click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Herb Brooks Arena

The Herb Brooks Arena is a multi-purpose arena in Lake Placid, New York. This surface, along with the USA Rink, was built for the 1980 Winter Olympics. Herb Brooks Arena hosted various events during the 1980 Winter Olympics, most famously the ice hockey tournament that saw the United States' 4–3 victory over the Soviet Union, the game referred to as the Miracle on Ice. In 2005, to commemorate the 25th anniversary of the American victory, the arena was named after the late Herb Brooks, who coached the United States team during the 1980 Olympics. Other events the arena hosted during the 1980 games include figure skating events and the closing ceremony; the arena has been used several times for college hockey championships in the United States. It hosted the 1984 and 1988 men's NCAA Men's Ice Hockey Championship referred to as the Frozen Four; the arena has hosted the NCAA Women's Ice Hockey Championship as well, in 2007. From 1993 to 2002, the arena annually hosted the ECAC Hockey League's championships every March.

The ECAC announced in July 2012 that the league would again crown its champion in Herb Brooks Arena for the 2013–14, 2014–15, 2015–16 seasons. In March 2016 the contract was extended for another three years through the 2019 ECAC tournament; the Glens Falls-based Adirondack Thunder ice hockey team have used the arena for a few games because of high school basketball championship games being held at the Glens Falls Civic Center. 1980 Winter Olympics official report. Volume 1. Pp. 47–59. Media related to Herb Brooks Arena at Wikimedia Commons Official website, hosted by the New York State Olympic Regional Development Authority

Hifumi Shimoyama

Hifumi Shimoyama is a Japanese composer of contemporary concert music. Since the 1960s, Shimoyama's music has been featured on World Music Days festivals across Europe and Asia, sponsored by the International Society for Contemporary Music. Shimoyama is the founder of GROUP 20.5, the internationally recognized group of Japanese avant garde composers. Shimoyama's works are published by Academia Music, Edizioni Suvini Zerboni, Japan Federation of Composers, Ongaku no Tomo-sha. OrchestralReflection for 3 string orchestras Zone for 16 string players Fūmon II for orchestra and tape Yūgenism for orchestra Doubridge for string orchestra ConcertanteWave for cello, string ensemble, harp and percussion Concerto for cello and orchestra Yūgenism No. 2 for clarinet, string orchestra and percussion Concerto for violin and orchestra Knob for bass clarinet and 14 playersChamber musicString Quartet Structure for 4 performers Dialogue for cello and piano Dialogue for 2 guitars Ceremony for cello solo Exorcism for string quintet MSP for violin and piano Dialogue No. 2 for 2 guitars Transmigration for percussion and double bass Fūmon IV for 4 percussionists and tape Chromophony for orchestra Dialogue for 2 percussionists Transmigration No. 2 for shakuhachi and harp Meditation for cello and piano Oriental Wind for oboe, English horn and percussion L.41°N, Homage to N for guitar Ikki no gekkei for cello, 17-string koto and tape Fūmon VI for clarinet, cello and tape Keikyō for clarinet, double bass and tape Essay for recorder player with antique cymbals and wood chime Shinkyō for 2 double basses Amalgam for shakuhachi, bass clarinet and piano Duplication for viola and guitar Shinkyō No. 2 for 6 double basses OrganLandscape for organ Landscape No. 2 for organ and percussion VocalBreath for female voice and percussion Catalysis for voice, alto flute, bass trombone and persussion Catalysis No. 2 for soprano and percussion Japanese instrumentsCatalysis No. 3 for shinobue, shamisen and percussion Kannagi for shakuhachi, 2 kotos and 17-string koto Kaze no toh for shakuhachi, 20-string koto, percussion Monologue for shamisen Figure for shakuhachi and percussion NUVO News Kojima Records ISCM World Music Days http://www.butler.edu/music

LINUS (fusion experiment)

The LINUS program was an experimental fusion power project developed by the United States Naval Research Laboratory in 1972. The goal of the project was to produce a controlled fusion reaction by compressing plasma inside metal liners; the basic concept is today known as magnetized target fusion. The reactor design was based on the mechanical compression of magnetic flux inside a molten metal liner. A chamber rotated along one axis; this spinning motion created a cylindrical cavity into. Once the plasma was contained within the cavity, the liquid metal wall was compressed, which would raise the temperature and density of the trapped plasma to fusion conditions; the use of a liquid metal liner has many of the advantages over previous experiments that imploded cylindrical metal liners to achieve high-energy-density fusion. The liquid metal liner provided the benefits of recovering the heat energy of the reaction, absorbing neutrons, transferring kinetic energy, replacing the plasma-facing wall during each cycle.

Additional benefits of a liquid liner include simplified servicing of the reactor, reducing radioactivity, protecting the permanent sections of the reactor from neutron damage. The danger from flying shrapnel was mitigated with the use of liquid liners; the concept was revived in the 2000s as the basis for the General Fusion design being built in Canada. In the LINUS concept, plasma is injected into a molten lead-lithium liner; the liner is imploded mechanically, using high pressure helium pistons. The imploding liner acts to compress the magnetically-confined plasma adiabatically to fusion temperature and high density. In the subsequent expansion the plasma energy and the fusion energy carried by trapped alpha particles is directly recovered by the liquid metal, making the mechanical cycle self-sustaining; the implosion cycle would be repeated every few seconds. The LINUS reactor can thus be regarded as a fusion engine; the liquid metal acts as both a compression mechanism and heat transfer mechanism, allowing the energy from the fusion reaction to be captured as heat.

LINUS researchers anticipated that a lithium liner could be used to breed tritium fuel for the power plant, would protect the machine from high-energy neutrons by acting as a regenerative first wall. Several experimental machines were constructed throughout the LINUS project, to gather data and demonstrate various aspects of the system concept. To obtain detailed information about the behavior of the inner surface of solid and liquid metal liners during the final moments of an implosion, experiment called SUZY II was built at NRL; the experiment was used to compress various metal liners from an initial diameter of 20–30 cm to a final diameter of about 1 cm using magnetic fields. An overall compression ratio of 28:1 was achieved. One goal of SUZY II was to demonstrate the use of electromagnetic driving techniques to achieve liner implosions; the central feature of SUZY II was a bank of capacitors charged to 60 kV, able to deliver 540 kJ of energy to be used for generating large magnetic fields.

Pressures greater than 20 kpsi were achieved during the implosions. SUZY II was named after SUZY I, a 50 kJ capacitor bank. To study the hydrodynamic behavior and magnetic flux compression at the target energy density regimes, a device called LINUS-0 was constructed in 1978; the experiment involved a 30 cm rotating cylindrical chamber filled with molten water. A large number of pistons were attached to the chamber, were in contact with the rotating liquid. During the experiment, all pistons were propelled to drive the liquid radially inward; the pistons in the LINUS-0 experiment were driven by the high-explosive agent DATB known as PBXN, chosen for its high melting point, low particulate matter, compatibly low cost. The experimental parameters for LINUS-0 required the cylindrical chamber to rotate at 5000 RPM, accomplished with a 454 Chevrolet V8 engine. All pistons were required to fire within 50 μs of each other. During data collection, LINUS-0 was fired as as three times per day. A similar machine, called HELIUS, was constructed to demonstrate magnetic flux compression.

HELIUS was a half-scale version of LINUS-0, was designed to use liquid sodium and potassium in the liner chamber. In practice, the use of water was sufficient for the hydrodynamic studies. In the HELIUS experiment, the liquid sodium-potassium liners were imploded using high-pressure Helium to drive mechanical pistons. Experiments on LINUS-0 and HELIUS were unsuccessful due in part to delays incurred in the design and assembly phases. Time wasn't allocated to recover from delays or unexpected challenges, the machines were disassembled and placed in storage; the LINUS project encountered several engineering problems which limited its performance and therefore its attractiveness as an approach to commercial fusion power. These issues included performance of the plasma preparation and injection technique, the ability to achieve reversible compression/expansion cycles, problems with magnetic flux diffusion into the liner material; the ability to remove the vaporized liner material from the cavity between cycles was not accomplished.

There were shortcomings with the design of the inner mechanism which pumped the liquid-metal liner. One major problem that LINUS encountered was related to hydrodynamic instabilities in the liquid liner. If the liquid wasn't properly compressed, it could result in instabilities in the pla

History of the Roman Canon

This article is a transcription of the section headed "History of the canon" of the article "Canon of the Mass" by Adrian Fortescue in the 1908 Catholic Encyclopedia, now in the public domain. It has been updated to take account of the fact that the Roman Canon is no longer the only Eucharistic Prayer of the Roman Rite; the Roman Canon is the oldest eucharistic prayer used in the Mass of the Roman Rite, dates its arrangement to at least the 7th century. Through the centuries, the Roman Canon has undergone minor alterations and modifications, but retains the same essential form it took in the seventh century under Pope Gregory I. Before 1970, it was the only eucharistic prayer used in the Roman Missal, but since three other eucharistic prayers were newly composed for the Mass of Paul VI, it is to Pope Gregory I, the organiser of the Roman Liturgy, that tradition ascribes the revision and arrangement of the Roman Canon. His reign thus provides a natural division in the discussion of the history of the Canon.

Gregory himself thought that the Canon had been composed by "a certain scholasticus", Pope Benedict XIV discussed whether he meant some person so named or "a certain learned man". Gregory himself is credited with adding a phrase to the Canon; the Canon that he left represents in fact the last stage of a development that amounted to a "complete recasting", in which "the Eucharistic prayer was fundamentally changed and recast". A distinction must be made between the prayers of the Roman Canon itself and the order in which they are now found; the prayers, or at least some of them, can be traced back to a early date from occasional references in letters of the Church Fathers: the prayers beginning Te igitur, Memento Domine and Quam oblationem were in use if not with quite the same wording as now, by the year 400. In the 1st century, as known, the Church of Rome, like all other Christian Churches, celebrated the Holy Eucharist by obeying Christ's direction and doing as he had done the night before he died, at the Last Supper.

There were the bread and wine consecrated by the words of Institution and by an invocation of the Holy Spirit. Undoubtedly, before this part of the service lessons were read from the Bible, as explicitly stated by Saint Justin Martyr, it is known that this Mass was said in Greek. Koine Greek was the common tongue of Christians, at least outside Palestine, when it was used throughout the empire since the conquests of Alexander the Great incorporated into the Roman Empire; this is shown by the facts that the inscriptions in the catacombs are in Greek, that Christian writers at Rome use that language. Of the liturgical formulas of this first period little is known; the First Epistle of St. Clement contains a prayer, considered liturgical, though it contains no reference to the Eucharist, it states that "the Lord commanded offerings and holy offices to be made not rashly nor without order, but at fixed times and hours." From this it is evident that at Rome the liturgy was celebrated according to fixed rules and definite order.

Chap. xxxiv tells us that the Romans "gathered together in concord, as it were with one mouth" said the Sanctus from Is. Vi, 3. St. Justin Martyr died there, it is possible that his First Apology was written in that city, that the liturgy he describes in it was that which he frequented at Rome. From this we learn that the Christians first prayed for all manner of persons. Follows the kiss of peace, "he who presides over the brethren" is given bread and a cup of wine and water, having received which he gives thanks to God, celebrates the Eucharist, all the people answer "Amen." The deacons give out Holy Communion. Here is found the outline of the more recent Roman liturgy: the Preface, to which may be added from the First Epistle of Clement the Sanctus, a celebration of the Eucharist, not described, but which contains the words of Institution, the final Amen that remains at the end of the Eucharistic prayer. One might deduce a likeness between the Roman use and those of the Eastern Churches in the fact that when St. Polycarp came to Rome in 155, Pope Anicetus allowed him to celebrate, just like one of his own bishops.

The canons of Hippolytus of Rome allude to a Eucharistic celebration that follows the order of St. Justin, they add the universal introduction to the Preface, "Sursum corda", etc; the first great turning point in the history of the Roman Canon is the exclusive use of the Latin language. Latin first appears as a language used by Christian writers not in North Africa. Pope Victor I, an African, seems to have been the first Bishop of Rome. After this time Latin would become the only language used by Popes in their writings. Greek seems to have disappeared at Rome as a liturgical language in the second half of the 3rd century, though parts of the Liturgy were left in Greek; the Creed was sometimes said in Greek down to Byzantine times. The "Ordo Rom. I" says that certain psalms were still said in Greek. Soon after the acceptance of Latin as the only liturgical language we find allusions to parts of the Eucharistic prayer, that are the same as parts of the Tride

Harmonia stebbinsii

Harmonia stebbinsii is a species of flowering plant in the aster family known by the common name Stebbins' tarweed, or Stebbins' madia. It is endemic to northern California, where it is limited to the Klamath Mountains and adjacent slopes of the North Coast Ranges, it is a member of the serpentine soils plant community in these mountains, found at elevations of 1100–1600 meters. It is a rare annual herb producing a bristly stem up to about 25 centimeters tall studded with black resin glands, its bristly leaves grow up to about 2 centimeters long and are gathered near the base of the plant. The inflorescence is an array of flower heads lined with hairy, purple-tipped phyllaries; the head has yellow disc florets. The fruit is an achene tipped with a pappus; this representative of the tarweed group is an endangered endemic to California, characteristically associated with shallow, serpentine soils. It was considered by the California Native Plant Society to be a species of special concern, based on rare plant surveys conducted by US Forest Service botanists over the past 25 years.

However, the plant has most been placed on the California Rare Plant Rank 1B.2. It is only found in the narrow geographical range of Lake, Shasta and Trinity counties of California’s Klamath Mountain Ecoregion. Occurrences outside of this range have not been documented. Ultramafic, "serpentine" soils in California support a high rate of endemism in plant communities. Plate tectonics and erosion over time work to produce these unique soil environments that are characterized by high levels of magnesium and iron silicate materials. In addition, they feature low levels of important plant nutrients, including nitrogen, phosphorus and calcium. In addition, these soils contain trace minerals that are toxic to most plants, including cobalt and nickel. California contains 2300 square miles of ultramafic rocks. Thus, plants found in these environments have the adaptive ability to grow, despite these conditions. Furthermore, such an extreme environment facilitates the high rate of endemism found, as few species are able to dominate a serpentine plant community.

Of all of the endemic California plants, those of the family Asteraceae have the highest affinity for serpentine soils, based on the number of species represented in these serpentine plant communities. Most serpentine endemism is concentrated in the North Coastal and Klamath Mountain Ranges of northwestern California and southwestern Oregon. Bruce G. Baldwin 2014. Harmonia stebbinsii, in Jepson Flora Project Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=77560, accessed on June 4, 2015.* USDA Plant Profile *USDA Plants Profile California Native Plant Link Exchange. Plant Information. Harmonia stebinsii. Retrieved 6/4/15 from http://www.cnplx.info/nplx/species?taxon=Harmonia+stebbinsii Mason, H.. Plant Diversity in the Klamath Mountains. Fremontia. 35: 1-13. Safford, D.. Serpentine Endemism in the California Flora. Fremontia. 38: 32-40. Williams, J. N. Seo, C. Thorne, J. Nelson, J. K. Erwin, S. O’Brien, J. M. & Schwartz, M. W.. Using species distribution models to predict new occurrences for rare plants.

Diversity and Distributions, 15, 565-576. Flora of North America Photo gallery

Helen Verhoeven

Helen Verhoeven is a painter and sculptor based in Berlin. Verhoeven was born in the Netherlands and moved to the U. S. in 1986. She attended the San Francisco Art Institute, New York Academy of Art, the Rijksakademie van Beeldende Kunsten in Amsterdam. In 2008 she won the Dutch Royal Award for Modern Painting and in 2010 she was the winner of the Wolvecamp Award, she was commissioned to make a painting for the new courthouse of Dutch Supreme Court in The Hague that opened in 2015. Verhoeven's works seem to explore the theme of ceremonial gatherings, she makes monumental-sized paintings that are populated with contorted figures in various states of rapture, despair and estrangement. Helen is the daughter of acclaimed film director Paul Verhoeven. 2004 Nightmares, New York2006 Saints, New York2007 The Beautiful Many, Galerie Fons Welters, Amsterdam2008 Event Two, Mesler & Hug, Los Angeles Event One, New York2010 The Thingly Character, Galerie Diana Stigter, Amsterdam Art Show I - Helen Verhoeven, KLEMM’S project room 7d5e, Berlin2012 Stage Disasters, New York Part Pretty, SCHUNCK, Netherlands2013 Mother, Stigter van Doesburg, Amsterdam The Waiting, Galerie Parisa Kind, Frankfurt2016 Libby Libby Libby, Galerie Stigter van Doesburg, Amsterdam2018 Statements, Basel Oh God, Bonnefantenmuseum, Maastricht 1994 Posturing, Diego Rivera Gallery, San Francisco Its About Power, Belcher Street Studios, San Francisco 1995 Lateral, Southern Exposure, San Francisco1996 Betrothed, Falkurk Cultural Center, San Raphael, CA Snacks, ACME Gallery, San Francisco1997 Baggage, The Luggage Store Gallery, San Francisco2001 MFA Exhibition, Tribeca Hall, New York2002 Night of a 1000 Drawings, Artist Space, New York2003 The Holiday Shopping Show II - curated by Robin Kahn, New York Photography As Model, New York Space Invaders, Brooklyn2004 Show and Tell, Zimmer Museum, Los Angeles2005 Hot Spots 05, Sammlung Essl Museum, Austria Seven Young Painters, Bowie Van Valen, the Netherlands ArtReview 25: Emerging US Artists, Phillips de Pury & Co, New York The Exploding Plastic Inevitable—curated by Simon Watson/Scenic, Bergdorf Goodman, New York Open Ateliers—curated by Nacisse Tordoir, Rijkakademie van Beeldende Kunsten, the Netherlands2006 The Presence of Absence—curated by Rachel Howe, Gallery w52, New York, NY In Order of Appearance, Living Arts Museum, Iceland 25 Bold Moves—curated by Simon Watson/Scenic, 382 West Broadway, New York, NY Parts, Xiamen City, CN,'Rijksakademie at Parts' Open Ateliers—curated by Nacisse Tordoir, Rijksakademie van beeldende kunsten, Amsterdam, NL2007 Some Kind of Portrait—curated by Simon Watson & Craig Hensala, Marc Selwyn Fine Art, Los Angeles Hedendaagse Figuratie #2—curated by Pim Trooster, Hengelo, Hengelo, NL About Contemporary Figuration, Safe Art, Dalfsen NL Recent Acquisitions - Young Painting' Sammlung Essl Museum, Austria2008 Royal Prize For Painting 2008, GEM Museum Contempoaray Art, The Hague, NL Tints Of Majesty, Lizabeth Oliveria, Los Angeles, CA, US Pruesspress, Rental Gallery, New York, NY2009 Girl Overkill – curated by Iris van Dongen, Galerie im Regierungsviertel, Germany New Painters, LUMC, the Netherlands Play, Monica de Cardenas, Italy Retour, Huize Frankendael, the Netherlands Girl Overkill, curated by Iris van Dongen, Galerie im Regierungsviertel, Berlin, DE2010 Helen Verhoeven and Alon Levin, Lees Museum, the Netherlands Wolvecampprijs 2010, the Netherlands RC de Ruimte – curated by Ben and Hannie Loerakker Girl Overkill 2 – curated by Iris van Dongen, Kunstlerhaus Bethanien, Germany in.flec.tiion, Hudson Valley Center of Contemporary Art, Peekskill, NY Tentoonstelling in RC de Ruimte, IJmuiden, the Netherlands2011 Bellevue, Stedelijk Museum, the Netherlands Objects of Dismissal, Berlin, DE2012 Der Gemalte Raum / Painted Space, Works from the Essl Collection in the Schömer Hause Through an Open Window, Institut Néerlandais, France Made in Germany Zwei, Sprengel Museum, Germany Door Schildersogen / From a Painter’s Perspective, Arti et Amicitiae, the Netherlands2013 10 Years, New York, NY2014 Disturbing Innocence, The FLAG Art Foundation, New York, NY How Soon is Now?, Manifesta Foundation, Amsterdam De Grote Kunstshow, Amsterdam Beating Around The Bush, Bonnefanten Museum, Maastricht2015 Apophänie, Nederlansche Bank, Amsterdam Aanwinten 2014-2015, LUMC, Leiden2016 Geen Woorden maar Beelden, LUMC, Leiden 10e Wolvecampprijs, Hengelo It's not your paintings I like, It's your painting, Stigter van Doesburg, Amsterdam2017 Vele gezichten van het LUMC, LUMC, Leiden Paint it Soft, SCHUNCK, Heerlen Vaste Collectie: Beeldende Kunst 1850-heden, Utrecht Central Museum, Utrecht The Painted Bird, Maastricht2018 Neue Heimat, Willem Twee Kunstruimte, Den Bosch, NL & Reinbeckhallen, Berlin De Meest Eigentijdse, Dordrechts Museum, Dordrecht Media related to Helen Verhoeven at Wikimedia Commons Rosenberg, Karen..

Art in Review. New York Times Hamilton, Adrian.. A Mixed Body of Work; the Independent