Hermann Wilhelm Göring was a German political and military leader as well as one of the most powerful figures in the Nazi Party, which ruled Germany from 1933 to 1945. A veteran World War I fighter pilot ace, he was a recipient of the Pour le Mérite, he was the last commander of Jagdgeschwader 1, the fighter wing once led by Manfred von Richthofen. An early member of the Nazi Party, Göring was among those wounded in Adolf Hitler's failed Beer Hall Putsch in 1923. While receiving treatment for his injuries, he developed an addiction to morphine which persisted until the last year of his life. After Hitler became Chancellor of Germany in 1933, Göring was named as Minister Without Portfolio in the new government. One of his first acts as a cabinet minister was to oversee the creation of the Gestapo, which he ceded to Heinrich Himmler in 1934. Following the establishment of the Nazi state, Göring amassed power and political capital to become the second most powerful man in Germany, he was appointed commander-in-chief of the Luftwaffe, a position he held until the final days of the regime.
Upon being named Plenipotentiary of the Four Year Plan in 1936, Göring was entrusted with the task of mobilizing all sectors of the economy for war, an assignment which brought numerous government agencies under his control and helped him become one of the wealthiest men in the country. In September 1939 Hitler designated him as his deputy in all his offices. After the Fall of France in 1940, he was bestowed the specially created rank of Reichsmarschall, which gave him seniority over all officers in Germany's armed forces. By 1941, Göring was at the peak of his influence; as the Second World War progressed, Göring's standing with Hitler and with the German public declined after the Luftwaffe proved incapable of preventing the Allied bombing of Germany's cities and resupplying surrounded Axis forces in Stalingrad. Around that time, Göring withdrew from military and political affairs to devote his attention to collecting property and artwork, much of, stolen from Jewish victims of the Holocaust.
Informed on 22 April 1945 that Hitler intended to commit suicide, Göring sent a telegram to Hitler requesting permission to assume control of the Reich. Considering his request an act of treason, Hitler removed Göring from all his positions, expelled him from the party, ordered his arrest. After the war, Göring was convicted of conspiracy, crimes against peace, war crimes and crimes against humanity at the Nuremberg trials in 1946, he was sentenced to death by hanging, but committed suicide by ingesting cyanide hours before the sentence was to be carried out. Göring was born on 12 January 1893 at the Marienbad Sanatorium in Bavaria, his father, Heinrich Ernst Göring, a former cavalry officer, had been the first Governor-General of the German protectorate of South-West Africa. Heinrich had three children from a previous marriage. Göring was the fourth of five children by Heinrich's second wife, Franziska Tiefenbrunn, a Bavarian peasant. Göring's elder siblings were Karl and Paula. At the time that Göring was born, his father was serving as consul general in Haiti, his mother had returned home to give birth.
She left the six-week-old baby with a friend in Bavaria and did not see the child again for three years, when she and Heinrich returned to Germany. Göring's godfather was Dr. Hermann Epenstein, a wealthy Jewish physician and businessman his father had met in Africa. Epenstein provided the Göring family, who were surviving on Heinrich's pension, first with a family home in Berlin-Friedenau in a small castle called Veldenstein, near Nuremberg. Göring's mother became Epenstein's mistress around this time, remained so for some fifteen years. Epenstein acquired the minor title of Ritter von Epenstein through service and donations to the Crown. Interested in a career as a soldier from a early age, Göring enjoyed playing with toy soldiers and dressing up in a Boer uniform his father had given him, he was sent to boarding school at age eleven, where the food was poor and discipline was harsh. He sold a violin to pay for his train ticket home, took to his bed, feigning illness, until he was told he would not have to return.
He continued to enjoy war games, pretending to lay siege to the castle Veldenstein and studying Teutonic legends and sagas. He became a mountain climber, scaling peaks in Germany, at the Mont Blanc massif, in the Austrian Alps. At sixteen he was sent to a military academy at Berlin Lichterfelde, from which he graduated with distinction. Göring joined the Prince Wilhelm Regiment of the Prussian Army in 1912; the next year his mother had a falling-out with Epenstein. The family was moved to Munich; when World War I began in August 1914, Göring was stationed at Mülhausen with his regiment. During the first year of World War I, Göring served with his infantry regiment in the area of Mülhausen, a garrison town less than 2 km from the French frontier, he was hospitalized with a result of the damp of trench warfare. While he was recovering, his friend Bruno Loerzer convinced him to transfer to what would become, by October 1916, the Luftstreitkräfte of the German army, but his request was turned down.
That year, Göring flew as Loerzer's observer in Feldflieger Abteilung 25 – Gö
Sól or Sunna is the Sun personified in Norse mythology. One of the two Old High German Merseburg Incantations, written in the 9th or 10th century CE, attests that Sunna is the sister of Sinthgunt. In Norse mythology, Sól is attested in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources, the Prose Edda, written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson. In both the Poetic Edda and the Prose Edda she is described as the sister of the personified Moon, Máni, is the daughter of Mundilfari, is at times referred to as Álfröðull, is foretold to be killed by a monstrous wolf during the events of Ragnarök, though beforehand she will have given birth to a daughter who continues her mother's course through the heavens. In the Prose Edda, she is additionally described as the wife of Glenr; as a proper noun, Sól appears throughout Old Norse literature. Scholars have produced theories about the development of the goddess from potential Nordic Bronze Age and Proto-Indo-European roots.
One of the two Merseburg Incantations, recorded in Old High German, mentions Sunna, described as having a sister, Sinthgunt. The incantation describes how Phol and Wodan rode to a wood, there Balder's foal sprained its foot. Sinthgunt sang charms, her sister Sunna sang charms, Friia sang charms, her sister Volla sang charms, Wodan sang charms, followed by a verse describing the healing of the foal's bone. In the poem Völuspá, a dead völva recounts the history of the universe and foretells the future to the disguised god Odin. In doing so, the völva recounts the early days of the universe, in which: In the poem Vafþrúðnismál, the god Odin tasks the jötunn Vafþrúðnir with a question about the origins of the sun and the moon. Vafþrúðnir responds that Mundilfari is the father of both Sól and Máni, that they must pass through the heavens every day to count the years for man: In a stanza Vafþrúðnismál, Odin asks Vafþrúðnir from where another sun will come from once Fenrir has assailed the current sun.
Vafþrúðnir responds in a further stanza, stating that before Álfröðull is assailed by Fenrir, she will bear a daughter who will ride on her mother's paths after the events of Ragnarök. In a stanza of the poem Grímnismál, Odin says that before the Sun is a shield named Svalinn, if the shield were to fall from its frontal position and sea "would burn up". In stanza 39 Odin says that both the Moon are pursued through the heavens by wolves. In the poem Alvíssmál, the god Thor questions the dwarf Alvíss about the Sun, asking him what the Sun is called in each of the worlds. Alvíss responds that it is called "sun" by mankind, "sunshine" by the gods, "Dvalinn's deluder" by the dwarves, "everglow" by the jötnar, "the lovely wheel" by the elves, "all-shining" by the "sons of the Æsir". Sól is referenced in the Prose Edda book Gylfaginning, where she is introduced in chapter 8 in a quote from stanza 5 of Völuspá. In chapter 11 of Gylfaginning, Gangleri asks the enthroned figure of High how the Sun and Moon are steered.
High describes that Sól is one of the two children of Mundilfari, states that the children were so beautiful they were named after the Sun and the Moon. Mundilfari has Sól married to a man named Glenr. High says that the gods were "angered by this arrogance" and that the gods had the two placed in the heavens. There, the children were made to drive the horses Árvakr and Alsviðr that drew the chariot of the sun. High says that the gods had created the chariot to illuminate the worlds from burning embers flying from the fiery world of Muspelheim. In order to cool the horses, the gods placed two bellows beneath their shoulders, that "according to the same lore" these bellows are called Ísarnkol. In chapter 12 of Gylfaginning, Gangleri tells High that the sun moves almost as if she were moving so that she fears something, that she could not go faster if she were afraid of her own death. High responds; the one chasing her comes close, there is no escape for her except to run." Gangleri asks who chases her, to which High responds that two wolves give chase to Máni.
The first wolf, Sköll, chases Sól, despite her fear, Sköll will catch her. Hati Hróðvitnisson, the second wolf, runs ahead of Sól to chase after Máni, whom Hati Hróðvitnisson will catch. In chapter 35, Sól's status as a goddess is stated by High, along with Bil. In chapter 53, High says that after the events of Ragnarök, Sól's legacy will be continued by a daughter, no less beautiful than she, who will follow the path she once rode, and, in support, Vafþrúðnismál stanza 47 is quoted. In the Prose Edda book Skáldskaparmál, Sól is first presented in chapter 93, where the kennings "daughter of Mundilfæri", "sister of Máni", "wife of Glen", "fire of sky and air" are given for her, followed by an excerpt of a work by the 11th century skald Skúli Þórsteinsson: God-blithe bedfellow of Glen steps to her divine sanctuary with brightness. In chapter 56, additional names for Sól are given. In chapter 58, following a list of horses, the horses Arvakr and Alsviðr are listed as drawing the sun, and, in chapter 75, Sól is again included in a list of goddesses.
Scholars have proposed that Sól, as a goddess, may represe
This is a list of fictional anarchists, including the source material in which they are found, their creator, the individual who interpreted them as anarchists during development, short descriptions of each. An anarchist is a person who rejects any form of compulsory government and supports its elimination. Anarchism is a political philosophy encompassing theories and attitudes which reject compulsory government and support its elimination due to a wider rejection of involuntary or permanent authority. Anarchism is defined by The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics as "the view that society can and should be organized without a coercive state."However, fictional anarchists are subject to the personal interpretations and opinions of Anarchism held by the creator, as such may imbue negative anarchist stereotypes. Further, characters may be interpreted as anarchists by second parties involved in their development; the inclusion of these characters may be controversial, but is necessary for purposes of objectivity.
This provides a means by which social attitudes regarding anarchism and anarchists may be studied and compared to those of other eras and cultures. Characters who are popularly considered "anarchic", but who are not identified as anarchists by their source material, are excluded. Anarchik A parody of the "bomb wielding, bearded anarchist" stereotype, he appeared in Rivista Anarchica, by Roberto Ambrosoli, ca 1970, is reprinted in contemporary anarchist pamphlets. Anarky A comic book character appearing in various DC Comics publications as an antagonist of Batman, he was created and co-developed by Alan Grant & Norm Breyfogle in 1989. Boy A martial artist, former NYPD officer, member of an anarchist secret society in The Invisibles by Grant Morrison. Evey Hammond A protégé of V, an anarchist terrorist in V for Vendetta, by Alan Moore & David Lloyd in 1982. Evey adopts V's role. Green Arrow A superhero known for his liberal progressive characterization. Appearing in Green Arrow and various other comic books published by DC Comics, he was created by Mort Weisinger and George Papp in 1941.
He was revamped in 1969 by Dennis O'Neil, who characterized him as a political progressive and dubbed him an "anarchist". Jack Frost A young hooligan a future Buddha, member of an anarchic secret society in The Invisibles by Grant Morrison. King Mob A magician, assassin and member of an anarchist secret society in The Invisibles by Grant Morrison. Lord Fanny A Brazilian, transgender shaman, member of an anarchist secret society in The Invisibles by Grant Morrison. Pillock An intellectual pelican, in Donald Rooum's Wildcat. Pillock is used to present complex social ideas and anarchist philosophy. Ragged Robin A time traveling, cybernetically enhanced telepath, member of an anarchist secret society in The Invisibles by Grant Morrison. Tank Girl A violent punk, wanted criminal, tank commander, she was created in 1988 by Jamie Hewlett & Alan Martin for their independent comic series, Tank Girl. V An anonymous, English terrorist with enhanced strength and mental capacity, he is a genius or insane, acts as an allegorical force for anarchy.
He was created by V for Vendetta. Wild Cat An anarcho-punk cat created by Donald Rooum in 1985 as the lead character in his comic strip, Wildcat. Captain Raymond A secondary character, anarchistic leader of a band of thieves in Things as They Are. Clay A main character encountered by Keith Scribner; the character was based on anarchists. Professor Bernardo de la Paz An intellectual subversive, who self-identifies as a "Rational Anarchist", in The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress, by Robert A. HeinleinEdward Tolby An agent of the Anarchist League, in The Last of the Masters, by Philip K. Dick. Edward Tolby is among a trio of anarchists tasked with investigating rumors of a government in hiding near a remote mountain valley, his daughter and comrade, Silvia Tolby, is kidnapped by a military scouts. After infiltrating the state, Edward assassinates the head of state, the last "government robot", rescues his daughter. Corky Laputa An avowed anarchist. Freddie "Stubby" Lynch A poor paperboy, in The Anarchist: His Dog, by Susan Glaspell.
Valentin Michael Karstev A Russian revolutionary and author of an anarchist treatise, The Laws of Human History, in Protect and Defend, by Eric L. Harry. Hagbard Celine A discordian genius, computer engineer, captain of a submarine, in The Illuminatus! Trilogy, by Robert Shea & Robert Anton Wilson. Kaw-Djer A mysterious man who believes in anarchic individualism, in The Survivors of the'Jonathan', by Jules Verne. Based on Peter Kropotkin. Leo Gold A pessimistic, aging author and former labor organizer, in At the Anarchists' Convention, by John Sayles. Lucian Gregory A militant terrorist who promotes chaos as the epitome of beauty and anarchy, in The Man Who Was Thursday, by G. K. Chesterton, he is an allegorical figure. Mafile A murderous terrorist, in An Anarchist, by Joseph Conrad; the Mechanic An anonymous escaped convict, driven mad by his association with anarchists, who never reveals his true name, in An Anarchist, by Joseph Conrad. He is still labeled one by the narrator at the end of the story.