St George 1680-1700 Francis Burghill, Esq, FRS, FSA 1759-1773 Ralph Bigland 1773-1777 Henry Hastings, Esq. 1777-1794 John Charles Brooke, Esq, FSA 1794-1813 John Atkinson, FSA 1880-1887 Stephen Isaacson Tucker, Esq. 1887-1911 Sir Henry Farnham Burke, KCVO, CB, FSA 1911-1926 Everard Green, Sir George Rothe Bellew, KCB, KCVO, FSA 1951-1967 Michael Roger Trappes-Lomax, Esq. CVO, OBE, FSA 1982-1997 Thomas Woodcock, Esq, LVO, FSA 2004–Present David Vines White, Esq
Private Officer of Arms
A private officer of arms is one of those heralds and pursuivants appointed by great noble houses to handle all heraldic and genealogical questions. Many noblemen in Britain retained heralds from about 1170 onwards and this includes the grand barons of the realm but important knights such as Sir John Chandos. The heralds were originally concerned with war and tournaments and identifying people by their arms, as such, they naturally developed an interest in genealogy. Formerly, the Lord of the Isles had Ross Herald and Islay Pursuivant, on the forfeiture of the Lordship these became, and remain, Royal Officers. In 1725, Blanc Coursier Herald was created to serve Prince William, Duke of Cumberland, most officers of arms are employed by state heraldic authorities. There are, some officers that still exist. In Scotland, there are four private pursuivants of arms that are recognized by the Court of the Lord Lyon King of Arms and these are appointed by clan chiefs to look after matters of clan heraldry and genealogy.
The Kingdom of Sicily did not have actual heralds in recent times and this commission concerned itself with administration of certain nobiliary institutions and recognition of titles of nobility. Muñoz Altea continues this tradition as a Private Officer of Arms of the Royal House, in addition to his office as King of Arms, Muñoz Altea is delegate of the Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George
A monarch is the sovereign head of state in a monarchy. A monarch may exercise the highest authority and power in the state, alternatively, an individual may become monarch by conquest, acclamation or a combination of means. A monarch usually reigns for life or until abdication, if a young child is crowned the monarch, a regent is often appointed to govern until the monarch reaches the requisite adult age to rule. A monarch can reign in multiple monarchies simultaneously, for example, the monarchy of Canada and the monarchy of the United Kingdom are separate states, but they share the same monarch through personal union. Monarchs, as such, bear a variety of titles — king or queen, prince or princess, emperor or empress, duke or grand duke, Prince is sometimes used as a generic term to refer to any monarch regardless of title, especially in older texts. A king can be a husband and a queen can be a kings wife. If both people in a reign, neither person is generally considered to be a consort.
Monarchy is political or sociocultural in nature, and is associated with hereditary rule. Most monarchs, both historically and in the present day, have been born and brought up within a royal family, different systems of succession have been used, such as proximity of blood, agnatic seniority, Salic law, etc. In an elective monarchy, the monarch is elected but otherwise serves as any other monarch, historical examples of elective monarchy include the Holy Roman Emperors and the free election of kings of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. In recent centuries, many states have abolished the monarchy and become republics, advocacy of government by a republic is called republicanism, while advocacy of monarchy is called monarchism. A principal advantage of hereditary monarchy is the continuity of national leadership. In cases where the monarch serves mostly as a ceremonial figure real leadership does not depend on the monarch, a form of government may in fact be hereditary without being considered monarchy, such as a family dictatorship.
Monarchies take a variety of forms, such as the two co-princes of Andorra, positions held simultaneously by the Roman Catholic Bishop of Urgel and the elected President of France. Similarly, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia is considered a monarch despite only holding the position for five years at a time, hereditary succession within one patrilineal family has been most common, with preference for children over siblings, sons over daughters. Other European realms practice one form or another of primogeniture, whereunder a lord was succeeded by his eldest son or, if he had none, by his brother, the system of tanistry was semi-elective and gave weight to ability and merit. The Salic law, practiced in France and in the Italian territories of the House of Savoy, in most fiefs, in the event of the demise of all legitimate male members of the patrilineage, a female of the family could succeed. Spain today continues this model of succession law, in the form of cognatic primogeniture, in more complex medieval cases, the sometimes conflicting principles of proximity and primogeniture battled, and outcomes were often idiosyncratic
Late Middle Ages
The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period of European history generally comprising the 14th and 15th centuries. The Late Middle Ages followed the High Middle Ages and preceded the onset of the modern era. Around 1300, centuries of prosperity and growth in Europe came to a halt, a series of famines and plagues, including the Great Famine of 1315–1317 and the Black Death, reduced the population to around half of what it was before the calamities. Along with depopulation came social unrest and endemic warfare and England experienced serious peasant uprisings, such as the Jacquerie and the Peasants Revolt, as well as over a century of intermittent conflict in the Hundred Years War. To add to the problems of the period, the unity of the Catholic Church was shattered by the Western Schism. Collectively these events are called the Crisis of the Late Middle Ages. Despite these crises, the 14th century was a time of progress in the arts. Following a renewed interest in ancient Greek and Roman texts that took root in the High Middle Ages, combined with this influx of classical ideas was the invention of printing, which facilitated dissemination of the printed word and democratized learning.
These two things would lead to the Protestant Reformation. Toward the end of the period, the Age of Discovery began, the rise of the Ottoman Empire, culminating in the Fall of Constantinople in 1453, eroded the last remnants of the Byzantine Empire and cut off trading possibilities with the east. Europeans were forced to seek new trading routes, leading to the expedition of Columbus to the Americas in 1492 and their discoveries strengthened the economy and power of European nations. The changes brought about by these developments have led scholars to view this period as the end of the Middle Ages and beginning of modern history. However, the division is artificial, since ancient learning was never entirely absent from European society. As a result there was continuity between the ancient age and the modern age. Some historians, particularly in Italy, prefer not to speak of the Late Middle Ages at all, but rather see the period of the Middle Ages transitioning to the Renaissance. The term Late Middle Ages refers to one of the three periods of the Middle Ages, along with the Early Middle Ages and the High Middle Ages, leonardo Bruni was the first historian to use tripartite periodization in his History of the Florentine People.
Flavio Biondo used a framework in Decades of History from the Deterioration of the Roman Empire. Tripartite periodization became standard after the German historian Christoph Cellarius published Universal History Divided into an Ancient, for 18th-century historians studying the 14th and 15th centuries, the central theme was the Renaissance, with its rediscovery of ancient learning and the emergence of an individual spirit
David White (officer of arms)
David Vines White is the current Somerset Herald of Arms in Ordinary at the College of Arms in London. He is the son of Sheila and Peter Vines White. White was educated at Marlborough College, before going to Pembroke College, Cambridge, as an undergraduate he was president of the Cambridge University Heraldic and Genealogical Society and he received a further MA degree from the University of London. In 2004 he was appointed Somerset Herald, White is a member of Council of The Heraldry Society in London and served as its chairman 2006–09. He is a member of Council of the British Record Society, in 2010, he was appointed honorary genealogist to the Royal Victorian Order. Somerset Heralds day job is researching and proving genealogies, as well as facilitating new grants of arms to suitable applicants,2012, Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal Heraldry Pursuivant Herald The College of Arms website Debretts People of Today
The beauty and pageantry of heraldic designs allowed them to survive the gradual abandonment of armour on the battlefield during the seventeenth century. Heraldry has been described poetically as the handmaid of history, the shorthand of history, in modern times, heraldry is used by individuals and private organizations, cities and regions to symbolize their heritage and aspirations. Various symbols have been used to represent individuals or groups for thousands of years, similar emblems and devices are found in ancient Mesopotamian art of the same period, and the precursors of heraldic beasts such as the griffin can be found. In the Bible, the Book of Numbers refers to the standards and ensigns of the children of Israel, the Greek and Latin writers frequently describe the shields and symbols of various heroes, and units of the Roman army were sometimes identified by distinctive markings on their shields. The Book of Saint Albans, compiled in 1486, declares that Christ himself was a gentleman of coat armour, the medieval heralds devised arms for various knights and lords from history and literature.
Notable examples include the toads attributed to Pharamond, the cross and martlets of Edward the Confessor, and the arms attributed to the Nine Worthies. These too are now regarded as an invention, rather than evidence of the antiquity of heraldry. The development of the modern heraldic language cannot be attributed to an individual, time. Yet no individual is depicted twice bearing the arms, nor are any of the descendants of the various persons depicted known to have borne devices resembling those in the tapestry. A Spanish manuscript from 1109 describes both plain and decorated shields, none of which appears to have been heraldic, in England, from the time of the Norman conquest, official documents had to be sealed. A notable example of an armorial seal is attached to a charter granted by Philip I, Count of Flanders. Seals from the part of the eleventh and early twelfth centuries show no evidence of heraldic symbolism. One of the earliest known examples of armory as it came to be practiced can be seen on the tomb of Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou.
An enamel, probably commissioned by Geoffreys widow between 1155 and 1160, depicts him carrying a shield decorated with six golden lions rampant. He wears a helmet adorned with another lion, and his cloak is lined in vair. A medieval chronicle states that Geoffrey was given a shield of this description when he was knighted by his father-in-law, Henry I, in 1128, but this account probably dates to about 1175. Since Henry was the son of Geoffrey Plantagenet, it seems reasonable to suppose that the adoption of lions as an emblem by Henry or his sons might have been inspired by Geoffreys shield. Richard is credited with having originated the English crest of a lion statant and it is from this garment that the phrase coat of arms is derived
Windsor Castle is a royal residence at Windsor in the English county of Berkshire. It is notable for its association with the English and British royal family. The original castle was built in the 11th century after the Norman invasion of England by William the Conqueror, since the time of Henry I, it has been used by the reigning monarch and is the longest-occupied palace in Europe. Inside the castle walls is the 15th-century St Georges Chapel, considered by the historian John Martin Robinson to be one of the achievements of English Perpendicular Gothic design. Gradually replaced with stone fortifications, the castle withstood a siege during the First Barons War at the start of the 13th century. Edwards core design lasted through the Tudor period, during which Henry VIII and Elizabeth I made increasing use of the castle as a royal court and centre for diplomatic entertainment. Windsor Castle survived the period of the English Civil War, when it was used as a military headquarters for Parliamentary forces.
At the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660, Charles II rebuilt much of Windsor Castle with the help of the architect Hugh May, Queen Victoria made a few minor changes to the castle, which became the centre for royal entertainment for much of her reign. Windsor Castle was used as a refuge for the family during the Luftwaffe bombing campaigns of the Second World War. It is a popular tourist attraction, a venue for hosting state visits, more than 500 people live and work in Windsor Castle, making it the largest inhabited castle in the world. Windsor Castle occupies 13 acres, and combines the features of a fortification, a palace, the present-day castle was created during a sequence of phased building projects, culminating in the reconstruction work after a fire in 1992. It is in essence a Georgian and Victorian design based on a medieval structure, since the 14th century, architecture at the castle has attempted to produce a contemporary reinterpretation of older fashions and traditions, repeatedly imitating outmoded or even antiquated styles.
Although there has some criticism, the castles architecture and history lends it a place amongst the greatest European palaces. At the heart of Windsor Castle is the Middle Ward, a formed around the motte or artificial hill in the centre of the ward. The motte is 50 feet high and is made from chalk originally excavated from the surrounding ditch, the Round Tower is in reality far from cylindrical, due to the shape and structure of the motte beneath it. The western entrance to the Middle Ward is now open, the eastern exit from the ward is guarded by the Norman Gatehouse. Wyatville redesigned the exterior of the gatehouse, and the interior was converted in the 19th century for residential use. The Upper Ward of Windsor Castle comprises a number of major buildings enclosed by the bailey wall
Coat of arms of Bavaria
The coat of arms of the German state of Bavaria has greater and lesser versions. It had been introduced by law fully by 5 June 1950, Article 1 The colours of the state are white, the modern coat of arms was designed by Eduard Ege, following heraldic traditions, in 1946. First Quarter, At the dexter chief, sable, a lion rampant Or and this represents the administrative region of Upper Palatinate. It is identical to the coat of arms of the Electorate of the Palatinate, second Quarter, At the sinister chief, per fess dancetty and argent. This represents the regions of Upper and Lower Franconia. This was the coat of arms of the bishops of Würzburg. Third Quarter, At the dexter base, argent, a panther rampant azure and this represents the regions of Lower and Upper Bavaria. Fourth Quarter, At the sinister base, Or, three lions passant guardant Sable, armed Gules, the White-And-Blue Inescutcheon, The escutcheon of white and blue oblique fusils was originally the coat of arms of the Counts of Bogen, adopted in 1242 by the House of Wittelsbach.
The white-and-blue fusils are indisputably the emblem of Bavaria and the heart shield today symbolizes Bavaria as a whole, along with the Peoples Crown, it is officially used as the Minor Coat of Arms. The Peoples Crown, The four coat fields with the shield in the centre are crowned with a golden band with precious stones decorated with five ornamental leaves. This crown appeared for the first time in the coat of arms in 1923 to symbolize sovereignty of the people after the out of the royal crown. Bavaria was one of the duchies of the Eastern Franconian Empire. The House of Wittelsbach, who ruled in Bavaria for about eight centuries, used the coat lozengy since 1242, Bavaria became a kingdom in 1806, and in 1835 a new coat of arms was created, similar to todays but representing some regions by different coats of arms. The first known coat of arms of the house of Wittelsbach is Azure, when Louis I married Ludmilla, the widow of Albert III, Count of Bogen, he adopted the coat of arms of the counts of Bogen together with their land.
The number of varied, from 15th century 21 were used. Lit, Wilhelm Volkert, Die Bilder in den Wappen der Wittelsbacher, in the eleventh century the counts of Kraiburg, a branch of the counts of Sponheim of Rhenish Hesse, acquired land in Upper and Lower Bavaria. In 1259, after the death of the last male member of the family, the coat of arms of the family was the Lion of Sponheim, although the charge was not a lion but a panthier, a mixture of a dragon and a lion. Nowadays, the fire-spitting panthier/panther is the Coat of Arms of the city of Ingolstadt, the coat of arms created for the Kingdom of Bavaria in 1835 included the lion
A courier is a person who delivers messages and mail. Courier services operate on all scales, from within specific towns or cities, large courier companies include DHL, OCS, FedEx, EMS International, TNT, UPS, and Aramex. These offer services worldwide, typically via a hub and spoke model, in ancient history, messages were hand-delivered using a variety of methods, including runners, homing pigeons and riders on horseback. Before the introduction of mechanized courier services, foot messengers physically ran miles to their destinations, xenophon attributed the first use of couriers to the Persian prince Cyrus the Younger. Famously, the Ancient Greek courier Pheidippides is said to have run 26 miles from Marathon to Athens to bring the news of the Greek victory over the Persians in 490 BCE, the long-distance race known as a marathon is named for this run. Starting at the time of Augustus, the ancient Greeks and Romans made use of a class of horse and chariot-mounted couriers called anabasii to quickly bring messages, the word anabasii comes from the Greek αναβασις.
They were contemporary with the Greek hemeredromi, who carried their messages by foot, in Roman Britain, Rufinus made use of anabasii, as documented in Saint Jeromes memoirs, Idcircone Cereales et Anabasii tui per diversas provincias cucurrerunt, ut laudes meas legerent. In the Middle Ages, royal courts maintained their own messengers who were little more than common labourers. In cities, there are often bicycle couriers or motorcycle couriers but for consignments requiring delivery over greater distance networks, many companies who operate under a Just-In-Time or JIT inventory method often use on-board couriers. On-board couriers are individuals who can travel at a moments notice anywhere in the world, International courier services in China include TNT, EMS International, DHL, FedEx and UPS. These companies provide nominal worldwide service for both inbound and outbound shipments, connecting China to countries such as the USA, United Kingdom, and New Zealand. Of the international services, the Dutch company TNT is considered to have the most capable local fluency and efficacy for third-.
EMS International is a unit of China Post, and as such is not available for shipments originating outside of China, domestic courier services include SF Express, YTO Express, E-EMS and many other operators of sometimes microscopic scales. E-EMS, is the product of a co-operative arrangement between China Post and Alipay, which is the online payment unit of Alibaba Group. It is only available for the delivery of purchases made using Alipay. Within the Municipality of Beijing, TongCheng KuaiDi, a unit of China Post, during the late 1970s small provincial and regional companies were popping up throughout the country. Today, there are large companies offering next-day courier services, including DX Group, UKMail and UK divisions of worldwide couriers such as FedEx, DHL, UPS. There are many specialist couriers usually for the transportation of such as freight/palettes, sensitive documents