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Hermann Ebbinghaus

Hermann Ebbinghaus was a German psychologist who pioneered the experimental study of memory, is known for his discovery of the forgetting curve and the spacing effect. He was the first person to describe the learning curve, he was the father of the neo-Kantian philosopher Julius Ebbinghaus. Ebbinghaus was born in Barmen, in the Rhine Province of the Kingdom of Prussia, as the son of a wealthy merchant, Carl Ebbinghaus. Little is known about his infancy except that he was brought up in the Lutheran faith and was a pupil at the town Gymnasium. At the age of 17, he began attending the University of Bonn, where he had planned to study history and philology. However, during his time there he developed an interest in philosophy. In 1870, his studies were interrupted when he served with the Prussian Army in the Franco-Prussian War. Following this short stint in the military, Ebbinghaus finished his dissertation on Eduard von Hartmann's Philosophie des Unbewussten and received his doctorate on August 16, 1873, when he was 23 years old.

During the next three years, he spent time at Berlin. After acquiring his PhD, Ebbinghaus moved around England and France, tutoring students to support himself. In England, he may have taught in two small schools in the south of the country. In London, in a used bookstore, he came across Gustav Fechner's book Elemente der Psychophysik, which spurred him to conduct his famous memory experiments. After beginning his studies at the University of Berlin, he founded the third psychological testing lab in Germany, he began his memory studies here in 1879. In 1885 — the same year that he published his monumental work, Über das Gedächtnis. Untersuchungen zur experimentellen Psychologie published in English under the title Memory: A Contribution to Experimental Psychology — he was made a professor at the University of Berlin, most in recognition of this publication. In 1890, along with Arthur König, he founded the psychological journal Zeitschrift für Physiologie und Psychologie der Sinnesorgane. In 1894, he was passed over for promotion to head of the philosophy department at Berlin, most due to his lack of publications.

Instead, Carl Stumpf received the promotion. As a result of this, Ebbinghaus left to join the University of Breslau, in a chair left open by Theodor Lipps. While in Breslau, he worked on a commission that studied how children's mental ability declined during the school day. While the specifics on how these mental abilities were measured have been lost, the successes achieved by the commission laid the groundwork for future intelligence testing. At Breslau, he again founded a psychological testing laboratory. In 1902, Ebbinghaus published his next piece of writing entitled Die Grundzüge der Psychologie, it continued to be long after his death. In 1904, he moved to Halle, his last published work, Abriss der Psychologie was published six years in 1908. This, continued to be a success, being re-released in eight different editions. Shortly after this publication, on February 26, 1909, Ebbinghaus died from pneumonia at the age of 59. Ebbinghaus was determined to show that higher mental processes could be studied using experimentation, in opposition to the popularly held thought of the time.

To control for most confounding variables, Ebbinghaus wanted to use simple acoustic encoding and maintenance rehearsal for which a list of words could have been used. As learning would be affected by prior knowledge and understanding, he needed something that could be memorized but which had no prior cognitive associations. Formable associations with regular words would interfere with his results, so he used items that would be called "nonsense syllables". A nonsense syllable is a consonant-vowel-consonant combination, where the consonant does not repeat and the syllable does not have prior meaning. BOL and DOT would not be allowed. However, syllables such as DAX, BOK, YAT would all be acceptable. After eliminating the meaning-laden syllables, Ebbinghaus ended up with 2,300 resultant syllables. Once he had created his collection of syllables, he would pull out a number of random syllables from a box and write them down in a notebook. To the regular sound of a metronome, with the same voice inflection, he would read out the syllables, attempt to recall them at the end of the procedure.

One investigation alone required 15,000 recitations. It was determined that humans impose meaning on nonsense syllables to make them more meaningful; the nonsense syllable PED turns out to be less nonsensical than a syllable such as KOJ. It appears that Ebbinghaus recognized this, only referred to the strings of syllables as "nonsense" in that the syllables might be less to have a specific meaning and he should make no attempt to make associations with them for easier retrieval. There are several limitations to his work on memory; the most important one was. This limited the study's generalizability to the population. Although he attempted to regulate his daily routine to maintain more control over his results, his decision to avoid the use of part

Centaurs (film)

Centaurs is a 1978 political drama film directed by Vytautas Žalakevičius. The final part of the "Latin American trilogy"; the action takes place in an unnamed state in Latin America. In the military circles a conspiracy is forming, fired up by foreign special services; the action, codenamed "Centaur", is conceived in Washington. The people believe in the president, but the conspirators, headed by General Pin, are gaining strength to organize a coup. Donatas Banionis – President Regimantas Adomaitis – Orlando, director of the Bureau of Investigations Margit Lukács– president's wife Yevgeni Lebedev – General Pin Gyula Benkő– General Catalan Elena Ivochkina – Anna Maria Irén Sütő– mother of Anna Maria Gennadi Bortnikov – Anibal Itka Zelenogorskaya – Julie Valentin Gaft – Andres, conspirator Ion Ungureanu – Minister of Toroa Mihai Volontir – Evaristo Bruno O'Ya – Nilsson, Swedish Journalist Valery Anisimov – Captain Grets Kakhi Kavsadze – Ugo, the barman Valery Kuzin – General Nodar Mgaloblishvili – Minister Miguel Juozas Budraitis – Raymond Dumitru Fusu Centaurs on IMDb

Tommy Boyle (footballer, born 1886)

Thomas William Boyle was an English footballer associated with Burnley. Tommy Boyle is the only player to have captained a Burnley team in a winning FA Cup Final, he was a Yorkshireman born in the village of Hoyland near Barnsley, he started his career at Barnsley In 1912 Boyle crossed the Pennines to sign for Burnley for what was a club record fee of £1,150. He was described as a great header of the ball, an excellent passer with great leadership qualities, as being one of the best players to play for Burnley. Having lifted the FA Cup in 1914, he became the first Burnley captain to lift the League Championship Trophy as Burnley won the 1920–21 title. By he was 33 and his career was coming to an end; that season was to be his last full season in the first team. He made his last appearance for Burnley during the 1921–22 season, after a further year playing in the reserves he signed for Wrexham, where he ended his playing career. After his playing career, he had a spell coaching in Germany, he won only one England cap against Ireland in Belfast in 1913.

He played in four representative matches for the Football League. England profile

Leon Katz

Leon Katz was professor emeritus of drama at Yale University. He was a playwright and scholar. Katz was best known for his interviews with Alice B. Toklas, the companion of Gertrude Stein, which he conducted over the period from November 1952-February 1953; these interviews have served as the basis for much of the Stein scholarship over the years. In October 2007, Katz gave a public lecture and performance at Carnegie Mellon University based on his time spent with Toklas in her Paris apartment. Titled "An Evening With Leon Katz," the performance was staged using reproductions of artworks and some original pieces of furniture from Stein and Toklas's apartment. Besides his work with Toklas, Katz was known for his playwriting, his work has been performed both in the United States and internationally. His plays include The Three Cuckolds, Dracula: Sabbat, Son of Arlecchino, GBS in Love, Pinocchio, Finnegan's Wake, The Marquis de Sade’s Justine, The Odyssey, Swellfoot’s Tears, Toy Show, Shekhina: The Bride, Remembrance of Things Past, The Making of Americans.

Katz had a long career as a dramaturg and scholar. In addition to Yale, where he was co-chairman of the School of Drama's Department of Dramaturgy and Dramatic Criticism, Katz taught at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, UCLA, Stanford, Columbia University, Vassar College, Carnegie Mellon, the University of Pittsburgh, the University of Giessen in Germany, the Rhodopi International Theatre Laboratory in Bulgaria, among other institutions. Israeli theatre director Rina Yerushalmi was among Katz's master's students at Carnegie Mellon, went on to direct two of his adaptations of The Dybbuk at La MaMa Experimental Theatre Club in the early 1970s. Katz's 1984 essay, The Compleat Dramaturg, has become a standard text on dramaturgy, his final book, Cleaning Augean Stables: Examining Drama's Strategies, was published in 2012. Katz was a contributing dramaturg to Tony Kushner's Pulitzer Prize-winning play, Angels in America

Nukus Museum of Art

Nukus Museum of Art or, in full, The State Art Museum of the Republic of Karakalpakstan, named after I. V. Savitsky is an art museum based in Uzbekistan. Opened in 1966, the museum houses a collection of over 82,000 items, ranging from antiquities from Khorezm to Karakalpak folk art, Uzbek fine art and, the second largest collection of Russian avant-garde in the world; the museum represents the life’s work of Igor Savitsky, whose legacy, which includes thousands of artistic and cultural treasures on permanent exhibition, make this building one of the most interesting repositories of ancient and modern art. The Russian painter and collector, Igor Savitsky, first visited Karakalpakstan in 1950 to participate in the Khorezm Archeological & Ethnographic Expedition and moved to Nukus, Karakalpakstan’s capital, continued living there until his death in Moscow in 1984. During 1957-66, he assembled an extensive collection of Karakalpak jewellery, coins and other artifacts, convinced the authorities of the need for a museum, following its establishment, was appointed its curator in 1966.

Thereafter, he began collecting the works of Central Asian artists, including Aleksandr Nikolayev, Alexander Volkov, Ural Tansykbayev and Victor Ufimtsev of the Uzbek school, those of the Russian avant-garde — including Kliment Red'ko, Lyubov Popova, Ivan Koudriachov and Robert Falk — whose paintings, although recognized in Western Europe, had been banned in the Soviet Union during Joseph Stalin’s rule and through the 1960s. Despite the risk of being denounced as an “enemy of the people”, Savitsky sought out proscribed painters and their heirs to collect and display their works. Moreover, refuting the Socialist Realism school, the collection shook the foundations of that period of art history, it was not until perestroika in 1985—the year after he died—that Savitsky’s remarkable achievements and collections were acknowledged, not until 1991—when Uzbekistan became independent—that Nukus, a remote ‘closed’ city during the Soviet Union, became accessible to the outside world. Since exhibitions in France and Russia have brought Savitsky’s bequest to the attention of a wider international audience.

Today, the number of its admirers and supporters in Uzbekistan and around the world, while still few, is increasing, this vast collection of Russian art has become a “must-see” for any visitor to Uzbekistan—and an addition to the conventional itinerary and traditional cultural sites of Samarkand and Khiva. Following its move to a new building in 2003, the Nukus Museum is now one of the finest in Uzbekistan—and in all of Central Asia. Set up in Tashkent as an informal group during the early 1990s and registered in Karakalpakstan as a non-governmental organization in 2001, the Friends of Nukus Museum is a small, but dedicated international network of advocates and supporters. In 2007, it was re-constituted based in the Netherlands. Marinika Babanazarova, Savitsky’s successor as the Museum’s curator, has been involved in presenting more than 20 exhibitions—in France, Germany and the United States as well as in Uzbekistan, her essays have featured in five exhibition catalogues, including the best selling Avangard, ostanovlennyi na begu.

Website Website of The Desert of Forbidden Art, documentary film about the Nukus Museum of Art

Mariana Pfaelzer

Mariana R. Pfaelzer was a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Central District of California. Born to a Jewish family in Los Angeles, California in 1926, Pfaelzer received an Artium Baccalaureus degree from the University of California, Santa Barbara in 1949 and a Juris Doctor from the UCLA School of Law in 1957, she was in private practice in Los Angeles from 1957 to 1978. On August 8, 1978, Pfaelzer was nominated by President Jimmy Carter to a seat on the United States District Court for the Central District of California vacated by Judge Francis C. Whelan, she was confirmed by the United States Senate on September 22, 1978, received her commission the next day. She was the first female federal judge appointed to the district, she assumed senior status on December 1997, serving in that status until her death. She is noted for her role in striking down California's Proposition 187, which would have denied services to undocumented immigrants in California. Pfaelzer handed down a $600 million judgment against Countrywide Financial.

On May 14, 2015, Pfaelzer died in Los Angeles after serving on the federal bench for nearly 40 years. George H. King, the Chief District Court Judge for the Central District of California, noted that she "was the epitome of what a federal judge ought to be... presi with brilliance, analytical rigor, wisdom and courage." Pfaelzer was married to Frank Rothman, an attorney who died in 2000. Mariana R. Pfaelzer at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center