Hercules is a Roman hero and god. He was the Roman equivalent of the Greek divine hero Heracles, the son of Zeus and the mortal Alcmene. In classical mythology, Hercules is famous for his strength and for his numerous far-ranging adventures; the Romans adapted the Greek hero's iconography and myths for their literature and art under the name Hercules. In Western art and literature and in popular culture, Hercules is more used than Heracles as the name of the hero. Hercules was a multifaceted figure with contradictory characteristics, which enabled artists and writers to pick and choose how to represent him; this article provides an introduction to representations of Hercules in the tradition. Although he was seen as the champion of the weak and a great protector, Hercules' personal problems started at birth. Hera sent two witches to prevent the birth, but they were tricked by one of Alcmene's servants and sent to another room. Hera sent serpents to kill him in his cradle, but Hercules strangled them both.
In one version of the myth, Alcmene abandoned her baby in the woods in order to protect him from Hera's wrath, but he was found by the goddess Athena who brought him to Hera, claiming he was an orphan child left in the woods who needed nourishment. Hera suckled Hercules at her own breast until the infant bit her nipple, at which point she pushed him away, spilling her milk across the night sky and so forming the Milky Way, she gave the infant back to Athena and told her to take care of the baby herself. In feeding the child from her own breast, the goddess inadvertently imbued him with further strength and power. Hercules is known for his many adventures, which took him to the far reaches of the Greco-Roman world. One cycle of these adventures became canonical as the "Twelve Labours". One traditional order of the labours is found in the Bibliotheca. Slay the nine-headed Lernaean Hydra. Capture the Golden Hind of Artemis. Capture the Erymanthian Boar. Clean the Augean stables in a single day. Slay the Stymphalian Birds.
Capture the Cretan Bull. Steal the Mares of Diomedes. Obtain the girdle of Hippolyta, Queen of the Amazons. Obtain the cattle of the monster Geryon. Steal the apples of the Hesperides. Capture and bring back Cerberus. Hercules had a greater number of "deeds on the side" that have been popular subjects for art, including: Side adventures After completing the 12 labours, Hercules was free to leave the life that he pleased. Trickeries of Hera or his own temper would cause more troubles such as killing innocent people, living as a slave, or going into war again, he got married again, with Deianira, who accidentally killed him with a shirt, soaked in the blood of a centaur. That centaur got killed by one of Hercules' poisoned arrows. Before the centaur died he told Deianira that if Hercules would wear this blood-soaked shirt he would be crazy in love with her forever. After Hercules's death, Zeus was so impressed by his greatness of mind that he elevated him to the status of a God; the Latin name Hercules was borrowed through Etruscan, where it is represented variously as Heracle and other forms.
Hercules was a favorite subject for Etruscan art, appears on bronze mirrors. The Etruscan form Herceler derives from the Greek Heracles via syncope. A mild oath invoking Hercules was a common interjection in Classical Latin. Hercules had a number of myths. One of these is Hercules' defeat of Cacus, terrorizing the countryside of Rome; the hero was associated with the Aventine Hill through his son Aventinus. Mark Antony considered him a personal patron god. Hercules received various forms of religious veneration, including as a deity concerned with children and childbirth, in part because of myths about his precocious infancy, in part because he fathered countless children. Roman brides wore a special belt tied with the "knot of Hercules", supposed to be hard to untie; the comic playwright Plautus presents the myth of Hercules' conception as a sex comedy in his play Amphitryon. During the Roman Imperial era, Hercules was worshipped locally from Hispania through Gaul. Tacitus records a special affinity of the Germanic peoples for Hercules.
In chapter 3 of his Germania, Tacitus states:... they say that Hercules, once visited them. They have those songs of theirs, by the recital of this barditus as they call it, they rouse their courage, while from the note they augur the result of the approaching conflict. For, as their line shouts, they feel alarm; some have taken this as Tacitus equating the Germanic Þunraz with Hercules by way of interpretatio romana. In the Roman era Hercules' Club amulets appear from the 2nd to 3rd century, distributed over the empire made of gold, shaped like wooden clubs. A specimen found in Köln-Nippes bears the inscription "DEO HER", confirming the association with Hercules. In the 5th to 7th centuries, during the Migration Period, the amulet is theorized to have spread from the Elbe Germanic area across Europe; these Germanic "Donar's Clubs" were made from deer antler, bone or wood, more also from bronze or precious metals. The amulet type is replaced by the Viking Age Thor's hammer pendants in the course of the Christianization of Scandinavia from the 8th to 9th century.
The Rebel is a 2016 British comedy series on Gold starring Simon Callow in the title role. The show is based on The Rebel cartoon in The Oldie magazine by Andrew Birch, it began airing in June 2016. In total, 9 episodes have aired as of May 2018; the cast includes Bill Paterson and Amit Shah. The show follows 70 year old Henry Palmer, a widowed resident of Brighton, an anarchic, anti-establishment pensioner. Simon Callow as Henry Palmer, a pensioner Bill Paterson as Charles, a former hippie Anita Dobson as Margaret, a charity shop worker Anna Crilly as Cath, Henry's daughter Amit Shah as Jeremy, the husband of Cath Vivian Oparah as Amaya Philip Cumbus as PC Burns The Rebel is based on Andrew Birch's cartoon strip for The Oldie. Vadim Jean is the director of the series. In July 2017 it was announced. Bill Paterson, Anita Dobson, Anna Crilly and Amit Shah will reprise their roles. In July 2017 it was announced. Comedy.co.uk profile The Rebel on IMDb
The Mahafaly are an ethnic group of Madagascar that inhabit the plains of the Betioky-Ampanihy area. Their name means either "those who make holy" or "those who make happy", although the former is considered more by linguists. In 2013 there were an estimated 150,000 Mahafaly in Madagascar; the Mahafaly are believed to have arrived in Madagascar from southeastern Africa around the 12th century. They became known for the large tombs they built to honor dead kings. Involved in farming and cattle raising, they speak a dialect of the Malagasy language, a branch of the Malayo-Polynesian language group; this ethnic group label has been used by other Malagasy and foreigners to describe the people who traditionally inhabited the southwestern coast of Madagascar, bounded inland by the Menarandra and Onilahy rivers. The people themselves do not use this label or identify as part of a single ethnic group and prefer to identify along other kinship or geopolitical lines; the majority of the population is concentrated along the banks of the rivers that run through the otherwise arid territory.
According to oral histories, the Mahafaly people trace their origins back to an early Maroserana noble, who emerged as a leader in the 1500s with the migration of the Maroserana into the southwestern part of Madagascar. Prior to the arrival of the Maroserana, people settled in this portion of the island lived in communities ruled by chiefly families called andriantsileliky. Maroserana migrants formed alliances with these families, but this turned to conflict, with the Maroserana emerging as the victors. After reigning for some years, Olembetsitoto went into seclusion, his followers believed that he had become holy and made his land and people holy through this act, which mirrored popular belief around the principal Maroserana deity Andriamaro, which could not be seen, communicated through a medium intermediary, commanded obedience by inspiring fear and awe. The followers of this noble remained united in their allegiance to him through the ombiasy who served as an intermediary between the ruler and his people.
One of the earliest documented Mahafaly political actions was In June 1649, when twelve Mahafaly envoys visited the French settlement at Fort Dauphin to obtain the paid services of French mercenaries to help fight the Masikoro people who had stolen their king's cattle. The Mahafaly polity began to splinter into independent kingdoms beginning around 1650 with the Sakatovo and Menarandra kingdoms; the Linta kingdom split away around two decades and the Onilahy kingdom was formed from the remaining territory around 1750. A conflict between the king of Menarandra and the neighboring Antandroy people to the west resulted in the annexation of the Antandroy province of Karimbola in the first half of the 18th century. Although the specifics of the history of these kingdoms before 1800 is not well known, the frequent changes in rulers within each kingdom points to instability and turmoil within the Maroserana dynasty: Linta had seven rulers, Sakatovo had six, Menarandra had three between 1750-1800, Onilahy had two.
The Onilahy kingdom reflected some Antemoro influences, such as calling their king by the title andrianony. The Mahafaly kingdom was one of the few that did not come under the control of the Merina Kingdom in the 19th century; the last Mahafaly king was Tsiampondy, who began ruling in 1890. According Africa from the Sixteenth to the Eighteenth Century, Tsiampondy's reign ended in 1911, while according to a French document named Observations sur les Mahafalys, Tsiampondy's reign ended after a short French military campaign in 1907. Mahafaly society is patriarchal, it is expected that male family members should live in close proximity to one another, while women are expected to move to their husband's village. Society is structured around five types of kinship groups, with the immediate household as the most important; as in other parts of Madagascar, ancestors are venerated. Beginning with the first Maroserana ruler, the Mahafaly were ruled by kings of the Maroserana line. Kings were buried in tombs called volamena and they were renamed after their death, a practice called anaratahina, as it was taboo after death to speak the name a king had in life.
Early Mahafaly kings lived in compounds that had paths radiating out toward each of the major surrounding villages in his territory, his power was compounded by the possession of royal relics believed to hold supernatural powers. The king ruled over a society, divided into those of privilege and migrants to the area from elsewhere; the renilemy consisted of those who were descendants of the most powerful chief during the establishment of the Maroserana dynasty, Tsileliky. The king was supported by a councillor as well as a priest, responsible for conducting animal sacrifices at the communal altar; the society was divided into numerous clans, some of which held particular responsibilities such as blacksmithing and honey collecting. Heads of these clans were elected under the title of "royal friend