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Herero people

The Herero known as Ovaherero, are an ethnic group inhabiting parts of Southern Africa. The majority reside with the remainder found in Botswana and Angola. There were an estimated 250,000 Herero people in Namibia in 2013, they speak a Bantu language. Unlike most Bantu, who are subsistence farmers, the Herero are traditionally pastoralists, they make a living tending livestock. Cattle terminology in use among many Bantu pastoralist groups testifies that Bantu herders acquired cattle from Cushitic pastoralists inhabiting Eastern Africa. After the Bantu settled in Eastern Africa, some Bantu nations spread south. Linguistic evidence suggests that the Bantu borrowed the custom of milking cattle from Cushitic peoples; the Herero claim to comprise several sub-divisions, including the Himba, Tjimba and Kwandu. Groups in Angola include the Mucubal Kuvale, Hakawona, Tjavikwa and Himba, who cross the Namibia/Angola border when migrating with their herds. However, the Tjimba, though they speak Herero, are physically distinct indigenous hunter-gatherers.

It may be in the Hereros' interest to portray indigenous peoples as impoverished Herero who do not own livestock. The leadership of the Ovaherero is distributed over eight royal houses, among them: Ovaherero Traditional Authority, of the Ovaherero Kingdom, Paramount Chief Vekuii Rukoro Maharero Royal Traditional Authority, chief Tjinaani Maharero Zeraeua Royal Traditional Authority at Otjimbingwe Ovambanderu Royal Traditional Authority, chief Kilus Karaerua Nguvauva Onguatjindu Royal Traditional Authority at Okakarara, chief Sam KambazembiSince conflicts with the Nama people in the 1860s necessitated Ovaherero unity, they have a paramount chief ruling over all eight royal houses, although there is an interpretation that such paramount chieftaincy violates the Traditional Authorities Act, Act 25 of 2000. During the 17th and 18th centuries, the Herero migrated to what is today Namibia from the east and established themselves as herdsmen. In the beginning of the 19th century, the Nama from South Africa, who possessed some firearms, entered the land and were followed, in turn, by white merchants and German missionaries.

At first, the Nama began displacing the Herero, leading to bitter warfare between the two groups, which lasted the greater part of the 19th century. The two peoples entered into a period of cultural exchange. During the late 19th century, the first Europeans began entering to permanently settle the land. In Damaraland, German settlers acquired land from the Herero in order to establish farms. In 1883, the merchant Franz Adolf Eduard Lüderitz entered into a contract with the native elders; the exchange became the basis of German colonial rule. The territory became a German colony under the name of German South West Africa. Soon after, conflicts between the German colonists and the Herero herdsmen began. Controversies arose because of disputes about access to land and water, but the legal discrimination against the native population by the white immigrants. In the late 19th and early 20th century and colonialism in Africa peaked, affecting the Hereros and the Namas. European powers were seeking trade railways, as well as more colonies.

Germany claimed their stake in a South African colony in 1884, calling it German South West Africa until it was taken over in 1915. The first German colonists arrived in 1892, conflict with the indigenous Herero and Nama people began; as in many cases of colonization, the indigenous people were not treated fairly. Between 1893 and 1903, the Herero and Nama people's land and cattle were progressively being taken by German colonists; the Herero and Nama resisted expropriation over the years, but they were unorganized and the Germans defeated them with ease. In 1903, the Herero people learned that they were to be placed in reservations, leaving more room for colonists to own land and prosper. In 1904, the Herero and Nama began a great rebellion that lasted until 1907, ending with the near destruction of the Herero people. "The war against the Herero and Nama was the first in which German imperialism resorted to methods of genocide...." 80,000 Herero lived in German South West Africa at the beginning of Germany's colonial rule over the area, while after their revolt was defeated, they numbered 15,000.

In a period of four years 65,000 Herero people perished. Samuel Maharero, the Supreme Chief of the Herero, led his people in a large-scale uprising on January 12, 1904, against the Germans; the Herero, surprising the Germans with their uprising, had initial success. German General Lothar von Trotha took over as leader in May 1904. In August 1904, he devised a plan to annihilate the Herero nation; the plan was to surround the area where the Herero were, leaving but one route for them to escape, into the desert. The Herero battled the Germans, the losses were minor, it was when the majority had escaped through the only passage made available by the Germans, had been systematically prevented from approaching watering holes, that starvation began to take its toll. It was that the Herero uprising changed from war, to genocide. Lothar von Trotha called the conflict a “race war.” He declared in the German press that “no war may be conducted humanely against non-humans” and issued an “annihilation order”:...

The Herero are no longer German subjects. They have murdered and stolen, they have cut off the ears and other body parts of wounded soldiers, now out of captain will receive 1000 Mark, who

Harvard Faculty of Arts and Sciences

The Faculty of Arts and Sciences is the largest of the twelve faculties that constitute Harvard University. Headquartered principally in Cambridge and centered in the historic Harvard Yard, FAS is the only division of the university responsible for both undergraduate and graduate education; the Faculty of Arts and Sciences is responsible for the courses offered at Harvard College, the Harvard Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, the Harvard Extension School. It is headed by Dean Claudine Gay, Wilbur A. Cowett Professor of Government and of African and African-American Studies; as of Fall 2019, FAS comprised 1221 total faculty, including 719 tenured and tenure-track professors as well as 502 other professors, lecturers and visiting faculty in some 30 academic departments in the arts and humanities, the social sciences, the natural sciences, the engineering and applied sciences. There are 6,800 undergraduates and 4,500 graduate students; the Harvard Division of Continuing Education welcomes more than 30,000 students annually in its open enrollment courses.

In 2019, FAS had a revenue of $1.6 billion. As of 2019, the FAS endowment had a market value of $17.5 billion. Harvard's total endowment stands at $40.9 billion. FAS consists of the following divisions: Harvard College The Graduate School of Arts and Sciences The John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences The Division of Continuing Education Commonly FAS is broken down only into the College, the GSAS, the Extension School; this is. Undergraduate concentrators as well as master's and doctoral students in the engineering and applied science departments instead receive their degrees from the College and the GSAS, respectively. In addition, FAS includes 35 research centers and interdisciplinary programs, eleven museums; the Harvard Library, part of FAS, consists of eleven major libraries, including the Harry Elkins Widener Memorial Library, holds some 20.4 million volumes. The dean of FAS serves as the chief administrative and academic officer, responsible to the president and provost of Harvard University for all aspects of the division's operations, including budgets, support services, faculty appointments, student affairs, fundraising.

The dean is appointed by the president with the approval of the university's two governing boards, the Harvard Corporation and the Harvard Board of Overseers, serves at the pleasure of the president. The dean of FAS is invariably drawn from the ranks of the tenured faculty in the division; the current dean, Claudine Gay, assumed the position in August 2018. The deans of Harvard College, GSAS, SEAS, DCE report to the dean of FAS, as do various academic deans, administrative deans, the directors of various research centers and institutes. While Harvard College traces its origins to 1636, the body called the Faculty of Arts and Sciences only came into existence in the late nineteenth century. From 1820 until 1872, Harvard consisted of three professional schools; the governing boards established a Graduate Department in 1872 to administer and recommend candidates for the degrees of Master of Arts, Master of Science, Doctor of Philosophy, Doctor of Science. In 1890, the governing boards merged separate faculties of the Lawrence Scientific School and the College into a single Faculty of Arts and Sciences.

The Graduate Department became the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. The Lawrence Scientific School opened in 1847 and marked Harvard's first major effort to offer a formal program in science and engineering. In 1948, the School merged with the Department of Engineering Sciences and Applied Physics in FAS to form the Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences. In 2007, the Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences formally became the School of Engineering and Applied Sciences. On June 3, 2015, the School of Engineering and Applied Sciences was renamed the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, following a $400 million gift by Harvard Business School alumnus John A. Paulson. Harvard University Faculty of Arts and Sciences Home page

Chester, Warren County, New York

Chester is a town in Warren County, New York, United States. It is part of the Glens Falls metropolitan area; the population was 3,614 at the 2000 census. The town is made up by communities of Pottersville; the Town of Chester is on the county's northern border. Settlement began around 1794; the Town of Chester was formed from part of the Town of Thurman in 1799. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 87.1 square miles, of which, 84.5 square miles of it is land and 2.6 square miles of it is water. Chester is in the Adirondack Park, the north town line is the border of Essex County, New York; as of the census of 2000, there were 3,614 people, 1,280 households, 889 families residing in the town. The population density was 42.8 people per square mile. There were 2,418 housing units at an average density of 28.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.73% White, 0.19% African American, 0.14% Native American, 0.64% Asian, 0.36% from other races, 0.94% from two or more races.

1.05 % of the population were Latino. There were 1,280 households out of which 26.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.7% were married couples living together, 8.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.5% were non-families. 24.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.90. In the town, the population was spread out with 19.9% under the age of 18, 18.3% from 18 to 24, 21.8% from 25 to 44, 24.5% from 45 to 64, 15.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.7 males. The median income for a household in the town was $37,452, the median income for a family was $42,473. Males had a median income of $30,355 versus $21,740 for females; the per capita income for the town was $16,740. About 8.4% of families and 12.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.2% of those under age 18 and 8.6% of those age 65 or over.

Peckham Materials Corp, a manufacturer asphalt and crushed stone, operates a large quarry at the Southern end of the Town. Lincoln Logs Ltd. a manufacturer of log and cedar homes, operates a large mill in the hamlet of Chestertown. Town of Chester and Town of Horicon together established North Warren Central School District, which serves residents of both towns. Chestertown – This hamlet is the major community in the Town of Chester and it is located in the south part of the town by the junction of Route 8 and U. S. Route 9. Town hall, North Warren Central School, most of the town's business and industry is located in this hamlet. Darrowsville – A hamlet by the south town line. Igerna – A hamlet in the north part of the town. Pottersville – A hamlet at the foot of Schroon Lake, it is second largest community in the town. This hamlet has ZIP code 12860. Riparius – A hamlet by the western town line. Byrnes Corners – A location near the north town line. Friends Lake – A lake in the south part of the town, southwest of Chestertown.

Loon Lake – A lake in the south part of the town west of Chestertown. Palmer Pond – A lake located south of Loon Lake. Schroon Lake – A large lake in the east part of the town. Matthew Beebe, Wisconsin businessman and legislator was born in Warren. Town of Chester, NY Information about Town of Chester by North Warren Chamber of Commerce Chester Town Court