Herbert Alexander Simon was an American economist, political scientist and cognitive psychologist, whose primary research interest was decision-making within organizations and is best known for the theories of "bounded rationality" and "satisficing". He received the Nobel Prize in Economics in 1978 and the Turing Award in 1975, his research was noted for its interdisciplinary nature and spanned across the fields of cognitive science, computer science, public administration and political science. He was at Carnegie Mellon University for most of his career, from 1949 to 2001. Notably, Simon was among the pioneers of several modern-day scientific domains such as artificial intelligence, information processing, decision-making, problem-solving, organization theory, complex systems, he was among the earliest to analyze the architecture of complexity and to propose a preferential attachment mechanism to explain power law distributions. Herbert Alexander Simon was born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin on June 15, 1916.
Simon's father, Arthur Simon, was a Jewish electrical engineer who came to the United States from Germany in 1903 after earning his engineering degree at Technische Hochschule Darmstadt. An inventor, Arthur was an independent patent attorney. Simon's mother, Edna Marguerite Merkel, was an accomplished pianist whose ancestors came from Prague and Cologne. Simon's European ancestors were piano makers and vintners. Like his father, Simon's mother came from a family with Jewish and Catholic backgrounds. Simon attended Milwaukee Public Schools, where he developed an interest in science and established himself as an atheist. While attending middle school, Simon wrote a letter to "the editor of the Milwaukee Journal defending the civil liberties of atheists". Unlike most children, Simon's family introduced him to the idea that human behavior could be studied scientifically. Through Harold's books on economics and psychology, Simon discovered social science. Among his earliest influences, Simon cited Norman Angell for his book The Great Illusion and Henry George for his book Progress and Poverty.
While attending high school, Simon joined the debate team, where he argued "from conviction, rather than cussedness" in favor of George's single tax. In 1933, Simon entered the University of Chicago, following his early influences, decided to study social science and mathematics. Simon was interested in studying biology but chose not to pursue the field because of his "color-blindness and awkwardness in the laboratory". At an early age, Simon learned he was color blind and discovered the external world is not the same as the perceived world. While in college, Simon focused on political science and economics. Simon's most important mentor was an econometrician and mathematical economist. Simon received both his B. A. and his Ph. D. in political science from the University of Chicago, where he studied under Harold Lasswell, Nicolas Rashevsky, Rudolf Carnap, Henry Schultz, Charles Edward Merriam. After enrolling in a course on "Measuring Municipal Governments," Simon became a research assistant for Clarence Ridley, the two co-authored Measuring Municipal Activities: A Survey of Suggested Criteria for Appraising Administration in 1938.
Simon's studies led him to the field of organizational decision-making, which became the subject of his doctoral dissertation. After graduating with his undergraduate degree, Simon obtained a research assistantship in municipal administration which turned into a directorship at the University of California, Berkeley. From 1942 to 1949, Simon was a professor of political science and served as department chairman at Illinois Institute of Technology in Chicago. There, he began participating in the seminars held by the staff of the Cowles Commission who at that time included Trygve Haavelmo, Jacob Marschak, Tjalling Koopmans, he thus began an in-depth study of economics in the area of institutionalism. Marschak brought Simon in to assist in the study he was undertaking with Sam Schurr of the "prospective economic effects of atomic energy". From 1949 to 2001, Simon was a faculty at Carnegie Mellon. In 1949, Simon became a professor of administration and chairman of the Department of Industrial Management at Carnegie Tech.
Simon also taught psychology and computer science in the same university. Seeking to replace the simplified classical approach to economic modeling, Simon became best known for his theory of corporate decision in his book Administrative Behavior. In this book he based his concepts with an approach that recognized multiple factors that contribute to decision making, his organization and administration interest allowed him to not only serve three times as a university department chairman, but he played a big part in the creation of the Economic Cooperation Administration in 1948. S. government, serving on President Lyndon Johnson's Science Advisory Committee, the National Academy of Science. Simon has made a great number of contributions to applications; because of this, his work can be found in a number of economic literary works, making contributions to areas such as mathematical economics including theorem, human rationality, behavioral study of firms, theory of casual ordering, the analysis of the parameter identification problem in econometrics.
Administrative Behavior, first published in 1947, updated
Žrnovo is a village on the island of Korčula in Croatia. Korčula is an island in the on the Dalmatian coast of the Adriatic Sea and administratively belongs to the Dubrovnik–Neretva County of Croatia, it has a population of 1,308 residents. The village is situated on the D118 road. Žrnovo is one of the oldest settlements on the island and is made up of four hamlets - Prvo Selo, Brdo and Postrana. The village has numerous small churches; the well-known Croatian writer and academic Petar Šegedin was born in Žrnovo. Kumpanija Korčula Where is Zrnovo on map? Zrnovo.com
Heisei Rider vs. Shōwa Rider: Kamen Rider Taisen feat. Super Sentai is a Japanese film featuring a crossover within the Kamen Rider Series, as well as the Super Sentai series. Scheduled for release on March 29, 2014, characters from all of the Kamen Rider Series, as far back as 1971's Kamen Rider up through the airing series Kamen Rider Gaim will appear, with many of the original actors reprising their roles, including Kamen Rider's Hiroshi Fujioka; the film serves as a 15th anniversary commemoration of the Heisei period run of the Kamen Rider Series. The film features a battle between the Kamen Riders from the Shōwa period of Japanese history with the Kamen Riders from the Heisei period, orchestrated by the evil Kamen Rider Fifteen of the Badan Empire who has the powers of the 15 Heisei Kamen Riders at his disposal; some warriors of the Super Sentai Series enter the fray in the film's climax scene. In the lead up to the film, Toei allowed fans to vote on who would win in the film's climactic battle: the Shōwa Riders or the Heisei Riders.
On opening day, it was revealed that the Heisei Riders won the vote by a narrow margin, but the ending with the Shōwa Riders winning will be featured on the home video release. On opening weekend, the weekly broadcasts of ToQger and Gaim were replaced by a one-hour special titled "Ressha Sentai ToQger vs. Kamen Rider Gaim: Spring Break Combined Special", serving as a prequel to the events of the film that explains the ToQgers' connection, the cause of the war, the involvement of Ambassador Darkness and the Badan Empire; the film opens with Zawame City ravaged by a fight between the Heisei Riders and the Shōwa Riders, before going back in time to the week before, when workers from the Yggdrasill Corporation are dragged by an unknown force to underground. Upon hearing rumors about it, Kouta Kazuraba investigates the area with his friend Mai Takatsukasa, just to fall into a hole as well and find themselves in an underground, alternate version of the city; the two find a boy called Shu, who has the power to revert things and is certain that he has something important to do, but he does not remember what it is.
Kouta and Mai bring the boy to the surface and Takeshi Hongo appears demanding them to hand him over, when soldiers from the Underground Badan Empire appear to kidnap him as well and Takeshi transforms into Kamen Rider 1 to allow Kouta and Shu to escape. Badan launches an attack on the surface, Armored Riders Baron and Zangetsu Shin appear to fight back alongside Kouta, who transforms into Armored Rider Gaim as well to protect his friends. However, Gaim is attacked by Kamen Rider Fifteen, seeking the boy and possesses a Lockseed that allows him to transform into the Rider Arms of the 15 Heisei Riders, when Kamen Riders 1, 2, V3 appear to fight him, Shu uses his powers to escape with Gaim and Mai. Kouta and Mai take Shu to Drupers where they meet Tsukasa Kadoya, Narutaki appears before them as well, affirming that the fifteen Heisei Riders must join forces to stop the Badan Empire, before leaving, warns them that asking for the Shōwa Riders help is useless as they will refuse to cooperate with them.
Tsukasa departs to gather the other Kamen Riders with Kaito Kumon, while Kouta stays behind to take care of Shu. The first Rider they contact is Shotaro Hidari, who refuses to hear their plea before he finishes his job to search for some lost pets. Leaving Kaito behind to help Shotaro with his errand, Tsukasa contacts Takumi Inui who refuses to help, claiming that his days as a Kamen Rider are over. Kamen Rider Fifteen appears to attack them, Tsukasa transforms into Kamen Rider Decade to fight him, allowing Takumi and himself to escape harm; some time in a ramen shop, Takumi involves himself in an incident where a wounded runaway criminal holds Mari, a high school girl, hostage. Keisuke Jin appears and heals his wounds before convincing him to release Mari and surrender to the police. Takumi follows Jin to his clinic, where he helps him tend to another patient. Takumi confides in Jin about how he is haunted by the death of his friend Masato Kusaka and Jin convinces him to stay at his clinic for a while.
The next day and Mari are attacked by the Badan Empire. In order to protect her, Takumi decides to fight again as Kamen Rider Faiz, defeating them, but in turn, Jin reveals himself as Kamen Rider X, attacking and defeating Faiz before claiming that he must find his resolve by himself. Meanwhile, Tsukasa convinces Shotaro to listen to his request, asks him about Shu. Elsewhere, Shu remembers his past and leads Kouta to his house, where it is revealed that Shu has been dead the whole time. Just before his death, he had a fight with his mother, he now wishes to see her one last time to make amends with her. Kamen Rider Fifteen appears to take Shu with him, Kouta learns that he is Shu's father Ren Aoi. Aoi reveals that the Badan Empire intends to use Shu's powers to power up a machine known as the Mega Reverse, which can make the dead return to life while killing the living, allowing his son to come back to life. While Kamen Rider Gaim fights Kamen Rider Fifteen, Kamen Rider Decade appears and takes Shu to see his mother, but General Jark stands on his way.
Kamen Riders Black and Black RX appear to defeat Jark before turning to fight Kamen Rider Decade as well, but Shotaro appears to fight them instead as Kamen Rider Joker and allows Tsukasa to keep escorting the boy. Kamen Rider Baron appears to assist Kamen Rider Joker against the Shōwa Riders while Tsukasa takes Shu to the lighthouse