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Herbert Chapman

Herbert Chapman was an English association football player and manager. Though he had an undistinguished playing career, he went on to become one of the most successful and influential managers in early 20th-century English football, before his sudden death in 1934; as a player, Chapman played at Football League and non-League levels. His record was unremarkable as a player. Instead, he found success as a manager, first at Northampton Town between 1908 and 1912, whom he led to a Southern League title; this attracted the attention of larger clubs and he moved to Leeds City, where he started to improve the team's fortunes before the First World War intervened. After the war ended, City were implicated in an illegal payments scandal and were disbanded. Chapman was banned from football but appealed, he took over at Huddersfield Town, winning an FA Cup and two First Division titles in the period of four years. In 1925, Arsenal tempted Chapman to join them, he led the club to its first FA Cup success and two First Division titles.

His work at Arsenal resulted in them becoming the dominant team of the 1930s – they would win five League titles in the decade – but he did not live to see them do so, dying from pneumonia in 1934, at the age of 55. Not only credited with turning round the fortunes of both Huddersfield Town and Arsenal, he is regarded as one of the game's first modernisers, he introduced new tactics and training techniques into the English game, as well as championing innovations such as floodlighting, European club competitions and numbered shirts, has received many posthumous honours in recognition. Chapman was born near Rotherham, his father, was a coal miner, but rather than spend his life working down the pit, the young Herbert was bright enough to win a place at Sheffield Technical College, where he studied mining engineering. Chapman was one of eleven children and born into a keen sporting family, with two of his brothers playing professional football; the most successful of these was his younger brother, who played for The Wednesday during the 1900s, winning two League Championships and an FA Cup.

His older brother Thomas played for Grimsby Town, while another brother, Matthew became a director of the same club. Chapman's playing career was that of a typical journeyman, owing to the fact he played as an amateur, he first played as a youth for his local side, Kiveton Park Colliery, winning the Hatchard Cup in 1896 alongside team-mates Walter Wigmore and William Ross. He left the village that summer to join Ashton North End, before moving on to Stalybridge Rovers and Rochdale – all three clubs being members of the Lancashire League. Chapman played at inside right, although he lacked the skill of his brother Harry, he compensated for it with his strength and robustness. In 1898, he moved to Second Division Grimsby Town. Though now playing in the professional Football League, Chapman was still an amateur at this stage and obtained a job with a firm of local solicitors to earn his way. Grimsby started the season poorly – they were near the bottom of the division by Christmas and were beaten 7–0 by Preston North End in the FA Cup, but rallied to finish tenth at the end of the 1898–99 season.

By this time Chapman had been dropped from the team, having been unsuccessfully moved to centre forward, an unfamiliar position for him. He was released by Grimsby and drifted down into non-league football with a brief spell at Swindon Town, playing three games and scoring twice, but had to leave the club as he was unable to find a job in the area, he moved on to see out the season with Sheppey United, who finished bottom of the Southern League in 1899–1900. Chapman finished as United's top scorer but was injured at the end of this season, still unable to find a job. Disheartened, he returned to his home town and turned out for Worksop Town of the Midland League in 1900–01, while resuming his studies, this time at Old Firth College in Sheffield; because of his studies, he played for Worksop's reserves, but in a first-team match against Northampton Town he caught the opposition's eye and they offered him a contract, leading him to turn professional for the first time in 1901. He played for Northampton for the whole 1901–02 season, finishing as top scorer with 14 goals in 22 games for the club.

During that season he had impressed in an FA Cup match against Sheffield United, leading them to offer Chapman a contract at the end of the season. He played 22 matches and scored twice for United, but struggled to keep his place in a team full of internationals, was sold to Notts County for £300 at the end of 1902–03. Chapman turned professional again, but only made seven appearances in two years for County, scoring once. In 1904, Chapman moved back to his old club Northampton Town, playing a season on loan from Notts County, before being transferred permanently in 1905 to Tottenham Hotspur for £70, he scored eleven goals for Spurs in their 1905–06 Southern League campaign. He spent 1906 -- 07 out of the side, scoring just three goals. With the season drawing to a close, he decided that he had had "a good innings" and decided to leave Tottenham and professional football for good, in favour of purs

Bentonville, Arkansas

Bentonville is the ninth-largest city in Arkansas, United States and the county seat of Benton County. The city is centrally located in the county with Rogers adjacent to the east; the city is the world headquarters of Walmart, the world's largest retailer. It is one of the four main cities in the four-county Northwest Arkansas Metropolitan Statistical Area, ranked 109th in terms of population in the United States with 463,204 residents in 2010, according to the United States Census Bureau; the city itself had a population of 35,301 at the 2010 Census, with an estimated population of 51,111 in 2018. The area now known as Bentonville's first known use by humans was as hunting grounds by the Osage Nation who lived in Missouri; the Osage would leave their settlements to hunt in present-day Benton County for months at a time before returning to their families. White settlers first inhabited the area around 1837 and named their settlement "Osage". By this time, the Osage had ceased using the area for hunting, the white settlers began to establish farms.

Upon establishment of Benton County on September 30, 1836, Osage was deemed a suitable site for the county seat, the town square was established as the home of county government the following year. Osage was renamed Bentonville in honor of Thomas Hart Benton, a senator from Missouri who supported Arkansas statehood. Two years after Arkansas received statehood in 1836, thousands of Cherokee people from Georgia passed through Benton County as part of the Trail of Tears route to the Indian Territory in what is now Oklahoma. Although no Civil War battles were fought inside Bentonville, the city was occupied by both armies and saw all of its buildings burned, either by opposing armies or guerrilla outlaws. Bentonville was a staging point for the Confederate army prior to the Battle of Pea Ridge, fought about 12 miles northeast of town, the town saw a brief skirmish just prior to the battle; the city began to rebuild about a decade after incorporation on April 3, 1873, with many of these Reconstruction Era buildings today serving as the oldest structures in Bentonville.

After the war, the area established a vibrant apple industry, with Benton County becoming the leading apple producing county in the nation in 1901. In the 1920s and 1930s the county developed a reputation as a leader in poultry production that continued into the World War II years, which the area still maintains today; the post war economy helped. In 1950, Sam Walton bought the Harrison Variety Store on the Bentonville town square, he remodeled the building and opened "Walton’s 5 and 10 Variety Store" on March 18, 1951. This single store led to the creation of Walmart, the world's largest retailer, which still influences the community today; the late twentieth and early twenty-first century has seen a dramatic reduction in the manufacturing sector in Bentonville, corresponding with an increase in tourism and entertainment focused on the natural setting and outdoor opportunities of the area as well as the Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art, which opened in 2011. This has resulted in Bentonville being the fastest growing city in Arkansas, the larger Northwest Arkansas area one of the fastest growing in the United States.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 31.5 square miles, of which 31.3 square miles is land and 0.19 square miles, or 0.67%, is water. The Northwest Arkansas region consists of three Arkansas counties: Benton and Washington; the area had a population of 347,045 at the 2000 census which had increased to 463,204 by the 2010 Census. The Metropolitan Statistical Area does not consist of the usual principal-city-with-suburbs morphology; the Northwest Arkansas Regional Airport is located to the southwest of Bentonville and is used to connect all of the northwest Arkansas region to the rest of the nation. For more than the last decade, Northwest Arkansas has been one of the fastest-growing regions in the United States. Bentonville lies in the humid subtropical climate zone with influence from the humid continental climate type. Bentonville experiences all four seasons and does receive cold air masses from the north, however some of the Arctic masses are blocked by the higher elevations of the Ozarks.

July is the hottest month of the year, with an average high of 89 °F and an average low of 66 °F. Temperatures above 100 °F are common, with recent temperatures during summer months staying above 100 degrees for several weeks at a time. January is the coldest month with an average high of 46 °F and an average low of 24 °F; the city's highest temperature was 114 °F, recorded in 1954. The lowest temperature recorded was −16 °F, in 1996; as of 2017 Bentonville had a population of 49,298. The racial and ethnic composition of the population was 77.0% non-Hispanic white, 2.4% non-Hispanic black, 1.2% Native American, 5.8% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 3.9% from some other race and 2.5% from two or more races. 8.7 % of the population was Latino of any race. As of the census of 2000, there were 19,730 people, 7,458 households, 5,265 families residing in the city; the city grew in the 1990s. According to the US Census and surrounding communities in Benton County is second in growth for Arkansas and among the 100 fastest-growing counties in the United States.

The population density was 928.9 people per square mile (358

Waltons (band)

Waltons were a Canadian folk rock band, active in the 1990s. The band released three studio albums during their career, won a Juno Award for Best New Group at the Juno Awards of 1994; the band was formed in Regina, Saskatchewan in 1987, by vocalist/guitarist Jason Plumb, bassist Keith Nakonechny and drummer David Cooney. The band was known as "Neurotic Paperboy", before changing to The Waltons, they released two independent demo cassettes,'89 Demonstrations and Demo Sandwich, in 1989 and 1990, before moving to Toronto, Ontario in 1991. They released their debut album, Lik My Trakter independently in 1991; that year, they were nominated for two CFNY-FM CASBY Awards for Most Promising Band and Best Western Canadian Band. They signed to Warner Music Canada, which rereleased Lik My Trakter in 1992. Todd Lumley joined the band that year, playing keyboards and accordion; the album became their commercial breakthrough, spawning the Top 40 hits "Colder Than You", "In the Meantime" and "The Naked Rain", won a CASBY Award for Best Debut Album in 1992.

In 1993, the band toured Canada as an opening act for Barenaked Ladies. In 1994, the band won a Juno Award for Best New Group, as well as a SOCAN Award to mark "In the Meantime" being one of the most-played songs on Canadian radio in the previous year; that year they released the Simple Brain EP, which comprised the title track, which the band had written for the film soundtrack Naked in New York, as well as covers of Simon and Garfunkel's "The Boxer" and Weddings Parties Anything's "Under the Clocks". In 1994, Cooney left the band to pursue other interests, was replaced by Steve Pitkin for the recording of the band's 1995 album Cock's Crow and by Sean Bryson thereafter. Cock's Crow was produced by Michael Phillip Wojewoda, included two songs co-written with Spirit of the West's John Mann and Geoffrey Kelly. Wojewoda won the Juno Award for Producer of the Year for his work on the Waltons' song "End of the World" and Ashley MacIsaac's "Beaton's Delight". In 1998, the band released Empire Hotel.

A live album, was released in 2001, following which the band went on hiatus. Plumb subsequently launched the new band Jason Plumb and the Willing, whose albums included Beauty in This World and Wide Open Music, the latter of which included both new songs and some rerecordings of Waltons songs. On the 2007 Rheostatics tribute album The Secret Sessions, Plumb appeared with Barenaked Ladies on a live version of "Legal Age Life at Variety Store". 89 Demonstrations Demo Sandwich Lik My Trakter Simple Brain Cock's Crow Empire Hotel Liv

Neu-Edingen/Mannheim-Friedrichsfeld station

Neu-Edingen/Mannheim-Friedrichsfeld station is a separation station in the Mannheim district of Friedrichsfeld on the border with the municipality of Edingen-Neckarhausen in the German state of Baden-Württemberg. All rail tracks are in Mannheim, only the station building is located on the territory of the Edingen-Neckarhausen hamlet of Neu-Enghien, it is classified by Deutsche Bahn as a category 3 station. It has been served by the Rhine-Neckar S-Bahn since December 2018. In 1838 the Main-Neckar Railway was planned to connect Frankfurt to Heidelberg; the Bensheim–Heidelberg section was opened together with the branch from Mannheim and thus the whole length of the Main-Neckar Railway was completed on 1 August 1846 in Friedrichsfeld. In order for both cities to be treated a break-of-gauge station had to be built by the Main-Neckar Railway and the Grand Duchy of Baden State Railway. On 1 June 1880 the line from Mannheim-Friedrichsfeld to Schwetzingen was put into operation, exclusively used by freight traffic.

In preparation for it, the station was rebuilt in 1879/80. Electric lighting was installed in Friedrichsfeld station in 1896. In 2016, Mannheim-Friedrichsfeld station was renamed Neu-Edingen/Mannheim-Friedrichsfeld. Friedrichsfeld station has an extensive system of tracks. Five of the seven platform tracks that were available for passenger services are still in use at the “home” platform and two island platforms; the numbering begins on the east side of the station building. Track 1 is the "home" platform in front of the station building. Today, it is used for Regionalbahn services on the Mannheim Hbf–Bensheim route. Track 2 shares an island platform with track 3. Today, it is used by Stadt-Express services towards Frankfurt Hbf via Weinheim, Bensheim and Darmstadt Hbf. Track 3 is a through track and is located on the platform next to track 2; the track is not being used for scheduled passenger services. Track 4 is on the second island platform. Today, it is used for services towards Mannheim Hbf. Track 5 is another through track and is located on the second island platform next to track 4.

It is served by Regionalbahn services from Bensheim to Mannheim and Regionalbahn services beginning in Friedrichsfeld running to Mainz Hbf via Ludwigshafen and Worms. Tracks 6 to 14 are not used for passenger services; the former island platform between tracks 6 and 7 has been removed. The platforms of the Mannheim-Friedrichsfeld station are not barrier-free for the disabled. To get to the platforms of tracks 2 to 5, it is necessary to use an underpass from platform 1. A door of the entrance building leads to a staircase leading to the pedestrian underpass to the platforms. Mannheim-Friedrichsfeld station belongs to the fare zone of the Verkehrsverbund Rhein-Neckar; the first continuous test run from Frankfurt to Heidelberg took place on 27 July 1846. Mannheim-Friedrichsfeld station is now used by Regionalbahn trains from Mannheim towards Bensheim in preparation for the future operations of the Rhine-Neckar S-Bahn as well as Regionalbahn services from Heidelberg to Frankfurt am Main; the station is the starting point of Regionalbahn services via Mannheim to Mainz, which in the weekday peak hour begin or end in Bensheim.

From Monday to Friday, in the morning a Regional-Express service from Frankfurt to Mannheim stops at the station and in the evening a Regional-Express service from Frankfurt to Heidelberg stops at the station. Landesamt für Denkmalpflege Hessen, ed.. Stadt Darmstadt. Kulturdenkmäler in Hessen. Denkmaltopographie Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Braunschweig: Friedr. Vieweg & Sohn Verlagsges. P. 450. ISBN 3-528-06249-5

M-estimator

In statistics, M-estimators are a broad class of extremum estimators for which the objective function is a sample average. Both non-linear least squares and maximum likelihood estimation are special cases of M-estimators; the definition of M-estimators was motivated by robust statistics, which contributed new types of M-estimators. The statistical procedure of evaluating an M-estimator on a data set is called M-estimation. More an M-estimator may be defined to be a zero of an estimating function; this estimating function is the derivative of another statistical function. For example, a maximum-likelihood estimate is the point where the derivative of the likelihood function with respect to the parameter is zero. In many applications, such M-estimators can be thought of as estimating characteristics of the population; the method of least squares is a prototypical M-estimator, since the estimator is defined as a minimum of the sum of squares of the residuals. Another popular M-estimator is maximum-likelihood estimation.

For a family of probability density functions f parameterized by θ, a maximum likelihood estimator of θ is computed for each set of data by maximizing the likelihood function over the parameter space. When the observations are independent and identically distributed, a ML-estimate θ ^ satisfies θ ^ = arg ⁡ max θ or, equivalently, θ ^ = arg ⁡ min θ. Maximum-likelihood estimators have optimal properties in the limit of infinitely many observations under rather general conditions, but may be biased and not the most efficient estimators for finite samples. In 1964, Peter J. Huber proposed generalizing maximum likelihood estimation to the minimization of ∑ i = 1 n ρ, where ρ is a function with certain properties; the solutions θ ^ = arg ⁡ min θ are called M-estimators. Maximum likelihood estimators are thus a special case of M-estimators. With suitable rescaling, M-estimators are special cases of extremum estimators; the function ρ, or its derivative, ψ, can be chosen in such a way to provide the estimator desirable properties when the data are from the assumed distribution, and'not bad' behaviour when the data are generated from a model that is, in some sense, close to the assumed distribution.

M-estimators are solutions, θ, which minimize ∑ i = 1 n ρ. This minimization can always be done directly, it is simpler to differentiate with respect to θ and solve for the root of the derivative. When this differentiation is possible, the M-estimator is said to be of ψ-type. Otherwise, the M-estimator is said to be of ρ-type. In most practical cases, the M-estimators are of ψ-type. For positive integer r, let and be measure spaces. Θ ∈ Θ is a vector of parameters. An M-estimator of ρ-type T is defined through a measurable function ρ: X × Θ → R, it maps a probability distribution F on X to the value T ∈ Θ that minimizes ∫ X ρ d F

Engineering and Research Corporation

Engineering and Research Corporation was started by Henry Berliner in 1930. Berliner was the son of Emile Berliner, who had patented numerous inventions relating to sound and acoustics, pioneer of helicopter development with the experimental Berliner Helicopter; the younger Berliner founded ERCO to produce tools for the manufacture of metal aircraft and propellers. He founded the company in a shed at 2014 5th street NW Washington D. C. Berliner met Fred Weick, an aeronautical engineer, who worked with National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics in cowlings and propellers on a 1926 while developing the propellers for the USS Akron. Weick worked on an experimental aircraft that incorporated the up-to-date safety features. In 1935, the company moved to 6100 Sligo Blvd. In 1936, Weick left NACA to work for ERCO on his "safety airplane". In 1937, Berliner purchased 50 acres of land in Riverdale, Maryland near the College Park Airport and built the large ERCO factory and airstrip. One of ERCO's most significant achievements was the development of the Ercoupe aircraft.

The first experimental model of the Ercoupe was test-flown at College Park airport in 1937. It had a single tail and was known as the "Jeep". In late 1938, ERCO searched unsuccessfully for a suitable engine for its new airplane. ERCO hired Harold Morehouse, former engineer in charge of small engine design at Continental Motors, to design a new engine, he came up with the inverted, in-line I-L 116, which provided good pilot visibility and enhanced aircraft streamlining. ERCO installed the I-L 116 in the prototype Ercoupe Model 310 in 1939; the engine performed well, but ERCO discontinued it when Continental introduced the A-65 engine in 1940, which generated comparable horsepower at half the cost. Construction of the production prototype was completed in 1939, certification by the CAA was completed in 1940; the first Ercoupe, serial No. 1, was owned by George Brinckerhoff, the operator of the College Park Airport, flown there. It now is at the National Space Museum. During World War II, the ERCO factory made several products under contract with the U.

S. government, including gun turrets. ERCO earned an "E" award for excellence in meeting manufacturing goals in its war contracts. In 1947, Berliner decided to leave the aviation industry and sold the drawings, parts and distribution rights for the Ercoupe to Sanders Aviation, although the small aircraft market had fallen into decline. In all, ERCO and Sanders Aviation sold just over 5,000 Ercoupes. In 1948, ERCO started becoming its main line of business. In November 1954, ERCO became part of ACF. "Abandoned & Little-Known Airfields: Maryland: Central Prince George's County area", by Paul Freeman, Abandoned & Little-Known Airfields, retrieved January 12, 2006 "College Park Aviation Museum: History: ERCO", College Park Aviation Museum, retrieved January 12, 2006 "ERCO Ercoupe", by Roger Guillemette, US Centennial of Flight Commission, retrieved January 12, 2006 Historic American Engineering Record No. MD-164, "ERCO Factory, 6501 Lafayette Avenue, Riverdale Park, Prince George's County, MD", 4 photos, 1 photo caption page