Renaissance Revival architecture
Renaissance Revival architecture is a group of 19th century architectural revival styles which were neither Greek Revival nor Gothic Revival but which instead drew inspiration from a wide range of classicizing Italian modes. Under the broad designation "Renaissance architecture" nineteenth-century architects and critics went beyond the architectural style which began in Florence and central Italy in the early 15th century as an expression of Humanism. Self-applied style designations were rife in the mid- and nineteenth century: "Neo-Renaissance" might be applied by contemporaries to structures that others called "Italianate", or when many French Baroque features are present; the divergent forms of Renaissance architecture in different parts of Europe in France and Italy, has added to the difficulty of defining and recognizing Neo-Renaissance architecture. A comparison between the breadth of its source material, such as the English Wollaton Hall, Italian Palazzo Pitti, the French Château de Chambord, the Russian Palace of Facets—all deemed "Renaissance"—illustrates the variety of appearances the same architectural label can take.
The origin of Renaissance architecture is accredited to Filippo Brunelleschi Brunelleschi and his contemporaries wished to bring greater "order" to architecture, resulting in strong symmetry and careful proportion. The movement grew in particular human anatomy. Neo-Renaissance architecture is formed by not only the original Italian architecture but by the form in which Renaissance architecture developed in France during the 16th century. During the early years of the 16th century the French were involved in wars in northern Italy, bringing back to France not just the Renaissance art treasures as their war booty, but stylistic ideas. In the Loire valley a wave of chateau building was carried out using traditional French Gothic styles but with ornament in the forms of pediments, shallow pilasters and entablatures from the Italian Renaissance. In England the Renaissance tended to manifest itself in large square tall houses such as Longleat House; these buildings had symmetrical towers which hint at the evolution from medieval fortified architecture.
This is evident at Hatfield House built between 1607 and 1611, where medieval towers jostle with a large Italian cupola. This is why so many buildings of the early English Neo-Renaissance style have more of a "castle air" than their European contemporaries, which can add again to the confusion with the Gothic revival style; when in the 19th century Renaissance style architecture came into vogue, it materialized not just in its original form according to geography, but as a hybrid of all its earlier forms according to the whims of architects and patrons rather than geography and culture. If this were not confusing enough, the new Neo-Renaissance frequently borrowed architectural elements from the succeeding Mannerist period, in many cases the later Baroque period. Mannerism and Baroque being two opposing styles of architecture. Mannerism was exemplified by Baroque by the Wurzburg Residenz, thus Italian and Flemish Renaissance coupled with the amount of borrowing from these periods can cause great difficulty and argument in identifying various forms of 19th-century architecture.
Differentiating some forms of French Neo-Renaissance buildings from those of the Gothic revival can at times be tricky, as both styles were popular during the 19th century. John Ruskin's panegyrics to architectural wonders of Venice and Florence contributed to shifting "the attention of scholars and designers, with their awareness heightened by debate and restoration work" from Late Neoclassicism and Gothic Revival to the Italian Renaissance; as a consequence, a self-consciously "Neo-Renaissance" manner first began to appear circa 1840. By 1890 this movement was in decline; the Hague's Peace Palace completed in 1913, in a heavy French Neo-Renaissance manner was one of the last notable buildings in this style. Charles Barry introduced the Neo-Renaissance to England with his design of the Travellers Club, Pall Mall. Other early but typical, domestic examples of the Neo-Renaissance include Mentmore Towers and the Château de Ferrières, both designed in the 1850s by Joseph Paxton for members of the Rothschild banking family.
The style is characterized by original Renaissance motifs, taken from such Quattrocento architects as Alberti. These motifs included rusticated masonry and quoins, windows framed by architraves and doors crowned by pediments and entablatures. If a building were of several floors, the uppermost floor had small square windows representing the minor mezzanine floor of the original Renaissance designs. However, the Neo-renaissance style came to incorporate Romanesque and Baroque features not found in the original Renaissance architecture, more severe in its design. Like all architectural styles, the Neo-Renaissance did not appear overnight formed but evolved slowly. One of the first signs of its emergence was the Würzburg Women's Prison, erected in 1809 designed by Peter Speeth, it included a rusticated ground floor, alleviated by one semicircular arch, with a curious Egyptian style miniature portico above, high above this were a sequence of six tall arched windows and above these just beneath the projecting roof were the small windows of the upper floor.
This building foreshadows similar effects in the work of the American architect Henry Hobson Richardson whose work in the Neo-Renaissance style was popu
Bad Camberg is, with 15,000 inhabitants, the second largest town in Limburg-Weilburg district in Hesse, Germany, as well as the southernmost town in the Regierungsbezirk of Gießen. It is located in the eastern Taunus in the Goldener Grund some 30 km north of Wiesbaden, 18 km southeast of Limburg an der Lahn, 44 km northwest of Frankfurt, as well as on the German Timber-Frame Road. Bad Camberg is the central community of the Goldener Grund with good infrastructure, a lower centre with a middle centre's function; the recognized Kneipp resort is Germany's third oldest. In the outlying centre of Oberselters is found a mineral spring that gives forth the well known Selterswasser known in English as “seltzer”; the town's landmark is the Kreuzkapelle. Bad Camberg lies north of the Taunus’s main ridge, 18 km southeast of Limburg an der Lahn, making it Middle Hesse’s southernmost town; the nearest cities are Wiesbaden, Frankfurt am Main, Wetzlar and Gießen. The town’s elevation is 209 m; the Limburg-Weilburg district’s highest elevation, the Kuhbett, lies within the limits of the outlying centre of Erbach on the boundary with the community of Weilrod in the Hochtaunuskreis.
The greatest elevation in the central community – called Bad Camberg – is the Kapellenhügel, somewhat more than 300 m high. Bad Camberg's neighbours are, clockwise from the north, Weilrod, Idstein, Hünstetten and Hünfelden. All but the two lying within Limburg-Weilburg lie not in the Regierungsbezirk of Gießen, but rather in the Regierungsbezirk of Darmstadt; the town comprises six Stadtteile. To the Linear Pottery culture from the New Stone Age, which draws its name from the ceramics that it produced, belong the oldest archaeological finds in the Camberg area. While most groups at that time were hunter-gatherers, the Linear Pottery people were producing their own food by raising crops and livestock, the latter being sheep, swine and above all cattle, it is known. The houses were 20 to 25 m long and 5 to 7 m wide, consisting of five rows of posts, the three inner ones bearing the roof's weight, the two outer ones the wattle-and-daub walls’; these houses served to house people and animals, they were always oriented in a certain direction.
Within the settlements, irregular pits are encountered that, when houses were being built, were used as the houses’ excavations. They were filled more and more with rubbish such as charcoal, animal bones, ashes and potsherds. In a few built-up areas in the town's main centre, the streets have cut across several garbage pits; when opening up new cropfields, the farmers preferred loess. The second wave of settlers has been determined to have come between 600 and 500 BC; the barrow fields on both sides of the road to Tenne are from this time. On 6 February 1000, Emperor Otto III donated the Cagenberg estate to the Burtscheid Monastery. Cagenberg means Cargo's Mountain, Cargo being a short form of the name Garganhardt. From the name Cagenberg developed Cainburg, Camburg and Camberg, by other sources Cagenberc, Kahberg Kamberc and Kaynburg. In 1281, King Rudolph I granted town rights on the model of the Imperial city of Frankfurt am Main. Legend has it that after Epiphany in 1357, all the Camberg townsfolk were drunk and asleep when robber knights from Walsdorf came to try to rob the town.
The town wall had not yet been finished and the knights therefore only needed to cross a hedge. However, there lived some magpies, who noticed the attempted robbery and gave out an alarm call, waking the townsfolk up, who fended the attack off, putting the Walsdorf knights to flight. To this day, the magpie is still regarded as the town's “unofficial heraldic bird”. From 1535 to 1794, the Amt of Camberg was in force, to which all current constituent communities belonged under the common administration of the House of Nassau and by the Electorate of Trier. After a short French occupation, the town was, as of 1806, part of the Duchy of Nassau. In 1866 it passed to Prussia. Since 1945, the town has been part of the German Federal state of Hesse. In 1630 and again in 1659, great witch trials took place. Thirteen women and one man were found guilty and five women were put to death; the others were released after having been tortured. In 1810, Baron Hugo von Schütz zu Holzhausen, himself born deaf, was first teaching deaf students in rooms at the Amthof, making him a pioneer in this field in Germany.
In the years that followed, a scholastic institution grew out of these classes and in 1820 the “Ducal Nassau Deaf-Mute Institute”. Until 1875 it was housed in a side building of the Guttenberger Hof in the Old Town; as of 1894, the school had its own building, built on a plot of land on Frankfurter Straße donated by the town of Camberg. Under the name Freiherr-von-Schütz-Schule, it is still found there today. In 1861, Moritz Lieber founded the Lieber ` sches Hospital, on Gisbert-Lieber-Straße, it was dissolved in 1959. Today, the Freiherr-von-Schütz-Schule uses the building. During the Second World War, in 1944, many Wehrmacht units were in the town. In 1942 alone, eight Jewish inhabitants were deported and
Straße des 17. Juni
The Straße des 17. Juni, is the capital of Germany, it is the western continuation of the boulevard Unter den Linden. It runs east -- west through a large park to the west of the city centre. At the eastern end of the street is the Brandenburg Gate, it passes the Soviet War Memorial before passing either side of Victory Column in the middle of the park, out of the park through the Charlottenburg Gate, terminating about half a kilometre at Ernst-Reuter-Platz; the street is a section of the main western thoroughfare radiating out from the centre of Berlin so the road continues to the west of Ernst-Reuter-Platz, the first section of, called Bismarckstraße. Before 1953, the street was called Charlottenburger Chaussee, because it ran from the old city center to the borough of Charlottenburg through the Tiergarten; the 1953 name change was made in order to honor its victims. After Stalin's death many East Berliners began a strike which caused riots in a vain hope of getting rid of the communists, but the East German police struck back with brutal violence on 17 June 1953.
It was made into a paved road in 1799, owing to Berlin's rapid growth in the 19th century it became a major thoroughfare to the affluent western suburbs. At the outbreak of World War One in early August 1914, hundreds of thousands of Berliners cheered the military parade, which took place here. At the outbreak of World War Two, no such scenes were observed, according to the American journalist and historian William L. Shirer. Charlottenburger Chausee was a part of the Ost-West-Achse, which during the Nazi period became a triumphal avenue lined with Nazi flags. During the Nazi era, the boulevard was made broader and the old Prussian Victory Column was moved from in front of the Reichstag to the roundabout in the middle of the Tiergarten, where it has remained since 1938; the Charlottenburger Chaussee was to have formed one aspect of the remodelling of the city of Berlin into the renamed city called Germania, designed by Hitler, Albert Speer, Professor Troost etc. to be the capital of the Reich.
In the last weeks of World War II, when Berlin's airports were unusable, it was used as a landing strip. In 1953, West Berlin renamed the street Straße des 17. Juni, to commemorate the People's uprising in East Berlin on 17 June 1953, when the Red Army and GDR Volkspolizei shot protesting workers; the street has in recent years been used for mega-events such as Love parade or live8. In 2006, the street was closed for six weeks for use as the Fanmeile during the 2006 Football World Cup, it serves as the starting point for the Berlin Marathon. Every New Year's Eve, the street is one of the gathering points in Berlin where over a million people gather to watch a stage show at the Brandenburg Gate and see fireworks go off at midnight, it is the largest such party in Europe, if not the world. A photo of the street as it looked during the Nazi era as part of the Ost-West Achse
Royal Library of the Netherlands
The Royal Library of the Netherlands is based in The Hague and was founded in 1798. The mission of the Royal Library of the Netherlands, as presented on the library's web site, is to provide "access to the knowledge and culture of the past and the present by providing high-quality services for research and cultural experience"; the initiative to found a national library was proposed by representative Albert Jan Verbeek on August 17 1798. The collection would be based on the confiscated book collection of William V; the library was founded as the Nationale Bibliotheek on November 8 of the same year, after a committee of representatives had advised the creation of a national library on the same day. The National Library was only open to members of the Representative Body. King Louis Bonaparte gave the national library its name of the Royal Library in 1806. Napoleon Bonaparte transferred the Royal Library to The Hague as property, while allowing the Imperial Library in Paris to expropriate publications from the Royal Library.
In 1815 King William I of the Netherlands confirmed the name of'Royal Library' by royal resolution. It has been known as the National Library of the Netherlands since 1982, when it opened new quarters; the institution became independent of the state in 1996, although it is financed by the Department of Education and Science. In 2004, the National Library of the Netherlands contained 3,300,000 items, equivalent to 67 kilometers of bookshelves. Most items in the collection are books. There are pieces of "grey literature", where the author, publisher, or date may not be apparent but the document has cultural or intellectual significance; the collection contains the entire literature of the Netherlands, from medieval manuscripts to modern scientific publications. For a publication to be accepted, it must be from a registered Dutch publisher; the collection is accessible for members. Any person aged 16 years or older can become a member. One day passes are available. Requests for material take 30 minutes.
The KB hosts several open access websites, including the "Memory of the Netherlands". List of libraries in the Netherlands European Library Nederlandse Centrale Catalogus Books in the Netherlands Media related to Koninklijke Bibliotheek at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Berlin Cathedral is the short name for the Evangelical Supreme Parish and Collegiate Church in Berlin, Germany. It is located on Museum Island in the Mitte borough; the current building was finished in 1905 and is a major work of Historicist architecture of the "Kaiserzeit". The Dom is the parish church of the congregation Gemeinde der Oberpfarr- und Domkirche zu Berlin, a member of the umbrella organisation Evangelical Church of Berlin-Brandenburg-Silesian Upper Lusatia. Berlin Cathedral has never been a cathedral in the actual sense of that term since it has never been the seat of a bishop; the bishop of the Evangelical Church in Berlin-Brandenburg is based at St. Mary's Church and Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church in Berlin. Berlin Cathedral has a long history starting as a Roman Catholic place of worship in the 15th century; the history of today's Supreme Parish and Collegiate Church and its community dates back to 1451. In that year Prince-Elector Frederick II Irontooth of Brandenburg moved with his residence from Brandenburg upon Havel to Cölln into the newly erected City Palace, which housed a Catholic chapel.
In 1454 Frederick Irontooth, after having returned – via Rome – from his pilgrimage to Jerusalem, elevated the chapel to become a parish church, richly endowing it with relics and altars. Pope Nicholas V ordered Stephan Bodecker Prince-Bishop of Brandenburg, to consecrate the chapel to Erasmus of Formiae. On 7 April 1465 – at Frederick Irontooth's request – Pope Paul II attributed to St Erasmus Chapel a canon-law College named Stift zu Ehren Unserer Lieben Frauen, des heiligen Kreuzes, St. Petri und Pauli, St. Erasmi und St. Nicolai dedicated to Mary of Nazareth, the Holy Cross, Simon Peter, Paul of Tarsus, Erasmus of Formiae, Nicholas of Myra. A collegiate church is a church endowed with revenues and earning estates, in order to provide a number of canons, called in canon law a College, with prebends. In this respect a collegiate church is similar to a cathedral, why in colloquial German the term cathedral college, became the synecdoche used – pars pro toto – for all canon-law colleges. So the college of St. Erasmus' chapel, called Domstift in German, bestowed the pertaining church its colloquial naming, Domkirche.
Frederick Irontooth provided the College with estates, sufficient to supply eight canon prebendaries. On 20 January 1469, Dietrich IV Prince-Bishop of Brandenburg, invested eight clergymen, chosen by Frederick Irontooth, as collegiate canons with the prebends. In 1535, Prince-Elector Joachim II Hector reached the consent of Pope Paul III to shut down the 1297-founded Dominican convent, southerly neighboured to the palace, to acquire the pertaining monastic St. Paul's Church, built ca. in 1345. On 28 May 1536, most of the Black Friars moved to a Dominican monastery in Brandenburg upon Havel. Joachim II Hector assigned the thus void, three-nave church building to the Collegiate Church of Our Lady, the Holy Cross, the Ss. Peter, Paul and Nicholas and enlarged the College to 12 prebendaries, bestowing two of them to canons taken on from the Dominican convent. From 1545, on the electoral family of Hohenzollern used the church building as their burial place. In 1538, a new western façade with two towers was attached to the collegiate church, which – due to its prior status as a church of a mendicant order – had no tower before.
In the next year, Joachim II Hector converted from Catholicism to Lutheranism, as earlier had done many of his subjects. The collegiate church thus became Lutheran too, like most of the electoral subjects and all the churches in the Electorate. However, Joachim II Hector's ideas of Reformation were different from the modern ones. After his conversion he enriched the collegiate church with luxuriant furnishings, such as paraments, relics, chasubles and antependia. In 1608, the year of his accession to the throne, Prince-Elector John Sigismund a crypto-Calvinist, dissolved the college and the church was renamed into Supreme Parish Church of Holy Trinity in Cölln. In 1613, John Sigismund publicly confessed his Calvinist faith, but waived his privilege to demand the same of his subjects. So he and his family, except of his steadfastly Lutheran wife Anna, while most of his subjects remained Lutherans. While Berlin's other churches, subject to Lutheran city-council jurisdiction, remained Lutheran, the Supreme Parish Church of Holy Trinity, the Hohenzollern's house church, became Berlin's first, until 1695, only Calvinist church, serving from 1632 on as the parish for all Calvinists in town.
Being now a Calvinist church, the patronage of the Holy Trinity was skipped. In 1667, the dilapidated double-tower façade was torn down and in 1717 Martin Böhme erected a new baroque façade with two towers. With effect of 1 January 1710, Cölln was united with Berlin under the latter name. In 1747, the Supreme Parish Church was demolished to clear space for the baroque extension of Berlin Palace. On 6 September 1750, the new baroque Calvinist Supreme Parish Church was inaugurated, built by Johann Boumann the Elder in 1747–1750; the electoral tombs were transferred to the new building. The new structure covered a space north of the palace, still covered by the present building. In 1817, under the auspices of King Frederick William III of Prussia, the community of the Supreme Parish Church, like most Prussian Calvinist and Lutheran congregations joined the common umbrella organization named Evangelical Church in Prussia, with each congregation maintain
New Town Hall (Hanover)
The New Town Hall or New City Hall in Hanover, Germany, is a city hall and was opened on July 20, 1913, after having been under construction for 12 years. It is a magnificent, castle-like building of the era of Wilhelm II in eclectic style at the southern edge of the inner city; the building is embedded in the 10 hectare Maschpark. The Old Town Hall is no longer used as the main seat of administration, but houses businesses and the registry office. In its day, the building cost 10 million Marks, it was erected on 6026 beech piles by Hermann Eggert and Gustav Halmhuber. "Ten million Marks, Your Majesty – and all paid for in cash", announced the City Director, Heinrich Tramm, when the New Town Hall was opened by Emperor Wilhelm II. The square in front of the City Hall was named Trammplatz in honour of Tramm; the New Town Hall replaced the Wangenheimpalais as the city hall from on. During World War II, the building was damaged during American bomb raids on the inner city of Hanover; the German state of Niedersachsen was proclaimed in 1946 in the 38 m high hall of the New Town Hall.
The dome of the New Town Hall, with its observation platform, is 97.73 m high. The dome's lift is unique in Europe, with its arched course, it is incorrectly described as a sloping lift up the dome and compared with the lifts in the Eiffel Tower, which only travel diagonally, without changing their angle of inclination. The lift climbs the 50 m shaft at an angle of up to 17° to the gallery of the dome, where the Harz mountain range can be seen when visibility is good. In the process, the lift moves over 10 m. During the trip, the two weight-bearing cables wind up on three double rolls in the wall of the shaft; the lift was erected in 1913. The lift cage travelled in steam-bent oaken tracks; because of the weather, the original lift was not usable in the colder half of the year. There is a spiral staircase. In 2005, over 90,000 people visited the tower of the New Town Hall. A new lift was installed in winter of 2007–08; the last trip of the old lift took place with Lord Mayor Stephan Weil on November 4, 2007.
On that weekend, 1200 guests took the last opportunity to ride in the old lift. There are four city models of Hanover in the ground floor of the New Town Hall, they vividly portray the development of the city. Wolfgang Steinweg: Das Rathaus in Hannover. Von der Kaiserzeit bis in die Gegenwart. Schlüter, Hanover 1988, ISBN 3-87706-287-3 Information of the city of Hanover about the New City Hall in German Webcam with a view of the New City Hall 3D model in GoogleEarth 4 New City Hall city panorama - Interactive 360° panorama with New City Hall dome and panoramic view