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Yuan Chiung-chiung

Yuan Chiung-chiung is a Taiwanese writer whose family originated in Meishan, China. Yuan wrote poetry, essays and television scripts during the Boudoir literature period for women. Boudoir literature is a form of writing; some of the issues that Yuan focused on are: women's role in family and the workplace, their anxieties, romantic relationships and aspirations. Yuan was inspired by the writings of an influential Chinese writer named Eileen Chang, seen as the leader of the liberation for female Taiwanese writers. Both Yuan and her predecessor Chang wrote love stories; as Yuan exposed the role of women in their families and other aspects of life, the women in her stories accomplished a financial feat. Either they achieved financial independence, or she showed the financial prosperity of the flourishing middle-class, her writings attempt to demonstrate. In contrast to Eileen Chang, who depicted the differences between social classes in China in a negative light, Yuan was raised in a middle-class family and did not show any animosity towards the economical differences in society since the majority of the Taiwanese people have achieved middle-class status in post-war years.

In fact, Yuan enjoyed her middle-class life and showed that appreciation through her literature. Many of Yuan's stories end on a question and the plot is left unresolved, her more recent work deals with young people trying to resolve their inner conflict with an external experience. A Lover's Ear Spring Water Boat 《春水船》 A Sky of One's Own 《自己的天空》 Fantasy Bug Flies Cat Adversity Even-Glow Beyond Words The Old House That Stood for 30 Years A Place of One's Own The Sky's Escape Tales of Taipei The Mulberry Sea 《滄桑》 Empty Seat Sudden Fiction International, Robert, James. New York, NY: 1989, pp 336. Literary Culture in Taiwan, Sung-sheng Yvonne Chang, West-Sussex, NY: 2004, pp 171–175. Yuan Chiung-chiung and the Rage of Eileen Zhang Among Taiwan's Feminine Writers: The Eileen Zhang Phenomenon, Sung-sheng Yvonne Chang

John Nevil Maskelyne

John Nevil Maskelyne was an English stage magician and inventor of the pay toilet, along with other Victorian-era devices. He worked with magicians George Alfred Cooke and David Devant, many of his illusions are still performed today, his book Sharps and Flats: A Complete Revelation of the Secrets of Cheating at Games of Chance and Skill is considered a classic overview of card sharp practices, in 1914 he founded the Occult Committee, a group whose remit was to "investigate claims to supernatural power and to expose fraud". Maskelyne was born in Cheltenham, England, he trained as a watchmaker. Maskelyne became interested in conjuring after watching a stage performance at his local Town Hall by the fraudulent spiritualists, the American Davenport brothers, he saw how the Davenports' spirit cabinet illusion worked, stated to the audience in the theatre that he could recreate their act using no supernatural methods. With the help of a friend, cabinet maker George Alfred Cooke, he built a version of the gigantic cabinet.

Together, they revealed the Davenport Brothers' trickery to the public at a show in Cheltenham in June 1865, sponsored by the 10th Cotswold Rifle Corps to which they belonged. In addition to the pseudo-spiritualist phenomena of the Davenports, they added comedy illusions which included the transformation of Maskelyne and Cooke into an'unprotected female' and a gorilla. Inspired by the acclaim they received for their clever exposure of the deception, the two men repeated their show several times. Following their local success, they branched out taking their show to nearby towns. Encouraged by their results, they decided to become professional magicians and organised tours, building on their initial routines and expanding their programme. At first they struggled to make ends meet but they were saved by a young and inexperienced theatrical agent named William Morton, who saw their show in Liverpool and offered to finance a tour, he engaged them at a weekly wage of £4 10s for Maskelyne and his wife, 50 shillings for Cooke.

Morton ran. He secured for them the Egyptian Hall in Piccadilly, renovated it, put in a new stage and opened at the end of 1873. Morton ended up being their manager for a total of 20 years, he helped them to become established on the national stage including such marathon theatrical engagements as their famous 31-year tenancy at the Egyptian Hall, only ending in 1905 when the Hall was demolished. Maskelyne and Cooke invented. Maskelyne was adept at working out the principles of illusions, one of his best-known being levitation. Levitation is but incorrectly, said to be Jean Eugène Robert-Houdin's illusion, but it was Maskelyne who invented it; the confusion arises because Robert-Houdin invented the illusion "La Suspension Ethéréenne". Levitation is credited to American magician Harry Kellar, who in fact stole the illusion by bribing Maskelyne's technician, Paul Valadon. Upon Cooke's death in February 1905, Maskelyne started a partnership with David Devant. Devant had first joined Maskelyne's team in 1893, when he auditioned as a replacement for Charles Morritt, a conjurer and inventor who had worked with Maskelyne at the Egyptian Hall but who left to set up his own show.

In 1894, Maskelyne wrote the book Sharps and Flats: A Complete Revelation of the Secrets of Cheating at Games of Chance and Skill. This book to this day is considered to be a classic gambling book. What made this book so popular was the fact that it was the first detailed revelation of the secrets of the cardsharps. Other authors, prior to Maskelyne, had written about crooked gambling, but never before had anyone published a work with in-depth, detailed explanation of the secrets of crooked gambling; the first edition of Sharps and Flats was published in New York. When the book entered the public domain, the Gambler's Book Club, from Las Vegas, published the first reprint edition; the book is now available online in the form of a web site, with annotations. In his lifetime, Maskelyne authored several books, but Sharps and Flats is by far his most important literary work and without any doubts the best known of his books. On 29 May 1900, Maskelyne captured the first-ever film of a solar eclipse from the small town of Wadesboro, North Carolina, US.

Maskelyne was a member of The Magic Circle and, like Harry Houdini, tried to dispel the notion of supernatural powers. To this end, in 1914, Maskelyne founded the Occult Committee whose remit was to "investigate claims to supernatural power and to expose fraud". In particular, the committee attempted to prove; the spiritualist Alfred Russel Wallace did not accept that Maskelyne had replicated the feats of the Davenport brothers utilizing natural methods, stated that Maskelyne possessed supernatural powers. Maskelyne's observations of trickery at the Cambridge séance sittings in 1895 were important for the exposure of the medium Eusapia Palladino. Maskelyne's writings that criticized Spiritualism and Theosophy were included in the book The Supernatural? with psychiatrist Lionel Weatherly. It was an early text in the field of anomalistic psychology and offered rational explanations for occult and Spiritualistic practices, paranormal phenomena and religious experiences. In 1910, Maskelyne debated Hiram Maxim in The Strand Magazine on the trickery of the Davenport brothers.

Maskelyne's invention of the door lock for London toilets required the insertion of a penny coin to operate it, leading to the euphemism to "spend a penny". With John Algernon Clarke, Maskelyne invented the Psycho

History of scuba diving

The history of scuba diving is linked with the history of scuba equipment. By the turn of the twentieth century, two basic architectures for underwater breathing apparatus had been pioneered. Closed circuit equipment was more adapted to scuba in the absence of reliable and economical high pressure gas storage vessels. By the mid-twentieth century, high pressure cylinders were available and two systems for scuba had emerged: open-circuit scuba where the diver's exhaled breath is vented directly into the water, closed-circuit scuba where the carbon dioxide is removed from the diver's exhaled breath which has oxygen added and is recirculated. Oxygen rebreathers are depth limited due to oxygen toxicity risk, which increases with depth, the available systems for mixed gas rebreathers were bulky and designed for use with diving helmets; the first commercially practical scuba rebreather was designed and built by the diving engineer Henry Fleuss in 1878, while working for Siebe Gorman in London. His self contained breathing apparatus consisted of a rubber mask connected to a breathing bag, with an estimated 50–60% oxygen supplied from a copper tank and carbon dioxide scrubbed by passing it through a bundle of rope yarn soaked in a solution of caustic potash.

During the 1930s and all through World War II, the British and Germans developed and extensively used oxygen rebreathers to equip the first frogmen. In the U. S. Major Christian J. Lambertsen invented an underwater free-swimming oxygen rebreather. In 1952 he patented a modification of his apparatus, this time named SCUBA, an acronym for "self-contained underwater breathing apparatus," which became the generic English word for autonomous breathing equipment for diving, for the activity using the equipment. After World War II, military frogmen continued to use rebreathers since they do not make bubbles which would give away the presence of the divers; the high percentage of oxygen used by these early rebreather systems limited the depth at which they could be used due to the risk of convulsions caused by acute oxygen toxicity. Although a working demand regulator system had been invented in 1864 by Auguste Denayrouze and Benoît Rouquayrol, the first open-circuit scuba system developed in 1925 by Yves Le Prieur in France was a manually adjusted free-flow system with a low endurance, which limited the practical usefulness of the system.

In 1942, during the German occupation of France, Jacques-Yves Cousteau and Émile Gagnan designed the first successful and safe open-circuit scuba, a twin hose system known as the Aqua-Lung. Their system combined an improved demand regulator with high-pressure air tanks; this was patented in 1945. To sell his regulator in English-speaking countries Cousteau registered the Aqua-Lung trademark, first licensed to the U. S. Divers company, in 1948 to Siebe Gorman of England, Siebe Gorman was allowed to sell in Commonwealth countries, but had difficulty in meeting the demand and the U. S. patent prevented others from making the product. The patent was circumvented by Ted Eldred of Melbourne, who developed the single-hose open-circuit scuba system, which separates the first stage and demand valve of the pressure regulator by a low-pressure hose, puts the demand valve at the diver's mouth, releases exhaled gas through the demand valve casing. Eldred sold the first Porpoise Model CA single hose scuba early in 1952.

Early scuba sets were provided with a plain harness of shoulder straps and waist belt. Many harnesses did not have a backplate, the cylinders rested directly against the diver's back. Early scuba divers dived without a buoyancy aid. In an emergency they had to jettison their weights. In the 1960s adjustable buoyancy life jackets became available, which can be used to compensate for loss of buoyancy at depth due to compression of the neoprene wetsuit and as a lifejacket that will hold an unconscious diver face-upwards at the surface; the first versions were inflated from a small disposable carbon dioxide cylinder with a small direct coupled air cylinder. A low-pressure feed from the regulator first-stage to an inflation/deflation valve unit an oral inflation valve and a dump valve lets the volume of the ABLJ be controlled as a buoyancy aid. In 1971 the stabilizer jacket was introduced by ScubaPro; this class of buoyancy aid is known as a buoyancy control buoyancy compensator. A backplate and wing is an alternative configuration of scuba harness with a buoyancy compensation bladder known as a "wing" mounted behind the diver, sandwiched between the backplate and the cylinder or cylinders.

This arrangement became popular with cave divers making long or deep dives, who needed to carry several extra cylinders, as it clears the front and sides of the diver for other equipment to be attached in the region where it is accessible. Sidemount is a scuba diving equipment configuration which has basic scuba sets, each comprising a single cylinder with a dedicated regulator and pressure gauge, mounted alongside the diver, clipped to the harness below the shoulders and along the hips, instead of on the back of the diver, it originated as a configuration for advanced cave diving, as it facilitates penetration of tight sections of cave, as sets can be removed and remounted when necessary. Sidemount diving has grown in popularity within the technical diving community for general decompression diving, has become a popular specialty for recreational diving. In the 1950s the United States Navy documented procedures for military use of what is now ca

Ateliers Mo√ęs-Freres

Ateliers Moës-Freres was an engineering company based in Waremme, specialising in engines and locomotives. The company was founded in 1904 by Guillaume Moës; the company saw its greatest success between the Second World Wars. It survived as an independent company until 1969 when it was acquired by VMF Stork-Werkspoor Diesel of Amsterdam. Guillaume Moës was born in 1854 in the hamlet of Bleret between Waremme; as a young man, he moved to Waremme. His eldest son Édouard as born in 1880 and at the turn of the century he developed an internal combustion engine that replaced the mill's steam engine. Guillaume's second son, Auguste turned out to be a talented salesman who promoted the new Moës engine and was able to gain orders from local factories; the mill was turned over to engine manufacturing and in 1904 a new company, Ateliers Moës-Freres, was set up to concentrate on the burgeoning engine business. The company found early success and selling several hundred of its engines each year from 1905 onwards.

The company continued to expand in the years leading up to the First World War. In 1912 a spacious new factory was built in Waremme; the company suspended production at the outbreak of war. In 1918, the company restarted production, with the youngest of Guillaume's sons, joining the family firm, they expanded into a wide range of engine production, including diesel, hot-bulb and electric engines. In the early 1920s the company began production of narrow gauge locomotives using their diesel engines as motive power; these early locomotives had bodies that resembled traditional steam locomotives to encourage the adoption of this new technology. Guillaume died in 1929, the company was taken over by his three sons. In the 1930s, the company changed its name to Waremme. Locomotive production expanded into specialist mining locomotives for use underground, small standard gauge shunting locomotives. Moteurs Moës developed an international reputation, selling equipment to France, the Netherlands, the Belgian Congo and Asia.

During the Second World War Moteurs Moës kept operating throughout. They developed a reputation for protecting their workers during the Nazi occupation of Belgium. After the end of the War, Moteurs Moës rebuilt its business, winning major government-subsidized contracts for marine engines. But, as war-surplus engines came onto the market, this business came to an end and Moteurs Moës focused back onto the narrow gauge locomotive market for coal mining. In the 1960s, the Belgian coal mining industry collapsed, with it an important market for the company; the company re-focused onto diesel engines and renamed itself Moës Diesel in 1957. Paul Moës died in 1967. Two years the company was acquired by Dutch group VMF Stork-Werkspoor Diesel, but remained as an independent division under the Moës Diesel name; the division developed new hydrostatic narrow gauge locomotives, an improved mining locomotive, a new type of standard gauge shunting locomotive. In 1993, the Moës Diesel division was sold to the BIA Group of Belgium and focused on selling generators and pumps built by the Hatz company.

In March 2013, the division's name was changed to Moës Energy. In October 2013, all manufacturing at Waremme ceased. Delgaudinne, Thierry. Le Jour Huy Waremme. Delforge, Paul. Famille Moës, dans Grands hommes de Hesbaye. Du Musée de la Hesbaye. Pp. 65–70. Phillipe Destinez. Hesbaye, qui sont tes grandes hommes?. Website dedicated to the locomotives produced by Moes


Sylow-Tournament was a knockout association football competition contested annually between 1918 and 1926, organised by the Danish FA, which determined the championship of the representative teams, referred to as Sylow-teams, of the six Danish regional football associations. The competition was held between the selected teams of Copenhagen FA, Funen FA, Jutland FA, Lolland-Falster FA and Zealand FA for the first three seasons, before being joined by the Bornholm FA team in 1921 and an additional Copenhagen FA team composed of players from the KBUs A-række competing in 1926; the 1926 season became the last edition of the Sylow Tournament, abolished and replaced by an year-long league format for clubs, known as Danmarksmesterskabsturneringen i Fodbold, the following season. The competition was created in 1918 after a proposal from the chairman of the Danish FA, Louis Østrup, modelled after the Landsfodboldturneringen, named after a previous chairman of the national organisation, Ludvig Sylow.

The matches in the tournament played a major role in the development of association football outside the Danish capital city. The Danish national football team had been playing official matches since 1908, but the roster consisted of players from clubs in Copenhagen, who were leading the development of Danish association football until World War II, a player from a provincial club only first made it on the roster in 1923; the most successful association in the history of the tournament's 9 editions was Sylow-team of the Copenhagen FA, who by default only participated in the final match, was won the only trophy, distributed during the tournament's history, for permanent ownership. The most capped players from the Copenhagen FA were the forwards Viggo Jørgensen and Einard Larsen, while the Copenhagen FA top goalscorer in the entire tournament were the forwards Pauli Jørgensen and Frithjof Steen; the creation of the tournament was proposed at an executive Committee meeting on 26 July 1918 by the newly appointed chairman of the Danish FA, Louis Østrup, named in honour of the departing chairman of the national organisation, Ludvig Sylow.

The tournament would be organised and financed by the Danish FA, would be modelled after the club's Landsfodboldturneringen, created five years earlier, was to be played by the representative teams of all 6 regional football associations. On 27 August 1918, the board approved of the tournament, which happened after the acceptance of the previous chairman; the board of the Copenhagen FA had their concerns regarding the new competition, but decided to have a representative team participate. In the 1925 final of the tournament, the selection committee decided that the Copenhagen FA team would consist of players from the second highest Copenhagen Football League, the KBUs A-række; the following 1926 tournament, two representative teams for the Copenhagen FA participated in the tournament, each teams composed of players of either the KBUs Mesterskabsrække or the KBUs A-række. The ninth and last edition of the tournament was won by the Copenhagen FA for the fifth time, which meant that the organization obtained five lots and now had the honour of keeping the trophy permanently.

The competition was abolished the following season and replaced by the year-long league format for clubs, known as Danmarksmesterskabsturneringen i Fodbold