Kodiak is one of seven communities and the main city on Kodiak Island, Kodiak Island Borough, in the U. S. state of Alaska. All commercial transportation between the entire island and the outside world goes through this city either via ferryboat or airline; the population was 6,130 as of the 2010 census. 2014 estimates put the population at 6,304. Inhabited by Alutiiq natives for over 7,000 years, the city was settled in the 18th century by the subjects of the Russian crown and became the capital of Russian Alaska. Harvesting of the area's sea otter pelts led to the near extinction of the animal in the following century and led to wars with and enslavement of the natives for over 150 years. After the Alaska Purchase by the United States in 1867, Kodiak became a commercial fishing center which continues to be the mainstay of its economy. A lesser economic influence includes tourism by those seeking outdoor adventure trips. Salmon, the unique Kodiak bear, Sitka deer, mountain goats attract hunting tourists as well as fishermen to the Kodiak Archipelago.
The Alaska Department of Fish and Game maintains an office in the city and a website to help hunters and fishermen obtain the proper permits and learn about the laws specific to the Kodiak area. The city has four public elementary schools, a middle and high school, as well as a branch of the University of Alaska. An antenna farm at the summit of Pillar Mountain above the city provided communication with the outside world before fiber optic cable was run. Transportation to and from the island is provided by ferry service on the Alaska Marine Highway as well as local commercial airlines; the Kodiak Archipelago has been home to the Alutiiq for over 7,000 years. In their language, qikertaq means "island". In 1763, the Russian explorer Stephan Glotov discovered the island, he was followed by the British captain James Cook fifteen years who first recorded "Kodiak" in his journals in 1778. In 1792, the Russian Shelikhov-Golikov Company chief manager Alexander Baranov moved the post at Three Saints Bay to a new site in Paul's Harbor.
This developed as the nucleus of modern Kodiak. Baranov considered Three Saints Bay a poor location; the relocated settlement was first named Pavlovskaya Gavan. A warehouse was built in what became one of the key posts of the Shelikhov-Golikov Company, a precursor of the Russian-American Company and a center for harvesting the area's vast population of sea otters for their prized pelts; the warehouse still stands as the Baranov Museum. Because the First Native cultures revered this animal and would never harm it, the Russians had wars with and enslaved the Aleuts during this era. Eastern Orthodox missionaries settled on the island by the end of the 18th century, continuing European settlement of the island, they held the liturgy in native Tlingit from 1800. The capital of Russian America was moved to Novoarkhangelsk in 1804; the Russian-American Company was established in 1799 as a joint-stock company by decree of Emperor Paul to continue the harvest of sea otter and other fur-bearing animals and establish permanent settlements.
By the mid-19th century, the sea otter was extinct and 85% of the First Native population had disappeared from exposure to European diseases and violence. When Russia sold Alaska to the United States in 1867, Kodiak developed as a center for commercial fishing, canneries dotted the island in the early 20th century until global farm-raised salmon eliminated these businesses. New processing centers emerged and the industry continues to evolve. During the presidency of Theodore Roosevelt, animals such as the mountain goat, Sitka deer, muskrats, beavers and others were introduced to the island and the Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge was created; as Kodiak was incorporated in 1941, the U. S. feared attack from Japanese during World War II, turned the town into a fortress. Roads, the airport, Fort Abercrombie, gun fortifications improved the island's infrastructure; when Alaska became a state in 1959, government assistance in housing and education added additional benefits. In March 1964, a tectonic tsunami struck the city during the 1964 Alaska earthquake with 30-foot waves that killed 15 people and caused $11 million in damage.
Some areas near Kodiak were permanently raised by 30 feet. It wiped out the neighboring Native villages of Old Kaguyak; the Standard Oil Company, the Alaskan King Crab Company, much of the fishing fleet were destroyed. Kodiak is located on the eastern shore of Kodiak Island. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.9 square miles, divided into 3.5 sq mi of land and 1.4 sq mi of water. Kodiak has a subarctic climate that closely borders a humid continental climate marked by chilly to cold weather year-round. Precipitation is heavy year-round, though markedly less in the summer months. Kodiak first appeared on the 1880 U. S. Census as the village of Saint Paul, it reported a population of 288, of which 253 were "Creole", 15 Aleuts. In 1890, it would report as "Kadiak". In 1900, it returned as "Kadiak Settlement." From 1910 onwards, it reported as Kodiak, would formally incorporate in 1940. As of the census of 2000, there are 6,334 people, 1,996 households, 1,361 families residing in the city.
The population densi
The ruble or rouble is or was a currency unit of a number of countries in Eastern Europe associated with the economy of Russia. The ruble was the currency unit of Imperial Russia and the Soviet Union, it is the currency unit of Russia and Belarus; the Russian ruble is used in two regions of Georgia, which are considered by Russia as recognised states of Abkhazia and South Ossetia. In the past, several other countries influenced by Russia and the Soviet Union had currency units that were named rubles. One ruble is divided into 100 kopeks. According to one version, the word "ruble" is derived from the Russian verb рубить, "to cut, to chop, to hack", as a ruble was considered a cutout piece of a silver grivna. Rubles were pieces of silver with notches indicating their weight; each grivna was divided into four parts. Others say the ruble was never a synonym for it; this is attested in a 13th century Novgorod birch bark manuscript, where both ruble and grivna referred to 204 gramms of silver. The casting of these pieces included some sort of cutting, hence the name from рубить.
Another version of the word's origin is that it comes from the Russian noun рубец, the seam, left around a silver bullions after casting: silver was added to the cast in two steps. Therefore, the word ruble means "a cast with a seam". A popular theory deriving the word ruble from rupee is not correct; the ruble was the Russian equivalent of the mark, a measurement of weight for silver and gold used in medieval Western Europe. The weight of one ruble was equal to the weight of one grivna. In Russian, a folk name for ruble, tselkovyj, is known, a shortening of the целковый рубль, i.e. a wholesome, uncut ruble. This name persists in the Mordvin word for ruble, целковой; the word kopek, copeck, or kopeyka is a diminutive form of the Russian kop'yo — a spear. The first kopek coins, minted at Novgorod and Pskov from about 1534 onwards, show a horseman with a spear. From the 1540s onwards the horseman bears a crown, doubtless the intention was to represent Ivan the Terrible, Grand Prince of all Russia until 1547, Tsar thereafter.
Subsequent mintings of the coin, starting in the 18th century, bear instead Saint George striking down a serpent. Since the monetary reform of 1534, one Russian accounting ruble became equivalent to 100 silver Novgorod denga coins or smaller 200 Muscovite denga coins or smaller 400 polushka coins; the former coin with a rider on it soon became colloquially known as kopek and was the higher coin until the beginning of the 18th century. Ruble coins as such did not exist till Peter the Great, when in 1704 he reformed the old monetary system and ordered mintage of a 28-gramme silver ruble coin equivalent to 100 new copper kopek coins. Apart from one ruble and one kopek coins other smaller and greater coins existed as well. Both the spellings ruble and rouble are used in English; the form rouble is preferred by the Oxford English Dictionary, but the earliest use recorded in English is the now obsolete robble. The form rouble derives from the transliteration into French used among the Tsarist aristocracy.
There are two main usage tendencies: one is for North American authors to use ruble and other English speakers to use rouble, while the other is for older sources to use rouble and more recent ones to use ruble. Neither tendency is consistent; the Russian plurals that may be seen on the actual currency are modified according to Russian grammar. Numbers ending in 1 are followed by nominative singular рубль rubl′, копе́йка kopéyka. Numbers ending in 2, 3 or 4 are followed by копе́йки kopéyki. Numbers ending in 5 -- 9, 0, or 11 -- 14 are followed by копе́ек kopéyek. In several languages spoken in Russia and the former Soviet Union, the currency name has no etymological relation with ruble. In Turkic languages or languages influenced by them, the ruble is known as som or sum, or manat. Soviet banknotes had their value printed in the languages of all 15 republics of the Soviet Union. From the 14th to the 17th centuries the ruble was neither a coin nor a currency but rather a unit of weight; the most used currency was a small silver coin called denga.
There were two variants of the denga minted in Moscow. The weight of a denga silver coin was unstable and inflating, but by 1535 one Novgorod denga weighted 0.68 grams, the Moscow denga being a half of the Novgorod denga. Thus one account ruble consisted of 100 Novgorod or 200 Moscow dengi; as the Novgorod denga bore the image of a rider with a spear, it has become known as kopek. In the 17th century the weight of a kopek coin lowered to 0.48 g, thus one ruble was equal to 48 g of silver. In 1654–1655 tsar Alexis I tried to carry out a monetary reform and ordered to mint silver one ruble coins from imported joachimsthalers and new kopek coins from copper. Although around 1 million of such rubles was made, its lower weight against the nominal ruble led to counte
Most Holy Synod
The Most Holy Governing Synod was the highest governing body of the Russian Orthodox Church between 1721 and 1918. The jurisdiction of the Most Holy Synod extended over every kind of ecclesiastical question and over some secular matters. Peter I of Russia established the Synod on January 1721 in the course of his church reform, its establishment was followed by the abolition of the Patriarchate. The Synod was composed of ecclesiastical persons of laymen appointed by the Tsar. Members included the Metropolitans of Saint Petersburg and Kiev, the Exarch of Georgia; the Synod had ten ecclesiastical members, but the number changed to twelve. A series of reforms by Peter the Great inspired the creation of the Most Holy Synod; the new Imperial Age saw radical change and developments in economic and cultural aspects of Russian life. Peter traveled twice to Europe and made reforms that reflected his desire to westernize Russia and worked to Russify the European models to better fit his nation. Beyond forming the Synod in an effort to enfeeble the power and authority of the Russian Orthodox Church, he challenged traditional Russian values, which were rooted in religion and a social structure defined by boyars and aristocracy, clerics and serfs.
He did so by implementing enlightenment ideals—except for any that would have resulted in democratizing the Russian government, tolerating political or religious dissent, or encouraging the free growth of thought or ideas. With one leader the church proved too great of a threat to Peter’s rule, he was unwilling to share power; when the conservative Patriarch Adrian died in 1700, Peter left the position unfilled and instead Metropolitan Stephen Iavorsky, a supporter of reform, administered the church for twenty years. In 1721 the church came under the cloak of the Russian national government with the Spiritual Order, ostensibly written by Archbishop Theophanes Prokopovich. After Patriarch Adrian died, through the inspiration and encouragement of his official A. A. Kurbatov, decided to abolish the patriarchal Razryadnyi Prikaz, in charge of civil and military administration, redirected all matters to the appropriate prikaz, an administrative or judicial office; this event and others demonstrated that little by little, Peter’s administration rendered each church division powerless and their duties transferred to paralleled governmental departments.
Some scholars argue, that Peter did not intend to abolish the Patriarchy when he began altering the administrative structure of the church. Delaying choosing a new patriarch proved economically advantageous; this gave Peter further incentive to abolish the Patriarchy. In 1711, reform allotted the Senate jurisdiction over all peoples, including ecclesiastical subjects; this meant that the state now had authority over issues, reserved for church authorities. With this power came the ability, in certain situations, for the state to determine clerics for administration in religious positions. In 1716 Peter formulated an oath for the bishops-elect of Astrakhan and Yavorskii; the oath, divided into seven parts, served as a supplement to the present oath. The first two parts regard the appropriate method for dealing with oppositionists; the third section designates that monks of their dioceses were not to travel outside diocese limits, unless for an urgent matter, only with written permission. The oath prohibited the building of any unnecessary churches and the hiring on of any unessential clerics.
The oath required clergy to visit their diocese at least once a year in order to dispel superstition or apostates and to congregate believers. The oath compelled bishops to swear that they would not become involved in secular affairs or legal proceedings. Peter was determined to westernize Russia during his reign, the church was an integral part of his campaign; as mentioned earlier, the new structure of the church in many ways resembled that of European countries, such as Sweden and Germany. In a broader sense, Peter was attempting to modernize Russia through secularization, a vital step in the course of European political modernization during this time. Secularization, in this instance, meant the institutionalization and increased breadth of the state’s wealth and authority coupled with the dwindling power of the church; the church became politically subject to the government, instead of the traditional relationship between church and state, in which rulers, such as Ivan IV, felt in some ways subject to the approval of the Orthodox Church in order to remain a legitimate sovereign.
Peter used the Synod to punish dissident Russians. An addition in 1722 to the Ecclesiastic Regulation, which replaced the patriarch as the church head, required clerics to report any seditious confessions. Before the creation of the Most Holy Synod, Peter concerned himself with improvements in the church, he was interested in improving the education of the clerics, since many were illiterate and unable to administer
A shrine is a holy or sacred place, dedicated to a specific deity, hero, saint, daemon, or similar figure of awe and respect, at which they are venerated or worshipped. Shrines contain idols, relics, or other such objects associated with the figure being venerated. A shrine at which votive offerings are made is called an altar. Shrines are found in many of the world's religions, including Christianity, Hinduism, Chinese folk religion and Asatru as well as in secular and non-religious settings such as a war memorial. Shrines can be found in various settings, such as churches, cemeteries, museums, or in the home, although portable shrines are found in some cultures. A shrine may become a focus of a cult image. Many shrines are located within buildings and in the temples designed for worship, such as a church in Christianity, or a mandir in Hinduism. A shrine here is the centre of attention in the building, is given a place of prominence. In such cases, adherents of the faith assemble within the building in order to venerate the deity at the shrine.
In classical temple architecture, the shrine may be synonymous with the cella. In Hinduism and Roman Catholicism, in modern faiths, such as Neopaganism, a shrine can be found within the home or shop; this shrine is a small structure or a setup of pictures and figurines dedicated to a deity, part of the official religion, to ancestors or to a localised household deity. Small household shrines are common among the Chinese and people from South and Southeast Asia, whether Hindu, Buddhist or Christian. A small lamp and small offerings are kept daily by the shrine. Buddhist household shrines must be on a shelf above the head. Small outdoor yard shrines are found at the bottom of many peoples' gardens, following various religions, including Christianity. Many consist of a statue of Christ or a saint, on a pedestal or in an alcove, while others may be elaborate booths without ceilings, some include paintings and architectural elements, such as walls, glass doors and ironwork fences, etc. In the United States, some Christians have small yard shrines.
Religious images in some sort of small shelter, placed by a road or pathway, sometimes in a settlement or at a crossroads. Shrines are found in many religions; as distinguished from a temple, a shrine houses a particular relic or cult image, the object of worship or veneration. A shrine may be constructed to set apart a site, thought to be holy, as opposed to being placed for the convenience of worshippers. Shrines therefore attract the practice of pilgrimage. Shrines are found in many, forms of Christianity. Roman Catholicism, the largest denomination of Christianity, has many shrines, as do Orthodox Christianity and Anglicanism. In the Roman Catholic Code of Canon law, canons 1230 and 1231 read: "The term shrine means a church or other sacred place which, with the approval of the local Ordinary, is by reason of special devotion frequented by the faithful as pilgrims. For a shrine to be described as national, the approval of the Episcopal Conference is necessary. For it to be described as international, the approval of the Holy See is required."Another use of the term "shrine" in colloquial Catholic terminology is a niche or alcove in most – larger – churches used by parishioners when praying in the church.
They were called Devotional Altars, since they could look like small Side Altars or bye-altars. Shrines were always centered on some image of Christ or a saint – for instance, a statue, mural or mosaic, may have had a reredos behind them. However, Mass would not be celebrated at them. Side altars, where Mass could be celebrated, were used in a similar way to shrines by parishioners. Side altars were dedicated to The Virgin Mary, Saint Joseph as well as other saints. A nativity set could be viewed as a shrine, as the definition of a shrine is any holy or sacred place. Islam's holiest structure, the Kaaba in the city of Mecca, though an ancient temple, may be seen as a shrine due to it housing a venerated relic called the Hajar al-Aswad and being the focus of the world's largest pilgrimage practice, the Hajj. A few yards away, the mosque houses the Maqam Ibrahim shrine containing a petrosomatoglyph associated with the patriarch and his son Ishmael's building of the Kaaba in Islamic tradition; the Green Dome sepulcher of the Islamic prophet Muhammad in Medina, housed in the Masjid an-Nabawi, occurs as a venerated place and important as a site of pilgrimage among Muslims.
Two of the oldest and notable Islamic shrines are the Dome of the Rock and the smaller Dome of the Chain built on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem. The former was built over the rock that marked the site of the Jewish Temple and according to Islamic tradition, was the point of departure of Muhammad's legendary ascent heavenwards. More than any other shrines in the Muslim world, the tomb of Muhammad is considered a source of blessings for the visitor. Among sayings attributed to
Eastern Orthodox Church
The Eastern Orthodox Church the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian church, with 200–260 million members. It operates as a communion of autocephalous churches, each governed by its bishops in local synods, although half of Eastern Orthodox Christians live in Russia; the church has no central doctrinal or governmental authority analogous to the Bishop of Rome, but the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople is recognised by all as primus inter pares of the bishops. As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, the Eastern Orthodox Church has played a prominent role in the history and culture of Eastern and Southeastern Europe, the Caucasus, the Near East. Eastern Orthodox theology is based on the Nicene Creed; the church teaches that it is the One, Holy and Apostolic church established by Jesus Christ in his Great Commission, that its bishops are the successors of Christ's apostles. It maintains, its patriarchates, reminiscent of the pentarchy, autocephalous and autonomous churches reflect a variety of hierarchical organisation.
Of its innumerable sacred mysteries, it recognises seven major sacraments, of which the Eucharist is the principal one, celebrated liturgically in synaxis. The church teaches that through consecration invoked by a priest, the sacrificial bread and wine become the body and blood of Christ; the Virgin Mary is venerated in the Eastern Orthodox Church as the God-bearer, honoured in devotions. The Eastern Orthodox Church shared communion with the Roman Catholic Church until the East–West Schism in 1054, triggered by disputes over doctrine the authority of the Pope. Before the Council of Chalcedon in AD 451, the Oriental Orthodox churches shared in this communion, separating over differences in Christology; the majority of Eastern Orthodox Christians live in Southeast and Eastern Europe, Cyprus and other communities in the Caucasus region, communities in Siberia reaching the Russian Far East. There are smaller communities in the former Byzantine regions of the Eastern Mediterranean, in the Middle East where it is decreasing due to persecution.
There are many in other parts of the world, formed through diaspora and missionary activity. In keeping with the church's teaching on universality and with the Nicene Creed, Orthodox authorities such as Saint Raphael of Brooklyn have insisted that the full name of the church has always included the term "Catholic", as in "Holy Orthodox Catholic Apostolic Church"; the official name of the Eastern Orthodox Church is the "Orthodox Catholic Church". It is the name by which the church refers to itself in its liturgical or canonical texts, in official publications, in official contexts or administrative documents. Orthodox teachers refer to the church as Catholic; this name and longer variants containing "Catholic" are recognised and referenced in other books and publications by secular or non-Orthodox writers. The common name of the church, "Eastern Orthodox Church", is a shortened practicality that helps to avoid confusions in casual use. From ancient times through the first millennium, Greek was the most prevalent shared language in the demographic regions where the Byzantine Empire flourished, Greek, being the language in which the New Testament was written, was the primary liturgical language of the church.
For this reason, the eastern churches were sometimes identified as "Greek" before the Great Schism of 1054. After 1054, "Greek Orthodox" or "Greek Catholic" marked a church as being in communion with Constantinople, much as "Catholic" did for communion with Rome; this identification with Greek, became confusing with time. Missionaries brought Orthodoxy to many regions without ethnic Greeks, where the Greek language was not spoken. In addition, struggles between Rome and Constantinople to control parts of Southeastern Europe resulted in the conversion of some churches to Rome, which also used "Greek Catholic" to indicate their continued use of the Byzantine rites. Today, many of those same churches remain, while a large number of Orthodox are not of Greek national origin, do not use Greek as the language of worship. "Eastern" indicates the geographical element in the Church's origin and development, while "Orthodox" indicates the faith, as well as communion with the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople.
There are additional Christian churches in the east that are in communion with neither Rome nor Constantinople, who tend to be distinguished by the category named "Oriental Orthodox". While the church continues to call itself "Catholic", for reasons of universality, the common title of "Eastern Orthodox Church" avoids casual confusion with the Roman Catholic Church; the first known use of the phrase "the catholic Church" occurred in a letter written about 110 AD from one Greek church to another. The letter states: "Wheresoever the bishop shall appear, there let the people be as where Jesus may be, there is the universal Church." Thus from the beginning, Christians referred to the Church as the "One, Holy and Apostolic Church". The Eastern Orthodox Church claims that it is today the continuation and preservation of that same early Church. A number of other Christian churches make a similar claim: the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion, the Assyrian Church and the Oriental Orthodox.
In the Eastern Orthodox v
Lake Baikal is a rift lake in Russia, located in southern Siberia, between Irkutsk Oblast to the northwest and the Buryat Republic to the southeast. Lake Baikal is the largest freshwater lake by volume in the world, containing 22–23% of the world's fresh surface water. With 23,615.39 km3 of fresh water, it contains more water than the North American Great Lakes combined. With a maximum depth of 1,642 m, Baikal is the world's deepest lake, it is considered among the world's clearest lakes and is considered the world's oldest lake – at 25–30 million years. It is the seventh-largest lake in the world by surface area. Like Lake Tanganyika, Lake Baikal was formed as an ancient rift valley, having the typical long, crescent shape with a surface area of 31,722 km2. Baikal is home to thousands of species of plants and animals, many of which exist nowhere else in the world; the lake was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1996. It is home to Buryat tribes who reside on the eastern side of Lake Baikal, raising goats, cattle and horses, where the mean temperature varies from a winter minimum of −19 °C to a summer maximum of 14 °C.
The region to the east of Lake Baikal is referred to as Transbaikalia, the loosely defined region around the lake is sometimes known as Baikalia. Lake Baikal is in a rift valley, created by the Baikal Rift Zone, where the Earth's crust is pulling apart. At 636 km long and 79 km wide, Lake Baikal has the largest surface area of any freshwater lake in Asia, at 31,722 km2, is the deepest lake in the world at 1,642 m; the bottom of the lake is 1,186.5 m below sea level, but below this lies some 7 km of sediment, placing the rift floor some 8–11 km below the surface, the deepest continental rift on Earth. In geological terms, the rift is young and active – it widens about 2 cm per year; the fault zone is seismically active. The lake is divided into three basins: North and South, with depths about 900 m, 1,600 m, 1,400 m, respectively. Fault-controlled accommodation zones rising to depths about 300 m separate the basins; the North and Central basins are separated by Academician Ridge, while the area around the Selenga Delta and the Buguldeika Saddle separates the Central and South basins.
The lake drains into the Angara tributary of the Yenisei. Notable landforms include Cape Ryty on Baikal's northwest coast. Baikal's age is estimated at 25–30 million years, making it the most ancient lake in geological history, it is unique among large, high-latitude lakes, as its sediments have not been scoured by overriding continental ice sheets. Russian, U. S. and Japanese cooperative studies of deep-drilling core sediments in the 1990s provide a detailed record of climatic variation over the past 6.7 million years. Longer and deeper sediment cores are expected in the near future. Lake Baikal is the only confined freshwater lake in which direct and indirect evidence of gas hydrates exists; the lake is surrounded by mountains. The Baikal Mountains on the north shore, the Barguzin Range on the northeastern shore, the taiga are technically protected as a national park, it contains 27 islands. The lake is fed by as many as 330 inflowing rivers; the main ones draining directly into Baikal are the Selenga River, the Barguzin River, the Upper Angara River, the Turka River, the Sarma River, the Snezhnaya River.
It is drained through the Angara River. Baikal is one of the clearest lakes in the world. During the winter in open sections the water transparency can be as much as 30–40 m, but during the summer it is 5–8 m. Baikal is rich in oxygen in deep sections, which separates it from distinctly stratified bodies of water such as Lake Tanganyika and the Black Sea. In Lake Baikal, the water temperature varies depending on location and time of the year. During the winter and spring, the surface freezes for about 4–5 months. On average, the ice reaches a thickness of 0.5 to 1.4 m, but in some places with hummocks, it can be more than 2 m. During this period, the temperature increases with depth in the lake, being coldest near the ice-covered surface at around freezing, reaching about 3.5–3.8 °C at a depth of 200–250 m. After the surface ice breaks up, the surface water is warmed up by the sun, in May–June, the upper 300 m or so becomes homothermic at around 4 °C because of water mixing; the sun continues to heat up the surface layer, at the peak in August can reach up to about 16 °C in the main sections and 20–24 °C in shallow bays in the southern half of the lake.
During this time, the pattern is inverted compared to the winter and spring, as the water temperature falls with increasing depth. As the autumn begins, the surface temperature falls again and a second homothermic period at around 4 °C of the upper circa 300 m occurs in October–November. In the deepest parts of the lake, from about 300 m, the temperature is stable at 3.1–3.4 °C with only minor annual variations. The average surface temperature has risen by
Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia
The Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia, or ROCOR until 2007 part of True Orthodoxy's Russian Orthodox Church Abroad, ROCA also referred to as Karlovatsky Synod, or "Karlovatsky group", or the Synod of Karlovci, is since 2007 a semi-autonomous part of the Russian Orthodox Church. The ROCOR was established in the early 1920s as a de facto independent ecclesiastical jurisdiction of Eastern Orthodoxy as a result of some of the Russian bishops having lost regular liaison with the central church authority in Moscow due to the Russian Civil War and subsequent exile, a situation, effectively institutionalised by their rejection of the Moscow Patriarchate′s unconditional political loyalty to the Bolshevik regime in the USSR formally promulgated by the Declaration of 20 July 1927 of Metropolitan Sergius, deputy Patriarchal locum tenens. Metropolitan Antony, of Kiev and Galicia, was the founding First Hierarch of the ROCOR. After decades of separation, the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia signed the Act of Canonical Communion with the Moscow Patriarchate on 17 May 2007, restoring the canonical link between the churches effecting a split with the much diminished Russian Orthodox Church Abroad which remained within the True Orthodoxy movement.
The jurisdiction has around 400 parishes worldwide and an estimated membership of over 400,000 people. Of these, 232 parishes and 10 monasteries are in the United States, with 92,000 adherents and over 9,000 regular church attendees. ROCOR has 13 hierarchs, with male and female monasteries in the United States, Australia, New Zealand, Western Europe and South America. In May 1919, at the peak of the military success of the White forces under Gen Anton Denikin, in the Russian city of Stavropol, controlled by the White Army a group of Russian bishops organised an ecclesiastical administration body, the Temporary Higher Church Administration in South–East Russia. On 7 November 1920, Patriarch of Moscow, his Synod, the Supreme Church Council in Moscow issued a joint resolution No. 362 instructing all Russian Orthodox Christian bishops, should they be unable to maintain liaison with the Supreme Church Administration in Moscow, to seek protection and guidance by organizing among themselves. In November 1920, after the final defeat of the Russian Army in South Russia, a number of Russian bishops evacuated from Crimea to Constantinople occupied by British and Italian forces.
After learning of the decision of Gen Pyotr Wrangel to keep his army, it was decided to keep the Russian ecclesiastical organisation as a separate entity abroad as well. The Temporary Church Authority met on 19 November 1920, aboard the ship Grand Duke Alexader Mikhailovich, presided over by Metropolitan Antony. Metropolitan Antony and Bishop Benjamin were appointed to examine the canonicity of the organization. On 2 December 1920, they received permission from Metropolitan Dorotheos of Prussia, Locum Tenens of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, to establish "for the purpose of the service of the population and to oversee the ecclesiastic life of Russian colonies in Orthodox countries a temporary committee under the authority of the Ecumenical Patriarchate". On 14 February 1921, Metropolitan Antony settled down in the town of Sremski Karlovci, where he was given the palace of former Patriarchs of Karlovci. In the course of the subsequent few months, at the invitation of Patriarch Dimitrije of Serbia, the other eight bishops of the THCAA, including Anastasius and Benjamin, as well as numerous priests and monks, relocated to Serbia.
On 31 August 1921, the Council of Bishops of the Serbian Church passed a resolution, effective from 3 October, that recognised the THCAA as an administratively independent jurisdiction for exiled Russian clergy outside the Kingdom of SHS as well as those Russian clergy in the Kingdom of SHS who were not in parish or state educational service. With the agreement of Patriarch Dimitrije of Serbia, between 21 November and 2 December 1921, the "General assembly of representatives of the Russian Church abroad" took place in Sremski Karlovci, it was renamed the First All-Diaspora Council and was presided over by Metropolitan Anthony. The Council established the "Supreme Ecclesiastic Administration Abroad", composed of a patriarchal Locum Tenens, a Synod of Bishops, a Church Council; the Council decided to appoint Metropolitan Anthony the Locum Tenens, but he declined to accept the position without permission from Moscow and instead called himself the President of the SEAA. The Council adopted a number of resolutions and appeals, the two notable ones being addressed to the flock of the Russian Orthodox Church ″in diaspora and exile″ and to the International Conference in Genoa.
The former, adopted with a majority of votes (but not unanimously, Metropolitan Eulogius Georgiyevsky being the most prom