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Herman Boerhaave

Herman Boerhaave was a Dutch botanist, Christian humanist, physician of European fame. He is regarded as the founder of clinical teaching and of the modern academic hospital and is sometimes referred to as "the father of physiology," along with Venetian physician Santorio Santorio. Boerhaave introduced the quantitative approach into medicine, along with his pupil Albrecht von Haller and is best known for demonstrating the relation of symptoms to lesions, he was the first to isolate the chemical urea from urine. He was the first physician to put thermometer measurements to clinical practice, his motto was Simplex sigillum veri:'Simplicity is the sign of the truth'. He is hailed as the "Dutch Hippocrates". Boerhaave was born at Voorhout near Leiden; the son of a Protestant pastor, in his youth Boerhaave studied for a divinity degree and wanted to become a preacher. After the death of his father, however, he was offered a scholarship and he entered the University of Leiden, where he took his degree in philosophy in 1689, with a dissertation De distinctione mentis a corpore.

There he attacked the doctrines of Epicurus, Thomas Hobbes and Spinoza. He turned to the study of medicine, in which he graduated in 1693 at Harderwijk in present-day Gelderland. In 1701 he was appointed lecturer on the institutes of medicine at Leiden. In 1709 he became professor of botany and medicine, in that capacity he did good service, not only to his own university, but to botanical science, by his improvements and additions to the botanic garden of Leiden, by the publication of numerous works descriptive of new species of plants. On 14 September 1710, Boerhaave married Maria Drolenvaux, the daughter of the rich merchant, Alderman Abraham Drolenvaux, they had four children, of whom Maria Joanna, lived to adulthood. In 1722, he began recovering the next year. In 1714, when he was appointed rector of the university, he succeeded Govert Bidloo in the chair of practical medicine, in this capacity he introduced the modern system of clinical instruction. Four years he was appointed to the chair of chemistry as well.

In 1728 he was elected into the French Academy of Sciences, two years into the Royal Society of London. In 1729 declining health obliged him to resign the chairs of botany, his reputation so increased the fame of the University of Leiden as a school of medicine, that it became popular with visitors from every part of Europe. All the princes of Europe sent him pupils, who found in this skilful professor not only an indefatigable teacher, but an affectionate guardian; when Peter the Great went to Holland in 1716, he took lessons from Boerhaave. Voltaire travelled to see him, his reputation was not confined to Europe. The operating theatre of the University of Leiden in which he once worked as an anatomist is now at the centre of a museum named after him. Asteroid 8175 Boerhaave is named after Boerhaave. From 1955 to 1961 Boerhaave's image was printed on Dutch 20-guilder banknotes; the Leiden University Medical Centre organises. He had a prodigious influence on the development of chemistry in Scotland.

British medical schools credit Boerhaave for developing the system of medical education upon which their current institutions are based. Every founding member of the Edinburgh Medical School had studied at Leyden and attended Boerhaave's lectures on chemistry including John Rutherford and Francis Home. Boerhaave's Elementa Chemiae is recognised as the first text on chemistry. Boerhaave first described Boerhaave syndrome, which involves tearing of the oesophagus a consequence of vigorous vomiting, he notoriously described in 1724 the case of Baron Jan van Wassenaer, a Dutch admiral who died of this condition following a gluttonous feast and subsequent regurgitation. This condition was uniformly fatal prior to modern surgical techniques allowing repair of the oesophagus. Boerhaave was critical of his Dutch contemporary, Baruch Spinoza, attacking him in his dissertation in 1689. At the same time, he admired Isaac Newton and was a devout Christian who wrote about God in his works. A collection of his religious thoughts on medicine, translated from Latin to English, has been compiled by the Sir Thomas Browne Instituut Leiden under the name Boerhaave's Orations.

Among other things, he considered nature as God's Creation and he used to say that the poor were his best patients because God was their paymaster. As a credible chemist and physician of European, the human body was a inquisitive and compelling component in agreed with other physicians of his time – like Borellis – and thus he devoted a diligent focus towards this subject matter. Boerhaave's ideas about the human body were influenced by French mathematician and philosopher René Descartes. Descartes contributed much to iatromechanical theories. Another influencer of Boerhaave's reasoning was Giovanni Borelli, he was a distinguished astronomer and mathematician in the 1600s and published writings on animal motions mirroring machinery principles. Inspired by this and Cartesianism, Boerhaave proposed th

Lourdes Reyes Besa

Lourdes "Lulu" Reyes Besa was a philanthropist and social advocate born in Jaro, Iloilo. She was raised in Philippines by her parents Judge Ponciano Reyes and Luz Jugo Reyes; as president of the Chaplains’ Aid Association, Lulu headed the Crusades for Charity and brought medicines to American and Filipino POWs in Japanese-run internment camps in the Philippines. For her service, she was awarded the Medal of Freedom twice — on August 11, 1947 and September 24, 1947. Major General George F. Moore, commander of the Harbor Defenses of Manila and Subic Bays during the Japanese invasion in 1941, praised her as “one of the outstanding heroines of World War II."In 1946, Lourdes co-founded the YLAC with Aurora Quezon. She became president of the organization, which built faith-based elementary schools that provided education throughout the Philippines. In 1953, Lulu Reyes Besa received the Ateneo University’s Ozanam Award for her social action achievements; that same year, Lulu raised money for the construction of the National Shrine of Our Mother of Perpetual Help, in Baclaran, Pasay City.

In recognition of her civil service, she received the Fleur de Lis Award in 1962 from her alma mater St. Paul's College of Manila. Additionally, she was honored with the Papal Award Order of the Holy Sepulcher for her charitable contributions to works with the Catholic church and the religious community. Lulu Reyes Besa lived in Tarlac, Tarlac throughout her married life with Gualberto S. Besa and their daughters, Elizabeth Ann and Maria Isabel, until her passing on March 14, 1981

Leda Zamora Chaves

Leda Zamora Chaves is a Costa Rican civil servant and politician. She was Treasurer of the Citizens' Action Party between 2006 and 2014. Zamora was raised in Bijagua de Upala. Zamora graduated with a licentiate in public administration from the University of Costa Rica in 1993. In addition, she is studying for a Master's in social project administration. Beginning in 1992, Zamora worked for the Costa Rican Institute for Electricity, she worked in finance, import payment and accounting, electric production until resigning in 2006 to join the PAC. Zamora's interest in politics began, she claimed that she shared the missions of the party from its inception. Between 1997 and 1999, she served on the Executive Board of the Economic Sciences Professional Union. In 2006, Zamora ran for and won the third deputy seat for San José, she represented the area of Coronado de San José. Among her interests were the problems with youth, including drug culture and educational opportunities, she worked directly for the PAC as an on various commissions between 2010 and 2014.

Zamora enjoys mountain biking. She has one son