Odo of Bayeux
Odo of Bayeux, Earl of Kent and Bishop of Bayeux, was the half-brother of William the Conqueror, was, for a time, second in power after the King of England. Odo was the son of Herluin de Conteville. Count Robert of Mortain was his younger brother. There is uncertainty about his birth date; some historians have suggested he was born around 1035. Duke William made him bishop of Bayeux in 1049, it has been suggested that his birth was as early as 1030, making him about nineteen rather than fourteen at the time. Although Odo was an ordained Christian cleric, he is best known as a warrior and statesman, participating in the Council of Lillebonne, he found ships for the Norman invasion of England and is one of the few proven companions of William the Conqueror, known to have fought at the Battle of Hastings in 1066. The Bayeux Tapestry commissioned by him to adorn his own cathedral, appears to labour the point that he did not fight, to say shed blood, at Hastings, but rather encouraged the troops from the rear.
The Latin annotation embroidered onto the Tapestry above his image reads: "Hic Odo Eps Baculu Tenens Confortat Pueros", in English "Here Odo the Bishop holding a club strengthens the boys". It has been suggested that his clerical status forbade him from using a sword, though this is doubtful: the club was a common weapon and used by leadership including by Duke William himself, as depicted in the same part of the Tapestry. Odo was accompanied by William the carrier of his crozier and a retinue of servants and members of his household. In 1067, Odo became Earl of Kent, for some years he was a trusted royal minister. On some occasions when William was absent, he served as de facto regent of England, at times he led the royal forces against rebellions: the precise sphere of his powers is not certain. There are other occasions when he accompanied William back to Normandy. During this time Odo acquired vast estates in England, larger in extent than anyone except the king: he had land in twenty-three counties in the south east and in East Anglia.
In 1076 at the Trial of Penenden Heath Odo was tried in front of a large and senior assembly over the course of three days at Penenden Heath in Kent for defrauding the Crown and the Diocese of Canterbury. At the conclusion of the trial he was forced to return a number of properties and his assets were re-apportioned. In 1082, Odo was disgraced and imprisoned for having planned a military expedition to Italy, his motives are not certain. Chroniclers writing a generation said Odo desired to make himself pope during the Investiture Controversy while Pope Gregory VII was in severe difficulty in his conflict with Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor, the position of pope was in contention. Whatever the reason, Odo spent the next five years in prison and his English estates were taken back by the king, as was his office as Earl of Kent. Odo was not deposed as Bishop of Bayeux. On his deathbed in 1087, King William I was reluctantly persuaded by his half-brother, Count of Mortain, to release Odo. After the king's death, Odo returned to England.
William's eldest son, Robert Curthose, had been made duke of Normandy, while Robert's brother William Rufus had received the throne of England. The bishop supported Robert Curthose's claim to England; the Rebellion of 1088 failed and William Rufus permitted Odo to leave the kingdom. Afterwards, Odo remained in the service of Robert in Normandy. Odo joined the First Crusade and started in the duke's company for Palestine, but died on the way at Palermo in January or February 1097, he was buried in Palermo Cathedral. William Stearns Davis writes in Life on a Medieval Barony: Bishop Odo of Bayeux fought at Hastings before any such authorized champions of the church existed.... That bishops shall restrain from warfare is a pious wish not in this sinful world to be granted. On screen, Odo has been portrayed by John Nettleton in the two-part BBC TV play Conquest, part of the series Theatre 625, by Denis Lill in the TV drama Blood Royal: William the Conqueror. Bates, David. "Odo, earl of Kent". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.
Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/20543. Retrieved 23 August 2010. Ireland, William Henry. England's Topographer: or A Complete History of the County of Kent. London: G. Virtue. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Odo of Bayeux". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Bates, David,'The Character and Career of Odo, Bishop of Bayeux', in: Speculum, vol. 50, pp. 1–20. LePatourel, John. "The Date of the Trial on Penenden Heath". The English Historical Review. 61: 378–388. Doi:10.1093/ehr/LXI. CCXLI.378. "Odo of Bayeux". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 12 August 2010. Rowley, The Man Behind the Bayeux Tapestry: Odo, William the Conqueror's Half-Brother ISBN 978-0-7524-6025-3 Nakashian, Craig M, Warrior Churchmen of Medieval England, 1000-1250 ISBN 978-1-7832-7162-7
Falaise is a commune in the Calvados department in the Normandy region in northwestern France. Falaise lies on the river Ante, a tributary of the river Dives, about 30 kilometres southeast of Caen; the area around Falaise has been inhabited from prehistoric times but it wasn't until the end of the prehistoric period and the beginning of the Gallo-Roman era that the area, Falaise in particular, was inhabited. Evidence of settlement from this time has been found at Vaston, an agricultural area just north-east of the modern town. Falaise as it is sited today came into being around the castle; the town was the birthplace of William the Conqueror, first of the Norman Kings of England. The Château de Falaise, which overlooks the town from a high crag, was the seat of the Dukes of Normandy; the Treaty of Falaise was signed at the castle in December 1174 between the captive William I, King of Scots, the Plantagenet King of England, Henry II. The town is the place where Rabbi Yom Tov of Falaise, grandchild of Rashi, held his rabbinical court.
On 26 October 1851, a statue of William the Conqueror was inaugurated here. In modern times it is known for the battle of the Falaise Pocket during the Allied reconquest of France in August 1944 in which two German armies were encircled and destroyed by the Allied armies; some 10,000 German troops were killed and 50,000 taken prisoner. Two-thirds of Falaise was destroyed by Allied bombing before the town was taken by a combined force of Canadian and Polish troops. Falaise was restored after the war. Falaise has been twinned with Henley-on-Thames in Oxfordshire, England since 1974. Communes of the Calvados department Castle William the Conqueror in Falaise, France. Normandieweb on Falaise A Conqueror's change of heart Personal blog with good images of the William the Conqueror statue in Falaise
Robert, Count of Mortain
Robert, Count of Mortain, 2nd Earl of Cornwall was a Norman nobleman and the half-brother of King William the Conqueror. He was one of the few proven companions of William the Conqueror at the Battle of Hastings and as recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086 was one of the greatest landholders in his half-brother's new Kingdom of England. Robert was the son of brother of Odo of Bayeux. Robert was born c. 1031 in Normandy, a half-brother of William the Conqueror. and was not more than a year or so younger than his brother Odo, born c. 1030. About 1035, Herluin, as Vicomte of Conteville, along with his wife Herleva and Robert, founded Grestain Abbey. In c. 1049 his brother Duke William made him Count of Mortain, in place of William Werlenc, banished by Duke William. William Werlenc was a grandson of Duke Richard I and therefore a cousin once removed to William, Duke of Normandy. Securing the southern border of Normandy was critical to Duke William and Robert was entrusted with this key county which guarded the borders of Brittany and Bellême.
In early 1066, Robert was present at both the first council of Lillebonne, that of William's inner circle, the second larger council held to discuss the Duke's planned conquest of England. Robert agreed to provide 120 ships to the invasion fleet, more than any other of William's magnates. Robert was one of those few known to have been at the Battle of Hastings in 1066, he is pictured at a dinner at Pevensey on the Bayeux Tapestry, seated with his brothers William and Odo on the day of the landing in England. When granting the monastery of St Michael's Mount to the Norman monastery on the Mont Saint-Michel Robert recorded that he had fought at the Battle of Hastings under the banner of St Michel. Robert's contribution to the success of the invasion was regarded as significant by the Conqueror, who awarded him a large share of the spoils; the greatest concentration of his honours lay in Cornwall where he held all of that county and was considered by some the Earl of Cornwall. While Robert held lands in twenty counties, the majority of his holdings in certain counties was as few as five manors.
The overall worth of his estates was £2100. He administered most of his southwestern holdings from Launceston and Montacute in Somerset; the holding of single greatest importance was the rape of Pevensey which protected one of the more vulnerable parts of the south coast of England. In 1069, together with Robert of Eu, he led an army against a force of Danes in Lindsey and effected great slaughter against them. After that there is little mention of Robert who appears to have been an absentee landholder spending the majority of his time in Normandy. Along with his brother Odo he participated in a revolt in 1088 against William II but afterwards he was pardoned. Robert died in 1095 on 9 December, chose to be buried at the Abbey of Grestain, near his father and next to his first wife Matilda, he was described by William of Malmesbury in his Gesta Regum as a man of stupid dull disposition. William the Conqueror considered him one of his greatest supporters and trusted him with the important county of Mortain.
Further clues to his character are found in the Vita of Vitalis of Savigny, a wise monk who Robert sought out as his chaplain. One incident tells of Robert beating his wife and Vital, threatened to end the marriage if Robert did not repent. In still another entry Vital tells of his leaving Robert's service abruptly and after being escorted back to him, Robert begged for Vital's pardon for his actions. Overall, Robert was proficient in every duty William assigned him, he was a religious man yet ill-tempered enough to beat his wife, but was not known as a man of great wisdom. Robert was married to Matilda, daughter of Roger de Montgomery, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury, before 1066 and together they had: William, Count of Mortain, who succeeded him. Agnes who married André de Vitré, seigneur of Vitré. Denise, married in 1078 to Guy, 3rd Sire de La Val. Emma of Mortain, the wife of William IV of Toulouse. Through Emma's daughter Philippa, Countess of Toulouse, Robert was the great-great-grandfather of Eleanor of Aquitaine and hence an ancestor of all English monarchs after Henry II.
After Matilda de Montgomery's death c. 1085 Robert secondly married Almodis. The couple had no children. On screen, Robert has been portrayed by Gordon Whiting in the two-part BBC TV play Conquest, part of the series Theatre 625, by Richard Ireson in the TV drama Blood Royal: William the Conqueror
William the Conqueror
William I known as William the Conqueror and sometimes William the Bastard, was the first Norman King of England, reigning from 1066 until his death in 1087. A descendant of Rollo, he was Duke of Normandy from 1035 onward. After a long struggle to establish his power, by 1060 his hold on Normandy was secure, he launched the Norman conquest of England six years later; the rest of his life was marked by struggles to consolidate his hold over England and his continental lands and by difficulties with his eldest son. William was the son of Duke of Normandy, by Robert's mistress Herleva, his illegitimate status and his youth caused some difficulties for him after he succeeded his father, as did the anarchy that plagued the first years of his rule. During his childhood and adolescence, members of the Norman aristocracy battled each other, both for control of the child duke and for their own ends. In 1047 William was able to quash a rebellion and begin to establish his authority over the duchy, a process, not complete until about 1060.
His marriage in the 1050s to Matilda of Flanders provided him with a powerful ally in the neighbouring county of Flanders. By the time of his marriage, William was able to arrange the appointment of his supporters as bishops and abbots in the Norman church, his consolidation of power allowed him to expand his horizons, by 1062 William secured control of the neighbouring county of Maine. In the 1050s and early 1060s William became a contender for the throne of England held by the childless Edward the Confessor, his first cousin once removed. There were other potential claimants, including the powerful English earl Harold Godwinson, named the next king by Edward on the latter's deathbed in January 1066. William argued that Edward had promised the throne to him and that Harold had sworn to support William's claim. William built a large fleet and invaded England in September 1066, decisively defeating and killing Harold at the Battle of Hastings on 14 October 1066. After further military efforts William was crowned king on Christmas Day 1066, in London.
He made arrangements for the governance of England in early 1067 before returning to Normandy. Several unsuccessful rebellions followed, by 1075 William's hold on England was secure, allowing him to spend the majority of the rest of his reign on the continent. William's final years were marked by difficulties in his continental domains, troubles with his eldest son, threatened invasions of England by the Danes. In 1086 William ordered the compilation of the Domesday Book, a survey listing all the landholdings in England along with their pre-Conquest and current holders. William died in September 1087 while leading a campaign in northern France, was buried in Caen, his reign in England was marked by the construction of castles, the settling of a new Norman nobility on the land, change in the composition of the English clergy. He did not try to integrate his various domains into one empire but instead continued to administer each part separately. William's lands were divided after his death: Normandy went to his eldest son, Robert Curthose, his second surviving son, William Rufus, received England.
Norsemen first began raiding in. Permanent Scandinavian settlement occurred before 911, when Rollo, one of the Viking leaders, King Charles the Simple of France reached an agreement surrendering the county of Rouen to Rollo; the lands around Rouen became the core of the duchy of Normandy. Normandy may have been used as a base when Scandinavian attacks on England were renewed at the end of the 10th century, which would have worsened relations between England and Normandy. In an effort to improve matters, King Æthelred the Unready took Emma of Normandy, sister of Duke Richard II, as his second wife in 1002. Danish raids on England continued, Æthelred sought help from Richard, taking refuge in Normandy in 1013 when King Swein I of Denmark drove Æthelred and his family from England. Swein's death in 1014 allowed Æthelred to return home, but Swein's son Cnut contested Æthelred's return. Æthelred died unexpectedly in 1016, Cnut became king of England. Æthelred and Emma's two sons and Alfred, went into exile in Normandy while their mother, became Cnut's second wife.
After Cnut's death in 1035, the English throne fell to Harold Harefoot, his son by his first wife, while Harthacnut, his son by Emma, became king in Denmark. England remained unstable. Alfred returned to England in 1036 to visit his mother and to challenge Harold as king. One story implicates Earl Godwin of Wessex in Alfred's subsequent death. Emma went into exile in Flanders until Harthacnut became king following Harold's death in 1040, his half-brother Edward followed Harthacnut to England. William was born in 1027 or 1028 at Falaise, Duchy of Normandy, most towards the end of 1028, he was the only son of Duke Robert I, son of Duke Richard II. His mother, was the daughter of Fulbert of Falaise, she was a member of the ducal household, but did not marry Robert. Instead, she married Herluin de Conteville, with whom she had two sons – Odo of Bayeux and Robert, Count of Mortain – and a daughter whose name is unknown. One of Herleva's brothers, became a supporter and protector of William during his minority.
Robert had a daughter, Adelaide, by another mistress. Robert became Duke of Normandy on 6 August 1027, succeeding his elder brother Richard III, who had only succeeded to the title the previous year. Robert and his brother had been at odds over the succession, Richard's death
A chamberlain is a senior royal official in charge of managing a royal household. The chamberlain superintends the arrangement of domestic affairs and was also charged with receiving and paying out money kept in the royal chamber; the position was honoured upon a high-ranking member of the nobility or the clergy a royal favourite. Roman emperors appointed this officer under the title of cubicularius; the papal chamberlain of the Pope enjoys extensive powers, having the revenues of the papal household under his charge. As a sign of their dignity, they bore a key, which in the seventeenth century was silvered, fitted the door-locks of chamber rooms, since the eighteenth century it had turned into a symbolic, albeit splendid, rank-insignia of gilded bronze. In many countries there are ceremonial posts associated with the household of the sovereign. Many institutions and governments – monasteries and cities – had the post of chamberlain, who had charge of finances; the Finance Director of the City of London is still called the Chamberlain, while New York City had such a chamberlain, who managed city accounts, until the early 20th century.
From the Old French chamberlain, Modern French chambellan, from Old High German Chamarling, whence the Medieval Latin cambellanus, camerlengus. Some of the principal posts known by this name: Kammerherr, or Kämmerer Grand Chamberlain of The Councils of BruneiAround the year of 2012, The Grand Chamberlain of The Council, Alauddin bin Abu Bakar, on emergency broadcast had announced the divorce between the Sultan and his third wife. June 7, 2015; the Grand Chamberlain of Brunei announced the newborn prince of Deputy Sultan, Crown Prince of Brunei Koubikoularios Parakoimomenos Praepositus sacri cubiculi Hofmarskallen Kammerherre Kammerdame Grand Chamberlain of France Grand Chamberman of France Kammerherr, or Kämmerer Kammerherr, or Kämmerer Reichskämmerer Lord Chamberlain of the Archduchess Grand Chamberlain of Japan and Chamberlain of Japan Lord Chamberlain of Norway Podkomorzy Chamberlain-Major of Portugal Chamberlain of the Prince of Portugal Admissionales Praepositus sacri cubiculi Cubicularius Ober-Kammerherr or Kammerherr (Russian: Обер-камергер or Камергер}.
Postelnichiy was the ceremonial post at the court of a Grand Duke. In 1772, at the court of the Tsar the German term Kammerherr was introduced; the Ober-Kammerherr was responsible for the audiences granted to members of the Royal Family. Since the beginning of the 18th century, the Ober-Kammerherr was the most senior appointed official of the Russian Imperial Court associated with the household of the sovereign; the most notable figures were: Prince Alexander Danilovich Menshikov 1727 - 1728 Prince Ivan Alekseevich Dolgorukov 1730 - 1740 Duke Ernst Johann von Biron 1730 - 1740 Count Pyotr Borisovich Sheremetev 1761 - 1768 Boris Vladimirovich Stürmer 1916 - 1917, the last Ober-Kammerherr of Tsar Nicholas II. Kaznac In Sweden there are eight serving chamberlains and four serving cabinet chamberlains at the royal court; the chamberlains are not employed by the court but serve during ceremonial occasions such as state visits and official dinners. In Thailand the head of the Bureau of the Royal Household is titled the Lord Chamberlain.
He has several Grand Chamberlains as his deputy in charge of a specific portfolio. Lord Great Chamberlain Lord Chamberlain Chamberlain of the City of London Chamberlain of the Exchequer, treasury official in the English Exchequer Lord Chamberlain of Scotland Chamberlain of the City of New York Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church Papal Gentleman Court appointment
Roman Catholic Diocese of Bayeux
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Bayeux and Lisieux is a diocese of the Roman Catholic Church in France. The diocese is coextensive with the Department of Calvados and is a suffragan to the Archdiocese of Rouen, in Normandy. At the time of the Concordat of 1802, the ancient Diocese of Lisieux was united to that of Bayeux. A pontifical Brief, in 1854, authorized the Bishop of Bayeux to call himself Bishop of Bayeux and Lisieux. A local legend, found in the breviaries of the 15th century, makes St. Exuperius to be an immediate disciple of St. Clement, thus the first Bishop of Bayeux, his see. St. Regnobertus, was the successor of St. Exuperius, but the Bollandists, Jules Lair, Louis Duchesne found no ground for this legend. Certain successors of St. Exuperius were honored as popular saints: Referendus and Lupus. An important bishop was Odo of Bayeux, brother of William the Conqueror, who built the cathedral, was present at the Battle of Hastings, imprisoned in 1082 for attempting to lead an expedition to Italy to overthrow Pope Gregory VII, who died a crusader in Sicily.
Claude Fauchet, who after being court preacher to Louis XVI, became one of the "conquerors" of the Bastille, was chosen Constitutional Bishop of Bayeux in 1791, was beheaded 31 October 1793. Léon-Adolphe Amette, Archbishop of Paris was, until 1905, Bishop of Bayeux. In the Middle Ages Bayeux and neighbouring Lisieux were important sees; the Bishop of Bayeux was senior among the Norman bishops, the chapter was one of the richest in France. Important councils were held within this diocese, one at Caen, in 1042, summoned by Duke William and the bishops of Normandy; the Truce of God was proclaimed, not for the first time. Again in 1061 a council was summoned, again by Duke William, commanding the attendance of both clergy and laity; the statutes of a synod held at Bayeux about 1300, furnish a fair idea of the discipline of the time. In the Diocese of Bayeux are the Abbey of St. Stephen and the Abbey of the Holy Trinity, both founded at Caen by William the Conqueror and his wife Matilda, in expiation of their unlawful marriage.
The Abbey of Saint-Étienne was first governed by Lanfranc, who afterwards became Archbishop of Canterbury. Other abbeys were those of Troarn of which Durand, the successful opponent of Berengarius, was abbot in the 11th century; the Abbey of St. Evroul in the Diocese of Lisieux, founded about 560 by St. Evroul, a native of Bayeux, was the home of Ordericus Vitalis, the chronicler. In 1308 Bishop Guillaume Bonnet was founder of the Collège de Bayeux in Paris, intended to house students from the dioceses of Bayeux and Angers, who were studying medicine or civil law. Saint Jean Eudes founded in 1641 in Caen the Congregation of Notre Dame de Charité du Refuge, devoted to the protection of reformed prostitutes; the mission of the nuns has been expanded since that time, to include other services to girls and women, including education. In 1900 the Order included 33 establishments in France and elsewhere, each an independent entity. At Tilly, in the Diocese of Bayeux, Michel Vingtras established, in 1839, the politico-religious society known as La Miséricorde, in connexion with the survivors of La Petite Eglise, condemned in 1843 by Gregory XVI.
Daniel Huet, the famous savant and Bishop of Avranches, was a native of Caen. Bishop de Nesmond authorized the establishment of the priests of the Congregation of the Mission of Saint-Lazare in the diocese of Bayeux in 1682. With Lyons Bayeux was one of the French dioceses which did not abandon its'Gallican' rite in favour of Roman use in the years following the First Vatican Council. During World War I, the diocese of Bayeux sent 75 seminarians into military service. Seventeen priests and sixteen seminarians died. In c. 1920 there were 716 parishes in the diocese. Charles Brault (9 Apr 1802 Appointed – 8 Aug 1817 Jean de Pradelles Charles-François Duperrier-Dumourier Jean-Charles-Richard Dancel Louis-François Robin Charles-Nicolas-Pierre Didiot Flavien-Abel-Antoinin Hugonin Léon-Adolphe Amette (8 Jul 1898 Appointed – 21 Feb 1906 Thomas-Paul-Henri Lemonnier Emmanuel Célestin Suhard (6 Jul 1928 Appointed – 23 Dec 1930 François-Marie Picaud André Jacquemin (29 Oct 1954 Succ
The Bayeux Tapestry is an embroidered cloth nearly 70 metres long and 50 centimetres tall, which depicts the events leading up to the Norman conquest of England concerning William, Duke of Normandy, Harold, Earl of Wessex King of England, culminating in the Battle of Hastings. It is thought to date within a few years after the battle, it tells the story from the point of view of the conquering Normans, but is now agreed to have been made in England. According to Sylvette Lemagnen, conservator of the tapestry, in her 2005 book La Tapisserie de Bayeux: The Bayeux tapestry is one of the supreme achievements of the Norman Romanesque.... Its survival intact over nine centuries is little short of miraculous... Its exceptional length, the harmony and freshness of its colours, its exquisite workmanship, the genius of its guiding spirit combine to make it endlessly fascinating; the cloth consists of some seventy scenes, many with Latin tituli, embroidered on linen with coloured woollen yarns. It is that it was commissioned by Bishop Odo, William's half-brother, made in England—not Bayeux—in the 1070s.
In 1729 the hanging was rediscovered by scholars at a time when it was being displayed annually in Bayeux Cathedral. The tapestry is now exhibited at the Musée de la Tapisserie de Bayeux in Bayeux, France; the designs on the Bayeux Tapestry are embroidered rather than woven, so that it is not technically a tapestry. It has always been referred to as a tapestry until recent years when the name "Bayeux Embroidery" has gained ground among certain art historians, it can be seen as a rare example of secular Romanesque art. Tapestries adorned both churches and wealthy houses in Medieval Western Europe, though at 0.5 by 68.38 metres the Bayeux Tapestry is exceptionally large. Only the figures and decoration are embroidered, on a background left plain, which shows the subject clearly and was necessary to cover large areas. On 18 January 2018, French President Emmanuel Macron announced that the Bayeux Tapestry would be loaned to Britain for public display, it is expected to be exhibited at the British Museum in London, but not before 2020.
It will be the first time. The earliest known written reference to the tapestry is a 1476 inventory of Bayeux Cathedral, but its origins have been the subject of much speculation and controversy. French legend maintained the tapestry was commissioned and created by Queen Matilda, William the Conqueror's wife, her ladies-in-waiting. Indeed, in France, it is known as "La Tapisserie de la Reine Mathilde". However, scholarly analysis in the 20th century concluded it was commissioned by William's half-brother, Bishop Odo, after the Conquest, became Earl of Kent and, when William was absent in Normandy, regent of England; the reasons for the Odo commission theory include: 1) three of the bishop's followers mentioned in the Domesday Book appear on the tapestry. Assuming Odo commissioned the tapestry, it was designed and constructed in England by Anglo-Saxon artists. Howard B. Clarke has proposed that the designer of the tapestry was Scolland, the abbot of St Augustine's Abbey in Canterbury, because of his previous position as head of the scriptorium at Mont Saint-Michel, his travels to Trajan's Column, his connections to Wadard and Vital, two individuals identified in the tapestry.
The actual physical work of stitching was most undertaken by female needleworkers. Anglo-Saxon needlework of the more detailed type known as Opus Anglicanum was famous across Europe, it was commissioned for display in the hall of his palace and bequeathed to the cathedral he built, following the pattern of the documented but lost hanging of Byrhtnoth. Alternative theories exist. Carola Hicks has suggested it could have been commissioned by Edith of Wessex, widow of Edward the Confessor and sister of Harold. Wolfgang Grape has challenged the consensus that the embroidery is Anglo-Saxon, distinguishing between Anglo-Saxon and other Northern European techniques. George Beech suggests the tapestry was executed at the Abbey of Saint-Florent de Saumur in the Loire Valley, says the detailed depiction of the Breton campaign argues for additional sources in France. Andrew Bridgeford has suggested that the tapestry was of English design and encoded with secret messages meant to undermine Norman rule. In common with other embroidered hangings of the early medieval period, this piece is conventionally referred to as a "tapestry", although it is not a true tapestry in which the design is woven into the cloth.
The Bayeux tapestry is embroidered in crewel on a tabby-woven linen ground 68.38 metres long and 0.5 metres wide and using two methods of stitching: outline or stem stitch for lettering and the