Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener

Field Marshal Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, was a senior British Army officer and colonial administrator who won notoriety for his imperial campaigns, most his scorched earth policy against the Boers and his establishment of concentration camps during the Second Boer War in which between 18,000 and 28,000 men and children died from disease epidemics, played a central role in the early part of the First World War. Kitchener was credited in 1898 for winning the Battle of Omdurman and securing control of the Sudan for which he was made Baron Kitchener of Khartoum; as Chief of Staff in the Second Boer War he played a key role in Lord Roberts' conquest of the Boer Republics succeeded Roberts as commander-in-chief – by which time Boer forces had taken to guerrilla fighting and British forces imprisoned Boer civilians in internment camps. His term as Commander-in-Chief of the Army in India saw him quarrel with another eminent proconsul, the Viceroy Lord Curzon, who resigned. Kitchener returned to Egypt as British Agent and Consul-General.

In 1914, at the start of the First World War, Kitchener became Secretary of State for War, a Cabinet Minister. One of the few to foresee a long war, lasting for at least three years, with the authority to act on that perception, he organised the largest volunteer army that Britain had seen, oversaw a significant expansion of materials production to fight on the Western Front. Despite having warned of the difficulty of provisioning for a long war, he was blamed for the shortage of shells in the spring of 1915 – one of the events leading to the formation of a coalition government – and stripped of his control over munitions and strategy. On 5 June 1916, Kitchener was making his way to Russia on HMS Hampshire to attend negotiations with Tsar Nicholas II when the ship struck a German mine 1.5 miles west of Orkney and sank. Kitchener was among 737. Kitchener was born in Ballylongford near Listowel, County Kerry, in Ireland, son of army officer Henry Horatio Kitchener and Frances Anne Chevallier.

His father had only bought land in Ireland, under a scheme to encourage the purchase of land, after selling his commission. They moved to Switzerland where the young Kitchener was educated at Montreux at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich. Pro-French and eager to see action, he joined a French field ambulance unit in the Franco-Prussian War, his father took him back to Britain after he caught pneumonia while ascending in a balloon to see the French Army of the Loire in action. Commissioned into the Royal Engineers on 4 January 1871, his service in France had violated British neutrality, he was reprimanded by the Duke of Cambridge, the commander-in-chief, he served in Mandatory Palestine and Cyprus as a surveyor, learned Arabic, prepared detailed topographical maps of the areas. His brother, Lt. Gen. Sir Walter Kitchener, had entered the army, was Governor of Bermuda from 1908 to 1912. In 1874, aged 24, Kitchener was assigned by the Palestine Exploration Fund to a mapping-survey of the Holy Land, replacing Charles Tyrwhitt-Drake, who had died of malaria.

By an officer in the Royal Engineers, Kitchener joined fellow officer Claude R. Conder. Conder and Kitchener's expedition became known as the Survey of Western Palestine because it was confined to the area west of the Jordan River; the survey collected data on the topography and toponymy of the area, as well as local flora and fauna. The results of the survey were published in an eight-volume series, with Kitchener's contribution in the first three tomes; this survey has had a lasting effect on the Middle East for several reasons: It serves as the basis for the grid system used in the modern maps of Israel and Palestine. For example, the modern border between Israel and Lebanon is established at the point in upper Galilee where Conder and Kitchener's survey stopped. In 1878, having completed the survey of western Palestine, Kitchener was sent to Cyprus to undertake a survey of that newly acquired British protectorate, he became vice-consul in Anatolia in 1879. On 4 January 1883 Kitchener was promoted to captain, given the Turkish rank bimbashi, dispatched to Egypt where he took part in the reconstruction of the Egyptian Army.

Egypt had become a British puppet state, its army led by British officers, although still nominally under the sovereignty of the Khedive and his nominal overlord the Sultan of Turkey. Kitchener became second-in-command of an Egyptian cavalry regiment in February 1883, took part in the failed expedition to relieve Charles George Gordon in the Sudan in late 1884. Fluent in Arabic, Kitchener preferred the company of the Egyptians over the British, the company of no-one over the Egyptians, writing in 1884 that: "I have become such a solitary bird that I think I were happier alone". Kitchener spoke Arabic so well that he was able to effortlessly adopt the dialects of the different Bedouin tribes of Egypt and the Sudan. Promoted to brevet major on 8 October 1884 and to brevet lieutenant-colonel on 15 June 1885, he became the British member of the Zanzibar boundary commission in July 188

Fillmore Township, Fillmore County, Minnesota

Fillmore Township is a township in Fillmore County, United States. The population was 485 at the 2000 census. Fillmore Township was organized in 1858, took its name from Fillmore County. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 34.9 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 485 people, 178 households, 137 families residing in the township; the population density was 13.9 people per square mile. There were 202 housing units at an average density of 5.8/sq mi. The racial makeup of the township was 98.35% White, 0.62% African American, 0.21% Native American, 0.21% Asian, 0.21% from other races, 0.41% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.21% of the population. There were 178 households out of which 34.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 71.9% were married couples living together, 2.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.5% were non-families. 18.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.72 and the average family size was 3.12. In the township the population was spread out with 26.8% under the age of 18, 6.0% from 18 to 24, 31.1% from 25 to 44, 24.5% from 45 to 64, 11.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 110.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 107.6 males. The median income for a household in the township was $40,417, the median income for a family was $43,125. Males had a median income of $25,625 versus $25,156 for females; the per capita income for the township was $18,431. About 4.3% of families and 4.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 1.8% of those under age 18 and 6.3% of those age 65 or over

Pallinsburn House

Pallinsburn House is an 18th-century country house situated at Ford, Northumberland. It is a Grade II* listed building; the house was built about 1763, in a Jacobean style with a three-storey frontage, for John Askew, a younger son of Dr Adam Askew of Storrs Hall. The Askew family occupied the house until it was sold in 1911 to Major Charles Mitchell DSO, the grandson of the wealthy Tyneside shipbuilder, Charles Mitchell. Over the years, Major Mitchell alterations. In 1933 work was begun to remove the third storey of the central block. While this work was carried out, The Mitchells moved to Norham; the house was sold in 2005 together with 1,500 acres for £6.5 million. The contents were sold at auction the following year and realised £840,000; the name of the small river, burn in Scots, is said to derive from Saint Paulinus baptising people of the region. Burke and Burke, A Genealogical and Heraldic Dictionary of the Landed Gentry of Great Britain, 4th ed. Pt. I, 1862, p. 30, Google Books English Heritage: detailed architectural description English Heritage: Images of England