Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was governed by a dictatorship under the control of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party. Under Hitlers rule, Germany was transformed into a fascist state in which the Nazi Party took totalitarian control over all aspects of life. The official name of the state was Deutsches Reich from 1933 to 1943, the period is known under the names the Third Reich and the National Socialist Period. The Nazi regime came to an end after the Allied Powers defeated Germany in May 1945, Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany by the President of the Weimar Republic Paul von Hindenburg on 30 January 1933. The Nazi Party began to eliminate all opposition and consolidate its power. Hindenburg died on 2 August 1934, and Hitler became dictator of Germany by merging the powers and offices of the Chancellery, a national referendum held 19 August 1934 confirmed Hitler as sole Führer of Germany. All power was centralised in Hitlers person, and his word became above all laws, the government was not a coordinated, co-operating body, but a collection of factions struggling for power and Hitlers favour.
In the midst of the Great Depression, the Nazis restored economic stability and ended mass unemployment using heavy military spending, extensive public works were undertaken, including the construction of Autobahnen. The return to economic stability boosted the regimes popularity, especially antisemitism, was a central feature of the regime. The Germanic peoples were considered by the Nazis to be the purest branch of the Aryan race, millions of Jews and other peoples deemed undesirable by the state were murdered in the Holocaust. Opposition to Hitlers rule was ruthlessly suppressed, members of the liberal and communist opposition were killed, imprisoned, or exiled. The Christian churches were oppressed, with many leaders imprisoned, education focused on racial biology, population policy, and fitness for military service. Career and educational opportunities for women were curtailed and tourism were organised via the Strength Through Joy program, and the 1936 Summer Olympics showcased the Third Reich on the international stage.
Propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels made effective use of film, mass rallies, the government controlled artistic expression, promoting specific art forms and banning or discouraging others. Beginning in the late 1930s, Nazi Germany made increasingly aggressive territorial demands and it seized Austria and Czechoslovakia in 1938 and 1939. Hitler made a pact with Joseph Stalin and invaded Poland in September 1939. In alliance with Italy and smaller Axis powers, Germany conquered most of Europe by 1940, reichskommissariats took control of conquered areas, and a German administration was established in what was left of Poland. Jews and others deemed undesirable were imprisoned, murdered in Nazi concentration camps and extermination camps, following the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, the tide gradually turned against the Nazis, who suffered major military defeats in 1943
Ministry of Aviation (Nazi Germany)
The Ministry of Aviation, abbreviated RLM, was a government department during the period of Nazi Germany. It is the name of the Detlev-Rohwedder-Haus building on the Wilhelmstrasse in central Berlin, Germany. As a result, early successes in aircraft development progressed slowly and erratically during World War II. The Ministry was formed in April 1933 from the Reich Commissariat for Aviation, in this early phase the Ministry was little more than Görings personal staff. One of its first actions was to control of all patents and companies of Hugo Junkers. These included all rights to the Junkers Ju 52 aircraft, defence Minister General Werner von Blomberg decided that the importance of aviation was such that it should no longer be subordinate to the German Army. In May 1933 he transferred the armys Department of Military Aviation and this is often considered the birth of the Luftwaffe. The Ministry was now larger, consisting of two large departments, the military Luftschutzamt and the civilian Allgemeines Luftamt.
Erhard Milch, the head of Deutsche Luft Hansa, was placed in direct control of the LA. In September 1933, a reorganization was undertaken to reduce duplication of effort between departments, the primary changes were to move the staffing and technical development organizations out of the LB, and make them full departments on their own. In 1934, a department was added, the Luftzeugmeister in charge of logistics. With the rapid growth of the Luftwaffe following the outbreak of World War II in 1939 and this period was marked by an increasing inability to deliver the new aircraft designs that were desperately needed, as well as continued shortages of aircraft and engines. In 1943 Albert Speer took over from Milch, and things immediately improved, the Ministry building was one of the few public edifices in central Berlin to survive the severe Allied bombings in 1944–45. On 5 May 1933 the German Air Ministry, with Hermann Göring as Reich Minister for Aviation was founded and this event came along with the introduction of a command flag that was produced in different sizes, ranging from 200 cm down to 30 cm.
The flag consisted of red material on which was placed in the centre of the obverse a wreath of silver coloured laurel leaves. In the centre of the leaves was a black eagle, suspended from the base of the wreath was a true-coloured representation of the Pour le Mérite. Extending from the left and right side of the wreath were a pair of stylised wings each consisting of four ascending feathers, in each of the four corners was set a black swastika. The flag was in use until the end of 1935, exact details about the reverse of this flag are not established
WorldCat is a union catalog that itemizes the collections of 72,000 libraries in 170 countries and territories that participate in the Online Computer Library Center global cooperative. It is operated by OCLC Online Computer Library Center, the subscribing member libraries collectively maintain WorldCats database. OCLC was founded in 1967 under the leadership of Fred Kilgour and that same year, OCLC began to develop the union catalog technology that would evolve into WorldCat, the first catalog records were added in 1971. It contains more than 330 million records, representing over 2 billion physical and digital assets in 485 languages and it is the worlds largest bibliographic database. OCLC makes WorldCat itself available free to libraries, but the catalog is the foundation for other subscribtion OCLC services, in 2006, it became possible to search WorldCat directly at its website. In 2007, WorldCat Identities began providing pages for 20 million identities, predominantly authors, WorldCat operates on a batch processing model rather than a real-time model.
That is, WorldCat records are synchronized at intermittent intervals with the library catalogs instead of real-time or every day. Consequently, WorldCat shows that an item is owned by a particular library. WorldCat does not indicate whether or not an item is borrowed, undergoing restoration or repair. Furthermore, WorldCat does not show whether or not a library owns multiple copies of a particular title, copac Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Library and Archives Canada Research Libraries UK Online Computer Library Center Grossman, Wendy M. Why you cant find a book in your search engine. Official website OCLC - Web scale discovery and delivery of library resources OCLC Bibliographic Formats and Standards WorldCat Identities
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly by archives, the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero license, the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format
Ernst von Hoeppner
Ernst Wilhelm Arnold von Hoeppner was a Prussian cavalry officer who served as the Commanding General of the German Air Service during World War I. Hoeppner was born in Tonnin on the island of Wollin in Pomerania on 14 January 1860, the son of a major, he attended the Cadet School in Potsdam from 1872 and in 1879 he was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the 6th Magdeburg Dragoon Regiment. He attended the Prussian Military Academy in 1890, from 1893 to 1899, he was a member of the 14th Dragoon Regiment stationed at Colmar in Alsace, commanding a squadron. Hoeppner married Sophie Eugenie Minette Elisabeth Adele Valentine of Pöppinghausen on 14 July 1885 and they had three children, Busso and Gerd. In 1902 Hoeppner was appointed to the General Staff and he was appointed as a staff officer with the IX Army Corps in Altona in 1904. By 1906 he was a lieutenant colonel and was commander of the 13th Hussars Regiment in Diedenhofen, two years he was appointed chief of staff of the VII Army Corps.
At the start of World War I Hoeppner was Chief of Staff at the 3rd Army headquarters and he remained in this post until spring of 1915 when he took up command of the 14th Reserve Division. Later in 1915 he was appointed Chief of Staff of the 2nd Army, ludendorff chose Hoeppner as the new air commander and it was at this time the Air Service was renamed from Fliegertruppe to Luftstreitkräfte. Hoeppner was given the title of Kommandierender General der Luftstreitkräfte, holding the rank of lieutenant-general and he was directly responsible to Hindenburg at Supreme Army Command. Hoeppner reorganized the fragmented air services, greatly increasing the number of Jastas, priority was given to the development of strategies for massed air attacks. In 1917 he was awarded the Pour le Mérite even though as a commander he was not directly involved in air combat. The award was resented by some of his junior officers, after the war, the German Air Service was dissolved. The German War Ministry issued orders for Von Hoepppners post to be disestablished on 16 January 1919 although he appears to have continued as Commanding General for a few more days and his final order to his Air Service personnel was issued on 21 January.
He took up command of the 18th Army Corps on 10 April 1919 and he retired as general of cavalry with permission to wear the uniform of the 13th Hussars Regiment. Hoeppner returned to his estate at Groß-Mokratz on the island of Wollin in the Baltic Sea where he wrote his memoirs, in 1921 he published Deutschlands Krieg in der Luft, a study of the German Air Service from 1914 to 1918. On 26 September 1922 Hoeppner died of Influenza at the age of 62 and he was buried in his birthplace, Tonnin, on the island of Wollin. In the 2008 biopic The Red Baron, Hoeppner is portrayed by actor Axel Prahl, on Air Power - von Höppner, Ernst Wilhelm flieger-album. de - von Hoeppner The Prussian Machine - Ernst von Hoeppner
The Pilot/Observer Badge was a World War II German military decoration awarded to Luftwaffe service personnel who had already been awarded the Pilots Badge and Observer Badge. It was instituted on 26 March 1936 by the Commander in Chief of the Luftwaffe Hermann Göring and it was worn on the lower part of the left breast pocket of the service tunic, underneath the Iron Cross 1st Class if awarded. It was to replace the older 1933 Aircrew Badge, the badge was originally manufactured in bronze, and zinc. The badge can be distinguished from the Pilots Badge by the gold wreath, there was a cloth version of the badge which used embroidered bullion for the officers version and cotton for the NCOs version. The presentation case was dark blue, with a blue satin top liner, the exclusive variant of the Pilot/Observer Badge in Gold with Diamonds. It was bestowed by Göring to honour exceptional achievement and on occasions as an honorary award. The first recipients were General Walther Wever, Chief of the Luftwaffe General Staff and General der Flieger Erhard Milch, another variant of this award was presented to Flug-Kapitänin Hanna Reitsch.
This variantion was more like a brooch, a horizontal shaft extended from each side of the wreath, which had diamonds inlaid. A Collectors Guide To, World War 2 German Medals and Political Awards, for Führer and Fatherland, Military Awards of the Third Reich
Colonel is a senior military officer rank below the general officer ranks. However, in small military forces, such as those of Iceland or the Vatican. It is used in police forces and paramilitary organizations. Historically, in the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries, a colonel was typically in charge of a regiment in an army, the rank of colonel is typically above the rank of lieutenant colonel. The rank above colonel is typically called brigadier, brigade general or brigadier general, equivalent naval ranks may be called captain or ship-of-the-line captain. In the Commonwealth air force rank system, the equivalent rank is group captain, the word colonel derives from the same root as the word column and means of a column, and, by implication, commander of a column. The word colonel is therefore linked to the column in a similar way that brigadier is linked to brigade. By the end of the medieval period, a group of companies was referred to as a column of an army. Since the word is believed to derive from sixteenth-century Italian, it was presumably first used by Italian city states in that century.
The first use of colonel as a rank in an army was in the French National Legions created by King Francis I by his decree of 1534. Building on the reforms of Louis XIIs decree of 1509. Each colonel commanded a legion with a strength of six thousand men. With the shift from primarily mercenary to primarily national armies in the course of the seventeenth century, the Spanish equivalent rank of coronel was used by the Spanish tercios in the 16th and 17th centuries. Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba, nicknamed the Great Captain, divided his armies in coronelías or colonelcies, the Spanish word probably derives from a different origin, in that it appears to designate an officer of the crown, rather than an officer of the column. This makes the Spanish word coronel probably cognate with the English word coroner and this regiment, or governance, was to some extent embodied in a contract and set of written rules, referred to as the colonels regiment or standing regulation. By extension, the group of companies subject to a colonels regiment came to be referred to as his regiment as well, the position, was primarily contractual and it became progressively more of a functionless sinecure.
By the late 19th century, colonel was a military rank though still held typically by an officer in command of a regiment or equivalent unit. As European military influence expanded throughout the world, the rank of colonel became adopted by every nation
German National Library of Economics
The ZBW is Germany’s central subject library and research infrastructure for economics in Germany. The ZBW is part of the system of national literature provision within the German Research Foundation, the ZBW holds almost 4.4 million items. The ZBW subscribes to more than 27,100 journals and enables access to 2.3 million electronic documents, the search portal EconBiz gives free access to 10 million datasets. More than 134,000 full-texts from German research institutes and universities are available online, the ZBW creates content-descriptive metadata not only for books, but for articles in journals and working papers, i. e. they are indexed with keywords from the Standard Thesaurus for Economics. The ZBW maintains the search portal EconBiz containing more than 10 million datasets of bibliographic references for economics, the ZBW offers an online reference service, Research Guide EconDesk, which provides guidance for literature and data searches in economics and business studies. The ZBW is a player in the Open Access movement which aims for free access to scholarly research output.
It is the negotiator for national licences in economics in Germany. The repository EconStor serves as a platform for the publication of research output in economics. Authors and publishing institutions can publish without charges on EconStor, more than 400 institutions use EconStor for the digital dissemination of their publications in Open Access. It is a service for RePEc and one of its most frequently used archives. All titles in EconStor are indexed by search engines such as Google, Google Scholar and BASE, the ZBW Journal Data Archive is a service for the editors of scholarly journals in economics. Editors can deposit datasets and other relating to empirical articles. The ZBW publishes two journals of economic policy, Wirtschaftsdienst and Intereconomics, the ZBW provides support for researchers dealing with the different aspects of the digitisation of the science system, such as publishing in Open Access or research data management. The ZBW participates in national and international projects to new services for its users.
GeRDI – Generic Research Data Infrastructure, the project aims to develop a distributed and linked-up research data infrastructure. It aims to link existing and future research data centres all over Germany. This allows scientists to search for and re-use research data across disciplines, the ZBW coordinates the project which is funded by the German Research Foundation. It aims to show that extensive automation of metadata creation can produce relevant added value to scholarly information discovery, metrics, MEasuring The Reliability and perception of Indicators for interactions with sCientific productS
The Iron Cross was a military decoration in the Kingdom of Prussia, and in the German Empire and Nazi Germany. It was established by King Friedrich Wilhelm III of Prussia in March 1813 backdated to the birthday of his late wife Queen Louise on 10 March 1813 during the Napoleonic Wars, Louise was the first person to receive this decoration. The recommissioned Iron Cross was awarded during the Franco-Prussian War, World War I, the Iron Cross was normally a military decoration only, though there were instances of it being awarded to civilians for performing military functions. The design of the symbol was black with a white or silver outline. It was ultimately derived from the cross pattée occasionally used by the Teutonic Order from the 13th century, the black cross patty was used as the symbol of the German Army from 1871 to March/April 1918, when it was replaced by the Balkenkreuz. In 1956, it was re-introduced as the symbol of the Bundeswehr, the Black Cross is the emblem used by the Prussian Army, and by the army of Germany from 1871 to present.
It was designed on the occasion of the German Campaign of 1813, from this time, the Black Cross featured on the Prussian war flag alongside the Black Eagle. The design is due to neoclassical architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel, based on a sketch by Frederick William, the design is ultimately derivative of the black cross used by the Teutonic Order. This heraldic cross took various forms throughout the history, including a simple Latin cross. When the Quadriga of the Goddess of Peace was retrieved from Paris at Napoleons fall, an Iron Cross was inserted into her laurel wreath, making her into a Goddess of Victory. The Black Cross was used on the naval and war flags of the German Empire, the Black Cross was used as the symbol of the German Army until 1915, when it was replaced by a simpler Balkenkreuz. The Reichswehr of the Weimar Republic, the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany, the traditional design in black is used on armored vehicles and aircraft, while after German reunification, a new design in blue and silver was introduced for use in other contexts.
The ribbon for the 1813,1870 and 1914 Iron Cross was black with two white bands, the colors of Prussia. The non-combatant version of this award had the same medal, but the black, the ribbon color for the 1939 EKII was black/white/red/white/black. Since the Iron Cross was issued several different periods of German history. For example, an Iron Cross from World War I bears the year 1914, the reverse of the 1870,1914 and 1939 series of Iron Crosses have the year 1813 appearing on the lower arm, symbolizing the year the award was created. The 1813 decoration has the initials FW for King Frederick William III, the final version shows a swastika. There was the 1957 issue, a replacement medal for holders of the 1939 series which substituted an oak-leaf cluster for the banned swastika