1918 United Kingdom general election
The 1918 United Kingdom general election was called after the Armistice with Germany which ended the First World War, was held on Saturday, 14 December 1918. The governing coalition, under Prime Minister David Lloyd George, sent letters of endorsement to candidates who supported the coalition government; these were nicknamed "Coalition Coupons", led to the election being known as the "coupon election". The result was a massive landslide in favour of the coalition, comprising the Conservatives and Coalition Liberals, with massive losses for Liberals who were not endorsed. Nearly all the Liberal M. P.s without coupons were defeated, although party leader H. H. Asquith managed to return to Parliament in a by-election, it was the first general election to include on a single day all eligible voters of the United Kingdom, although the vote count was delayed until 28 December so that the ballots cast by soldiers serving overseas could be included in the tallies. It resulted in a landslide victory for the coalition government of David Lloyd George, who had replaced H. H. Asquith as Prime Minister in December 1916.
They were both Liberals and continued to battle for control of the party, fast losing popular support and never regained power. It was the first general election to be held after enactment of the Representation of the People Act 1918, it was thus the first election in which women over the age of 30, all men over the age of 21, could vote. All women and many poor men had been excluded from voting. Women showed enormous patriotism, supported the coalition candidates, it was the first parliamentary election in which women were able to stand as candidates following the Parliament Act 1918, believed to be one of the shortest Acts of Parliament given Royal Assent. The Act was passed shortly, it followed a report by Law Officers that the Great Reform Act 1832 had specified parliamentary candidates had to be male and that the Representation of the People Act passed earlier in the year did not change that. One women, Nina Boyle, had presented herself for a by election earlier in the year in Keighley but had been turned down by the returning officer on technical grounds.
The election was noted for the dramatic result in Ireland, which showed clear disapproval of government policy. The Irish Parliamentary Party were completely wiped out by the Irish republican party Sinn Féin, who vowed in their manifesto to establish an independent Irish Republic, they refused to take their seats in Westminster, instead forming a breakaway government and declaring Irish independence. The Irish War of Independence began soon after the election. Lloyd George's coalition government was supported by the majority of the Liberals and Bonar Law's Conservatives. However, the election saw a split in the Liberal Party between those who were aligned with Lloyd George and the government and those who were aligned with Asquith, the party's official leader. On 14 November it was announced that Parliament, sitting since 1910 and had been extended by emergency wartime action, would dissolve on 25 November, with elections on 14 December. Following confidential negotiations over the summer of 1918, it was agreed that certain candidates were to be offered the support of the Prime Minister and the leader of the Conservative Party at the next general election.
To these candidates a letter, known as the Coalition Coupon, was sent, indicating the government's endorsement of their candidacy. 159 Liberal, 364 Conservative, 20 National Democratic and Labour, 2 Coalition Labour candidates received the coupon. For this reason the election is called the Coupon Election.80 Conservative candidates stood without a coupon. Of these, 35 candidates were Irish Unionists. Of the other non-couponed Conservative candidates, only 23 stood against a Coalition candidate; the Labour Party, led by William Adamson, fought the election independently, as did those Liberals who did not receive a coupon. The election was not chiefly fought over what peace to make with Germany, although those issues played a role. More important was the voters' evaluation of Lloyd George in terms of what he had accomplished so far and what he promised for the future, his supporters emphasised. Against his strong record in social legislation, he called for making "a country fit for heroes to live in".
This election was known as a khaki election, due to the immediate postwar setting and the role of the demobilised soldiers. The coalition won the election with the Conservatives the big winners, they were the largest party in the governing majority. Lloyd George remained Prime Minister, despite the Conservatives outnumbering his pro-coalition Liberals; the Conservatives welcomed his leadership on foreign policy as the Paris Peace talks began a few weeks after the election. An additional 47 Conservatives, 23 of whom were Irish Unionists, won without the coupon but did not act as a separate block or oppose the government except on the issue of Irish independence. While most of the pro-coalition Liberals were re-elected, Asquith's faction was reduced to just 36 seats and lost all their leaders from parliament. Nine of these MPs subsequently joined the Coalition Liberal group; the remainder became bitter enemies of Lloyd George. The Labour Party increased its vote share and surpassed the total votes of either Liberal party.
Labour became the Official Opposition for the first time, but they lacked an official leader and so the Leader of the Opposition for the next fourteen months was the stand-in Liberal leader Donald Maclean (Asquith
South East England
South East England is the most populous of the nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes. It consists of Berkshire, East Sussex, the Isle of Wight, Oxfordshire and West Sussex; as with the other regions of England, apart from Greater London, the south east has no elected government. It is the third largest region of England, with an area of 19,096 km2, is the most populous with a total population of over eight and a half million; the headquarters of the region's governmental bodies are in Guildford, the region contains seven cities: Brighton and Hove, Chichester, Portsmouth and Winchester, though other major settlements include Reading and Milton Keynes. Its proximity to London and connections to several national motorways have led to South East England becoming an economic hub, with the largest economy in the country outside the capital, it is the location of Gatwick Airport, the UK's second-busiest airport, its coastline along the English Channel provides numerous ferry crossings to mainland Europe.
The region is known for its countryside, which includes the North Downs and the Chiltern Hills as well as two national parks: the New Forest and the South Downs. The River Thames flows through the region and its basin is known as the Thames Valley, it is the location of a number of internationally known places of interest, such as HMS Victory in Portsmouth, Cliveden in Buckinghamshire, Thorpe Park and RHS Wisley in Surrey, Blenheim Palace in Oxfordshire, Windsor Castle in Berkshire, Leeds Castle, the White Cliffs of Dover and Canterbury Cathedral in Kent, Brighton Pier and Hammerwood Park in East Sussex, Wakehurst Place in West Sussex. The region has many universities. South East England is host to various sporting events, including the annual Henley Royal Regatta, Royal Ascot and The Derby, sporting venues include Wentworth Golf Club and Brands Hatch; some of the events of the 2012 Summer Olympics were held in the south east, including the rowing at Eton Dorney and part of the cycling road race in the Surrey Hills.
At Eartham Pit, Boxgrove near Halnaker in West Sussex in December 1993, the oldest human remains in the UK – a tibia bone and a pair of lower incisor teeth – were found. An Acheulean hand axe was found. Bones of a Megalosaurus were found at a slate quarry at Stonesfield in Oxfordshire and named in 1824: it is now at Oxford University Museum of Natural History. In 1822 an Iguanodon was found at Whitemans Green near West Sussex; the Meonhill Vineyard, near Old Winchester Hill in east Hampshire on the South Downs south of West Meon on the A32, was the site of where the Romano-British grew Roman grapes. The Ridgeway runs through Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire and is Britain's oldest road; the post office at Shipton-under-Wychwood in Oxfordshire, in the Cotswolds, is the oldest still in use in England, built in 1845. The first British Grand Prix was held in 1926 at Brooklands, the world's first purpose-built motor circuit built in 1907 by Sir Hugh F. Locke-King, the land owner. Much of the Battle of Britain was fought in this region in Kent.
RAF Bomber Command was based at High Wycombe. RAF Medmenham at Danesfield House, west of Marlow in Buckinghamshire, was important for aerial reconnaissance. Operation Corona, based at RAF Kingsdown, was implemented to confuse German night fighters with native German-speakers, coordinated by the RAF Y Service. Bletchley Park in north Buckinghamshire was the principal Allied centre for codebreaking; the Colossus computer, arguably the world's first, began working on Lorentz codes on 5 February 1944, with Colossus 2 working from June 1944. The site was chosen, among other reasons, because it is at the junction of the Varsity Line and the West Coast Main Line; the Harwell computer, now at the National Museum of Computing at Bletchley, was built in 1949 and is believed to be the oldest working digital computer in the world. John Wallis of Kent, introduced the symbol for infinity, the standard notation for powers of numbers in 1656. Thomas Bayes was an important statistician from Tunbridge Wells. Sir David N. Payne at the University of Southampton's Optoelectronics Research Centre invented the erbium-doped fibre amplifier, a type of optical amplifier, in the mid-1980s, which became essential for the internet.
Henry Moseley at Oxford in 1913 discovered his Moseley's law of X-ray spectra of chemical elements that enabled him to be the first to assign the correct atomic number to elements in periodic table. Carbon fibre was invented in 1963 at the RAE in Farnborough by a team led by William Watt; the Apollo LCG space-suit cooling system originated from work done at RAE Farnborough in the early 1960s. Donald Watts Davies, who went to grammar school in Portsmouth, took over from Alan Turing in developing Britain's early computers, invented packet switching in the late 1960s at the National Physical Laboratory in Teddington. Packet-switching was taken up by the Americans to form the ARPANET. The
The Austin 7 is an economy car, produced from 1922 until 1939 in the United Kingdom by Austin. It was nicknamed the "Baby Austin" and was at that time one of the most popular cars produced for the British market and sold well abroad, its effect on the British market was similar to that of the Model T Ford in the US, replacing most other British economy cars and cyclecars of the early 1920s. It was licensed and copied by companies all over the world; the first BMW car, the BMW Dixi, was a licensed Austin 7, as were the original American Austins. In France they were sold as Rosengarts. In Japan, Nissan used the 7 design as the basis for their first cars, although not under licence; this led to a 1952 agreement for Nissan to build and sell Austins in Japan under the Austin name. Many Austin 7s were rebuilt as "specials" after the Second World War, including the first race car built by Bruce McLaren, the first Lotus, the Mark I; such was the power of the Austin 7 name that the company re-used it for early versions of the A30 in 1951 and Mini in 1959.
Until the First World War Austin built large cars, but in 1909 they sold a single-cylinder small car built by Swift of Coventry called the Austin 7 hp. After this they returned to bigger cars. In 1920 Sir Herbert Austin commenced working on the concept of a smaller car to meet the needs of young families aspiring to own an affordable motor car; this idea was spurred on by the introduction of the Horsepower Tax in 1921. His design concept marked a departure from his company's conservative motoring past and Austin received considerable opposition from his board of directors and creditors; because the company was in receivership Austin decided to carry out the project himself on his own account and in 1921 hired an 18-year-old draughtsman, Stanley Edge, from the Austin factory at Longbridge, Birmingham to aid in the drawing of detailed plans. This work was carried out in the billiard room of Austin's Lickey Grange home. Edge convinced Austin to use a small four-cylinder engine; the original side valve engine design featured a capacity of 696cc giving a RAC rating of 7.2 hp, the cast cylinder block featured a detachable head and was mounted on an aluminium crankcase.
The crankshaft used the big-ends were splash lubricated. Edge carried out the design of other mechanical components such as the three speed gearbox and clutch assembly. Austin was responsible for styling the Seven's design, influenced by the design of the Peugeot Quadrilette; the "A" frame chassis design was believed to have been influenced by the design of an American truck used in the Longbridge factory in the early 1920s. The design was completed in 1922 and three prototypes were constructed in a special area of the Longbridge factory, announced to the public in July 1922. Austin had put a large amount of his own money into the design and patented many of its innovations in his own name. In return for his investment he was paid a royalty of two guineas, on every car sold. Nearly 2,500 cars were made in the first year of production, not as many as hoped, but within a few years the "big car in miniature" had wiped out the cyclecar industry and transformed the fortunes of the Austin Motor Co.
By 1939 when production ended, 290,000 cars and vans had been made. The Austin 7 was smaller than the Ford Model T; the wheelbase was only 6 ft 3 inches, the track only 40 inches. It was lighter – less than half the Ford's weight at 794 pounds; the engine required for adequate performance was therefore reduced and the 747 cc sidevalve was quite capable with a modest 10 hp output. The chassis took the form of an "A" with the engine mounted between the channel sections at the narrow front end; the rear suspension was by quarter elliptic springs cantilevered from the rear of the chassis while at the front the beam axle had a centrally mounted half elliptic transverse spring. Early cars did not have any shock absorbers. Brakes were on all wheels but at first the front brakes were operated by the handbrake and the rear by the footbrake, becoming coupled in 1930. In late 1931 the chassis was lengthened by 6" with a corresponding increase in the rear track. Steering is by wheel mechanism; the original 1922 four-cylinder Austin Seven engine had a bore of 2.125" and stroke of 3", giving a capacity of 696 cc and RAC rating of 7.2 hp.
From March 1923 the bore was increased to 2.2" giving 10.5 hp. The side-valve engine was composed of an aluminium crankcase, cast iron cylinder block and cast iron cylinder head. Cooling was by thermosiphon, without a water pump, the dynamo was driven from the timing gears; the big end bearings were lubricated by jets from an oil gallery in the crankcase, the oil striking the crankshaft webs which were drilled accordingly. The journal diameter was 1.125". The three bearing engine used a white metal centre bearing; the splash-lubricated crankshaft at first ran in two bearings changing to three in 1936. An electric starter was fitted from November 1923; the early cars used magneto ignition, but this was changed to coil in 1928. The 3-speed and reverse gearbox was integral with the engine, had a variety of ratios depending on application. A four-speed gearbox was introduced in 1932 and in 1933 synchromesh was added to third and top ratios extending to second gear in 1934; the back axle was of spiral bevel type with ratios between 4.4:1 and 5.6:1.
A short torque tube ran forward from the differential housing to a bearing and bracke
Penicuik is a town and former burgh in Midlothian, lying on the west bank of the River North Esk. It lies on the A701 midway between Peebles, east of the Pentland Hills, its population at the 2011 census was 15,926 computed according to the 2010 definition of the locality. The town was developed as a planned village in 1770 by Sir James Clerk of Penicuik, it became a burgh in 1867. The town was well known for its paper mills, the last of which closed in 2004. More the town was home to the Edinburgh Crystal works. Penicuik has Penicuik High School and Beeslack Community High School. Crystal FM is the Community Radio Station serving Penicuik & S W Midlothian on 107.4FM. The town's name is pronounced'Pennycook' and is derived from Pen Y Cog, meaning "Hill of the Cuckoo" in the Old Brythonic language. Penicuik is the biggest settlement in Midlothian. Near Penicuik is Glencorse Parish Kirk, which formed part of the inspiration for Robert Louis Stevenson's Kidnapped; some of the streets nearby are named after its sequel, Catriona.
Penicuik is home to the Royal Highland Fusiliers, 2nd Battalion The Royal Regiment of Scotland, garrisoned in Glencorse Barracks. Penicuik is twinned with the town of L'Isle-sur-la-Sorgue in France. In 1296 Thomas Rymer's Foedera mentions a "Walter Edgar a person of Penicok south of Edenburgh", which logically can only be what is now called Penicuik. Penycook appears as the name on John Adair's map of 1682; the ruined old parish church, in the centre of the graveyard, dates from the late 17th century. The site of Penicuik was home to the paper mill established by Agnes Campbell in 1709. A monument in the churchyard reads "1737, Annabel Millar spouse to Thomas Rutherford Papermaker at Pennycuik". Around 1770, the arrival of the Cowan family, their expansion of the paper mill, led to the need for homes for their workers; the hamlet of Penicuik was expanded as a planned town by Sir James Clerk of Penicuik, the builder of nearby Penicuik House, by 1800 the population had risen to 1,700. Penicuik was the site of a prison camp for French prisoners during the Napoleonic Wars.
The former camp is now the site of a housing development in Valleyfield. A monument dated 1830 by the River Esk commemorates "the mortal remains of 309 prisoners of war who died 1811–14", it was erected by owner of the paper mill, whose house overlooked the burial site. Penicuik hosted the inaugural Grand Match in curling, between the north and the south of Scotland, in 1847; this took place on the "high pond" on the estate of Penicuik House, not the "low pond", still used for curling on rare occasions. The town became a burgh in 1867. In the oldest part of Penicuik, surrounding the town centre and to the south of the former POW camp, crossing the river Esk is Pomathorn Bridge, once a toll bridge and the main route between Edinburgh to the north and the Scottish Borders to the south; as such Penicuik has a number of ancient travellers' inns, including The Crown, the Royal. Because of their location on such a busy caravan route, both these public houses advertise the patronage of many characters from Scottish 18th-century history, including alleged visits from Burke and Hare and Bonnie Prince Charlie.
The Cowan Instituite in the town centre was funded by the Cowan family and designed by Campbell Douglas in 1893. The town, whilst architecturally undistinguished, contains two masterpieces by Frederick Thomas Pilkington: the South Church (originally the United Free Church, of 1862; the Penicuik war memorial was designed by Sir Robert Lorimer and dates from 1920. There are six primary schools in Penicuik, Cuiken Primary, Cornbank St James Primary, Sacred Heart Primary, Strathesk Primary, Glencorse Primary and Mauricewood Primary. There are two high schools, Penicuik High School and Beeslack High School. Paper-making is thought to have started here in 1709; the best firm evidence of early paper-making lies in the parish churchyard, where the grave of Thomas Rutherford, dated 1735, describes him as "papermaker". There were at least two established paper-mills in the town. In 1776 Charles Cowan a grocer in Leith, established the Cowan Valleyfield Mills. In 1796, Cowan brought in Alexander Cowan, to manage the mill.
An adjacent corn mill was purchased in 1803, becoming known as Bank Mill after he converted it to produce the paper on which banknotes were printed. The Valleyfield Mills were used as a prisoner-of-war camp from March 1811 until September 1814 referred to as the Napoleonic War but more at this period being the Peninsular War. In 1830 Cowan erected a monument to memory of 309 prisoners who died here to the north side of the mills. Apart from a small mill chapel and school, today the monument is all that survives and the mills themselves have gone. Only the road names now echo this part of the town's history. Paper was produced at Eskmill which has become a site for private housing; the Dalmore paper mill on the North Esk river at Auchendinny closed in 2004. Penicuik experiences a maritime climate with mild winters; the town's somewhat elevated position means it is more susceptible to snowfall than nearby Edinburgh. Temperature extremes since 1960 range from 30.2 °C during July 1983 to −19
Southbank is an inner urban neighbourhood of Melbourne, Australia, 1 km south of the Melbourne central business district. Its local government area are the cities of Port Phillip. At the 2016 Census, Southbank had a population of 18,709, its southernmost area is considered part of the central business district of the city. Southbank is bordered to the north by the Yarra River, to the east by St Kilda Road. Southbank's southern and western borders are bounded by Dorcas Street, Kings Way, the West Gate Freeway and Montague Street. Southbank was an industrial area and part of South Melbourne, it was transformed into a densely populated district of high rise apartment and office buildings beginning in the early 1990s, as part of an urban renewal program. With the exceptions of the cultural precinct along St Kilda Road, few buildings built before this time were spared by redevelopment. Today, Southbank is dominated by high-rise development, it is one of the primary business centres in Greater Melbourne, being the headquarters of Treasury Wine Estates, Crown Limited, Incitec Pivot, The Herald & Weekly Times, as well as regional offices of many major corporations, in a cluster of towers with over 340,000 square metres of office space in 2008.
It is one of the most densely populated areas of Melbourne, with a large cluster of apartment towers, including Australia's tallest tower measured to its highest floor, the Eureka Tower. Southbank Promenade and Southgate Restaurant and Shopping Precinct, on the southern bank of the Yarra River, extending to Crown Casino, is one of Melbourne's major entertainment precincts. Southgate's landmark Ophelia sculpture by Deborah Halpern has been used to represent Melbourne in tourism campaigns. Before European settlement, the area now called South Melbourne was a series of low lying swamps inhabited by Aboriginal tribes. From European settlement the area, now Southbank consisted of some old factories and wharves built between the 1860s–1920s when the area was part of the first port of Melbourne, it had several bridges connecting it to the city, the first being the original Princes Bridge and the Sandridge Bridge, part of the Port Melbourne railway line from 1888 to 1987. The Arts Centre precinct opened in the 1980s on former parkland, once used as an amusement park and featured the Southgate Fountain.
The area was the subject of urban renewal in early 1990s. In part, this was aimed at stimulating development in a period when Melbourne was experiencing an acute economic downturn during the global recession on 1991–92. Denton Corker Marshall designed and oversaw the original Southbank Promenade in 1990, which paved the way for development of apartments. Southgate, Sheraton Towers and new tall office buildings for The Herald & Weekly Times Ltd and IBM were built along with an award-winning pedestrian footbridge at about the same time in late 1992, combined with a new Sunday arts and crafts market, attracted locals and tourists to the area. At the eastern end of the area is the Victorian Arts Centre. Since the pylon underneath the award-winning Southbank Pedestrian Bridge has been utilised and is now home to Ponyfish Island. Further buildings including the Esso headquarters were built between 1992 and 1995. Development expanded along the Yarra River westward, with the Melbourne Convention & Exhibition Centre in 1996 and Crown Casino in 1997, stimulating the first residential towers.
In 2001, the boutique "Melburnian" apartments, designed by Bates Smart, were one of the first to be aimed at the owner occupier market and included the most expensive penthouse sold in Melbourne at the time. Clarendon Towers attracted the owner occupiers. Beginning with Southbank Towers in 1997, Central Equity began a swathe of apartment towers. In 2002 the neighbouring Yarra's Edge precinct of the new Melbourne Docklands began to kick off; the arts precinct was extended with the construction of the award-winning buildings for the Australian Centre for Contemporary Art in 2002 and the Victorian College of the Arts school of drama. At around the same time a new headquarters for the State Emergency Service was built. Central Equity continued construction of several blocks of apartment buildings on much of the Southbank land, which it had acquired including Riverside Place, The Summit, Victoria Tower, Melbourne Tower and City Tower. Central Equity apartments are aimed at both the owner occupier and rental market with management provided by Melbourne Inner City Management, a owned subsidiary of Central Equity.
With a boom in apartment building and the success of the Melburnian, the areas closer to the river began to attract developers. The 91 floor Eureka Tower was begun in 2002, aimed at being the tallest residential tower in the world and was completed in 2006; as part of the initial construction of Southgate, St Johns Lutheran Church relocated from the land, now the site of the Herald Sun building a few metres up City Road, to 20 City Road, serves the Southbank community as a church and spiritual centre. The Church can be accessed either from the Southgate Shopping complex; the Queensbridge Precinct began development in 2005 with Freshwater Place. A plaza linked to the north bank and Flinders Street railway station via a pedestrian and cycle path developed from the Sandridge Bridge; the disused bridge was opened to the public on 12 March 2006, just in time for the 2006 Commonwealth Games. The Northbank promenade was completed in 2006 to link the sections. An increasing number of corporations began opening their offices in Southbank.
PricewaterhouseCoopers relocated their office from Spring Street to Freshwater Place in 2005. Other names on the list include Fuj
The Wolseley Sheep Shearing Machine Company
The Wolseley Sheep Shearing Machine Company Limited was a London-incorporated public listed company created to capitalize on a sheep-shearing machinery business established by Frederick Wolseley in Australia. Frederick Wolseley's innovations to sheep shearing machinery revolutionised the entire wool industry; the wool industry was much reduced by the advent of synthetic textiles. Wolseley Sheep Shearing Machine Company was obliged to diversify into heating equipment building materials, its name and business has continued, supplemented since 1982 by Ferguson Enterprises, a large American supplier of building materials. A Jersey holding company was set up in 2017 named Ferguson plc and under that name and ownership the original Wolseley business remains listed on the London Stock Exchange and a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index; the British and Canadian operations are still called Wolseley. Ferguson plc's global headquarters is in Switzerland; the English business was founded by Frederick York Wolseley in London in 1889 and a company was incorporated there with a capital of £200,000 to better realize the potential of his sheep shearing invention patented in March 1877.
Herbert Austin, who had worked on the product's development in Melbourne Australia from 1887, was appointed its manager and received a share of its equity. Wolseley, owner of a large sheep station, had set up a business of the same name in Sydney, Australia, in 1887, he manufactured the sheep shearing machinery by assembling bought-in components. Impressed by Austin, who managed one of the suppliers, Wolseley employed him at this business, his first sheep shearing machinery was driven by horse power replaced by stationary engines. Following wide demonstrations in eastern Australia and New Zealand in 1887-1888, a woolshed in Louth, N. S. W. was the first to complete a shearing with the machines. Eighteen more woolsheds were equipped with Wolseley's invention in 1888; the Australian incorporation was wound up and the business's ownership transferred to the new London company in 1889 but operations were retained in Australia. During the early 1890s Austin studied Wolseley's shearing machinery in use on a large sheep station and patented several improvements.
By 1893, they were facing a crisis when it was discovered they had sold a large amount of defective machinery, brought about by the failure of local suppliers to meet the required specifications. Austin was sent to England to open a manufacturing operation there. In November 1893 Wolseley and Austin arrived in England, where Austin managed the business from a small workshop in Broad Street, Birmingham. Wolseley, with his Australian pastoral interests, resigned in 1894 because of poor health. Wool was clipped from the sheep's back by hand shears from time immemorial. Wolseley invented and developed the first satisfactory mechanical method using a power source away from the shearer's hand; the first power source was a horse gin connected by belt and pulley and a designed driveshaft to a handpiece held by the shearer. As well as relieving the shearer's hand of the cutting effort, the machine clips the wool at its full length, which doubles or triples its value, it removes the wool in a fleece instead of chopping it into small pieces like the shears.
Sir, -- It may interest some of your readers to know. Before writing about them, it will be as well to say something of hand shearing. Shearing on a sheep station is the one busy time of the year. Amongst these there are sure to be some men who are what is termed rough—that is they do not take off the wool clean, make lots of second cuts, cut the sheep badly. Good shearers make second cuts in the wool when going over the back, in the flank and about the neck. No one who has not seen it would believe the way some sheep are gashed with the shears; every shearer cuts less -- most of them more. Merino ewes are fine in the wool and tender in the skin, it is impossible to do such a number well. For the last five or six years managers have been more exacting. Shearing is worst done work in the colony. Just now it is 15s per 100 sheep; the shearing machines are worked on the principle of a horse clipper. At each shearer's stand there is a wheel, connected with the knife; this part is above the shearer's head, a leather pipe, about an inch in diameter, incloses a piece of sheep gut, which gives the knife 1600 revolutions a minute.
There is a universal joint in the handle of the machine, any one can soon learn to use it. There is a handle at the wheel of each of the driving machines, by which the shearing machine is put in or out of gear. A shearer brings it to his stand. With two or three cuts he has the brisket clean, he runs the machine across the belly, cleans the hind legs and round the tail; the machine
Scotland is a country, part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, by the North Sea to the northeast and by the Irish Sea to the south. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides; the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain; the union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. In 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland enacted a political union to create a United Kingdom.
The majority of Ireland subsequently seceded from the UK in 1922. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland; the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland. The continued existence of legal, educational and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union with England; the Scottish Parliament, a unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, was established in 1999 and has authority over those areas of domestic policy which have been devolved by the United Kingdom Parliament. The head of the Scottish Government, the executive of the devolved legislature, is the First Minister of Scotland. Scotland is represented in the UK House of Commons by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs.
Scotland is a member of the British–Irish Council, sends five members of the Scottish Parliament to the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland is divided into councils. Glasgow City is the largest subdivision in Scotland in terms of population, with Highland being the largest in terms of area. "Scotland" comes from the Latin name for the Gaels. From the ninth century, the meaning of Scotia shifted to designate Gaelic Scotland and by the eleventh century the name was being used to refer to the core territory of the Kingdom of Alba in what is now east-central Scotland; the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass most of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages, as the Kingdom of Alba expanded and came to encompass various peoples of diverse origins. Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period, it is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation.
At the time, Scotland was covered in forests, had more bog-land, the main form of transport was by water. These settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, the first villages around 6,000 years ago; the well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period. Neolithic habitation and ritual sites are common and well preserved in the Northern Isles and Western Isles, where a lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone. Evidence of sophisticated pre-Christian belief systems is demonstrated by sites such as the Callanish Stones on Lewis and the Maes Howe on Orkney, which were built in the third millennium BCE; the first written reference to Scotland was in 320 BC by Greek sailor Pytheas, who called the northern tip of Britain "Orcas", the source of the name of the Orkney islands. During the first millennium BCE, the society changed to a chiefdom model, as consolidation of settlement led to the concentration of wealth and underground stores of surplus food.
The first Roman incursion into Scotland occurred in 79 AD. After the Roman victory, Roman forts were set along the Gask Ridge close to the Highland line, but by three years after the battle, the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands; the Romans erected Hadrian's Wall in northern England and the Limes Britannicus became the northern border of the Roman Empire. The Roman influence on the southern part of the country was considerable, they introduced Christianity to Scotland. Beginning in the sixth century, the area, now Scotland was divided into three areas: Pictland, a patchwork of small lordships in central Scotland; these societies were based on the family unit and had sharp divisions in wealth, although the vast majority were poor and worked full-time in subsistence agriculture. The Picts kept slaves through the ninth century. Gaelic influence over Pictland and Northumbria was facilitated by the large number of Gaelic-speaking clerics working as missionaries. Operating in the sixth ce