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Heredity

Heredity called inheritance or biological inheritance, is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring. Through heredity, variations between individuals can accumulate and cause species to evolve by natural selection; the study of heredity in biology is genetics. In humans, eye color is an example of an inherited characteristic: an individual might inherit the "brown-eye trait" from one of the parents. Inherited traits are controlled by genes and the complete set of genes within an organism's genome is called its genotype; the complete set of observable traits of the structure and behavior of an organism is called its phenotype. These traits arise from the interaction of its genotype with the environment; as a result, many aspects of an organism's phenotype are not inherited. For example, suntanned skin comes from the interaction between a person's sunlight. However, some people tan more than others, due to differences in their genotype: a striking example is people with the inherited trait of albinism, who do not tan at all and are sensitive to sunburn.

Heritable traits are known to be passed from one generation to the next via DNA, a molecule that encodes genetic information. DNA is a long polymer; the sequence of bases along a particular DNA molecule specifies the genetic information: this is comparable to a sequence of letters spelling out a passage of text. Before a cell divides through mitosis, the DNA is copied, so that each of the resulting two cells will inherit the DNA sequence. A portion of a DNA molecule that specifies a single functional unit is called a gene. Within cells, the long strands of DNA form condensed structures called chromosomes. Organisms inherit genetic material from their parents in the form of homologous chromosomes, containing a unique combination of DNA sequences that code for genes; the specific location of a DNA sequence within a chromosome is known as a locus. If the DNA sequence at a particular locus varies between individuals, the different forms of this sequence are called alleles. DNA sequences can change through mutations.

If a mutation occurs within a gene, the new allele may affect the trait that the gene controls, altering the phenotype of the organism. However, while this simple correspondence between an allele and a trait works in some cases, most traits are more complex and are controlled by multiple interacting genes within and among organisms. Developmental biologists suggest that complex interactions in genetic networks and communication among cells can lead to heritable variations that may underlie some of the mechanics in developmental plasticity and canalization. Recent findings have confirmed important examples of heritable changes that cannot be explained by direct agency of the DNA molecule; these phenomena are classed as epigenetic inheritance systems that are causally or independently evolving over genes. Research into modes and mechanisms of epigenetic inheritance is still in its scientific infancy, this area of research has attracted much recent activity as it broadens the scope of heritability and evolutionary biology in general.

DNA methylation marking chromatin, self-sustaining metabolic loops, gene silencing by RNA interference, the three dimensional conformation of proteins are areas where epigenetic inheritance systems have been discovered at the organismic level. Heritability may occur at larger scales. For example, ecological inheritance through the process of niche construction is defined by the regular and repeated activities of organisms in their environment; this generates a legacy of effect that modifies and feeds back into the selection regime of subsequent generations. Descendants inherit genes plus environmental characteristics generated by the ecological actions of ancestors. Other examples of heritability in evolution that are not under the direct control of genes include the inheritance of cultural traits, group heritability, symbiogenesis; these examples of heritability that operate above the gene are covered broadly under the title of multilevel or hierarchical selection, a subject of intense debate in the history of evolutionary science.

When Charles Darwin proposed his theory of evolution in 1859, one of its major problems was the lack of an underlying mechanism for heredity. Darwin believed in the inheritance of acquired traits. Blending inheritance would lead to uniformity across populations in only a few generations and would remove variation from a population on which natural selection could act; this led to Darwin adopting some Lamarckian ideas in editions of On the Origin of Species and his biological works. Darwin's primary approach to heredity was to outline how it appeared to work rather than suggesting mechanisms. Darwin's initial model of heredity was adopted by, heavily modified by, his cousin Francis Galton, who laid the framework for the biometric school of heredity. Galton found no evidence to support the aspects of Darwin's pangenesis model, which relied on acquired traits; the inheritance of acquired traits was shown to have little basis in the 1880s when August Weismann cut the tails off many generations of mice and found that their offspring continued to develop tails.

Scientists in Antiquity had a variety of ideas about heredit

DB Class VT 24

Class 624 and class 634 are types of diesel multiple unit operated by Deutsche Bahn. Whereas during the first years after World War II the focus of the Deutsche Bundesbahn was on repairs of rolling stock and buildings, with the beginning of the 1950s attention shifted to renewal of the trains. For passenger services on not electrified lines, the first prototypes of main line diesel locomotives such as the class 220 were commissioned in 1953. Subsequently DB ordered the rail industry to develop new DMUs in order to replace pre-war classes and steam traction. In 1961 MAN and Waggonfabrik Uerdingen both delivered two prototypes each. Though they were quite similar, they can be distinguished by the different front design. DB put the prototypes into service as class VT 23.5 and class VT 24.5. After the new numbering scheme the prototypes were listed as class 624 together with the regular units; the prototypes underwent intensive tests, including comparison to conventional push/pull trains with DB Class V 100.

The regular trainsets were produced jointly by both manufacturers. Only minor changes were made to the prototype design. A total of 80 front cars and 55 middle cars were delivered, allowing the use of 40 three-part or two-part trainsets. Starting in 1968, a number of units were equipped with pneumatic shock absorption and passive tilting systems; these units were approved for a higher speed of 140 km/h. As the tilting system turned out to be of limited use, clearance allowing only limited tilting, in 1979 the tilting system was removed. In 1970 a number of trainsets derived from class 624 were delivered to Yugoslavia as SŽ series 711, they are still in use by Slovenian Railways. Upon entering service the new class 624 units were used for fast regional and express trains in various parts of Germany; this changed and by 1980 nearly all of the units were based in Osnabrück and Braunschweig, employed on regional and local lines. Regional and local passenger traffic in the Harz region was carried out exclusively by these trainsets.

Whereas the successor class 614 units supplemented DB's DMU fleet, the class 628.2 regular types coming into service after 1986 began to displace class 624 into subordinate services. Retirement of class 624/634 trainsets started in 2003, when DB lost a couple of tender procedures to private companies and modern light-weight DMUs came into service in large numbers; the last class 624/634 units were retired in 2005. Fourteen trainsets were sold to Poland's PKP as Class SA110 and have been in use in regional and local service. In Romania, several class 624 units are in service with Transferoviar Grup. Only the front cars were motorised, therefore the trainsets could be assembled either with or without up to two middle cars. Up to three trainsets could be operated as multiple traction, connected by Scharfenberg couplers, which were used to connect front and middle cars; each front car was equipped with a 331 kW MAN diesel engine, the power being transferred hydro-dynamically to the front-end bogie.

The passenger compartment's layout was derived from the so-called Silberling polished stainless steel short-line passenger coaches, with open-plan compartments. The trains had oil heating; the Class 624/634 was compatible with its successor DB Class 614, so all units could be in mixed plans, including mixed use of middle cars. Pictures of class 624

2014 Tunisian parliamentary election

Parliamentary elections were held in Tunisia on 26 October 2014. Campaigning started on 4 October 2014, they were the first free regular legislative elections since independence in 1956, the first elections held following the adoption of the new constitution in January 2014, which created a 217-seat Assembly of the Representatives of the People. According to preliminary results, Nidaa Tounes gained a plurality of votes, winning 85 seats in the 217-seat parliament, beating the Ennahda Movement and many smaller parties. Presidential elections were held a month on 23 November; the 217 members of the Assembly of the Representatives of the People were elected in 33 constituencies. There were 27 multi-member constituencies in Tunisia varying in size from four to ten seats and electing a total of 199. There were six overseas constituencies electing a total of 18 seats: two constituencies in France electing five seats each, one three-seat constituency in Italy, a single-member constituency in Germany, a two-member constituency covering the rest of Europe and the Americas, a two-member constituency covering the Arab world and the rest of the world.

Seats were elected by party-list proportional representation. Poll results are listed in the table below in chronological order, showing the most recent polls last. According to the final results released by the Independent High Authority for Elections, Nidaa Tounes took the lead in the election, winning 86 seats in the 217-seat parliament. Ennahda Movement came second with 69 seats losing 16 seats compared to 2011 elections; the biggest losers were CPR of Moncef Marzouki and Democratic Forum for Labour and Liberties who were members of a coalition government formed with Ennahda Movement following 2011 elections, opposition party Current of Love. On the other hand, there was a noticeable emergence of smaller parties like the UPL of businessman Slim Riahi with 16 seats, Popular Front with 15 seats and Afek Tounes with 8 seats; the Elections Authority decided to sanction Nidaa Tounes in Kasserine electoral district by withdrawing one seat following reported irregularities conducted by partisans.

However, the decision was overturned by the administrative court after an appeal by Nidaa Tounes. The ruling took away the only seat obtained by Democratic Forum for Labour and Liberties leaving the party with no presence in parliament. A low youth voter turnout was recorded with over 80% of 18- to 25-year-olds boycotting the vote. Ennahda's Lotfi Zitoun said the party had "accepted this result and congratulate the winner." The result was hailed internationally for its democratic viability as the only one of the major Arab Spring uprisings, including Libya and Egypt, not convulsed by instability and turmoil. In the United States, President Barack Obama hailed the free and non-violent elections as a "milestone," while Secretary of State John Kerry said it was an example of "why Tunisia remains a beacon of hope, not only to the Tunisian people, but to the region and the world." Comparisons were drawn to holding Tunisia as a model for Lebanon amidst its own turmoil. With Nidaa Tounes having won a plurality it has the right to name a prime minister and form a government in coalition.

Beji Caid Essebsi said it was too early to talk of a coalition government – including one with Ennahda. Instead he said the 2014 Tunisian presidential election will give direction to the formation of a new government. On 5 January 2015, Nidaa Tounes nominated independent Habib Essid as Prime Minister and asked him to form a new government, he was chosen over former trade unionist Taieb Baccouche "because he is independent and has experience in the areas of security and the economy," said the speaker of Congress, Mohamed Ennaceur. The nomination of a politician who had served under former autocratic president Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali however was criticized. Popular Front leader Hamma Hammami stated that with Essid as prime minister, "the real power" would rather be in the presidential palace. On 23 January 2015, Essid presented a minority cabinet including 10 ministers from Nidaa Tounes and three from the liberal Free Patriotic Union, after the other liberal power Afek Tounes was said to have abruptly pulled out of the coalition.

Without Afek Tounes, the two parties could, only count on 102 of the 217 seats. Both Ennahda and the Popular Front announced to vote against the proposed government. On 4 February 2015, Essid proposed a unity government consisting of independent politicians, ministers of Nidaa Tounes, the two liberal parties UPL and Afek Tounes, a minister of the Islamist Ennahda; the next day, Essid's new proposal found a strong majority in the Assembly of the Representatives of the People, when 166 of the 217 legislators approved his new government

1910–11 Ayr United F.C. season

The 1910–11 season is the first season of competitive football by Ayr United F. C. following a merger of Ayr Parkhouse F. C. and Ayr F. C.. Prior to 1910 there were two clubs in Ayr, Ayr F. C. and Ayr Parkhouse. Talk of merger had been rife in Ayr for year before the clubs agreed to do so in 1910; the newly formed Ayr United sought election to the Scottish First Division, the assumption that this status would be granted was the main incentive which pushed the merger through. The new club's home ground was Somerset Park the home of Ayr FC from 1888, although Parkhouse’s former home, Beresford Park, remained in use by the club for reserve and local fixtures until the mid-1920s; the new Ayr United F. C. played in a strip consisting of a gold hooped jerseys and navy blue shorts. Win Draw Loss 1910–11 in Scottish football 1910–11 Scottish Division Two Scottish Football Archive

Sakurazawa Station

Sakurazawa Station is a railway station on the Chichibu Main Line in Yorii, Japan, operated by the private railway operator Chichibu Railway. Sakurazawa Station is served by the Chichibu Main Line from Hanyū to Mitsumineguchi, is located 31.9 km from Hanyū. The station consists of a single island platform serving two tracks. Sakurazawa Station opened on 1 April 1989. In fiscal 2000, the station was used by an average of 924 passengers daily. National Route 140 National Route 254 Saitama Prefectural Yorii Jōhoku High School Yorii Junior High School Sakurazawa Elementary School List of railway stations in Japan Sakurazawa Station information Sakurazawa Station timetable

Needham House

The Needham House is a historic house on Meadow Road near Chesham village in Harrisville, New Hampshire. Built in 1845, it is a well-preserved local example of Greek Revival styling; the house was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1988. The Needham House is located on the western fringe of Chesham village in western Harrisville, on the east side of Meadow Road a short way north of its junction with Chesham Road, it is a 2-1/2 story wood frame structure, with clapboarded exterior. It presents a side gable to the street, its front facade faces east; that facade is two bays wide, but appears longer due to the presence of a 1 1/2-story ell whose facade is flush with that of the main block. The main entrance is the house's most elaborate Greek Revival feature, with full-length sidelight windows and a peaked lintel; the ell has a secondary entrance, sheltered by a shed-roof porch, a second single-story ell extends further to the right. The house was built in 1845 by John Needham, is locally significant for its unusual entry styling.

The house has been owned by a number of locally prominent families, including that of Prentiss Greenwood, a postmaster of the village of Pottersville. National Register of Historic Places listings in Cheshire County, New Hampshire