Hernán Cortés

Hernán Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro Altamirano, Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca was a Spanish Conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of what is now mainland Mexico under the rule of the King of Castile in the early 16th century. Cortés was part of the generation of Spanish colonizers who began the first phase of the Spanish colonization of the Americas. Born in Medellín, Spain, to a family of lesser nobility, Cortés chose to pursue adventure and riches in the New World, he went to Hispaniola and to Cuba, where he received an encomienda. For a short time, he served. In 1519, he was elected captain of the third expedition to the mainland, which he funded, his enmity with the Governor of Cuba, Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar, resulted in the recall of the expedition at the last moment, an order which Cortés ignored. Arriving on the continent, Cortés executed a successful strategy of allying with some indigenous people against others, he used a native woman, Doña Marina, as an interpreter.

She bore his first son. When the Governor of Cuba sent emissaries to arrest Cortés, he fought them and won, using the extra troops as reinforcements. Cortés wrote letters directly to the king asking to be acknowledged for his successes instead of being punished for mutiny. After he overthrew the Aztec Empire, Cortés was awarded the title of Marqués del Valle de Oaxaca, while the more prestigious title of Viceroy was given to a high-ranking nobleman, Antonio de Mendoza. In 1541 Cortés returned to Spain, where he died six years of natural causes but embittered; because of the controversial undertakings of Cortés and the scarcity of reliable sources of information about him, it is difficult to describe his personality or motivations. Early lionizing of the conquistadores did not encourage deep examination of Cortés. Modern reconsideration has done little to enlarge understanding regarding him; as a result of these historical trends, descriptions of Cortés tend to be simplistic, either damning or idealizing.

Cortés himself used the form "Hernando" or "Fernando" for his first name, as seen in his signature and the title of an early portrait. William Hickling Prescott's Conquest of Mexico refers to him as Hernando Cortés. At some point writers began using the shortened form of "Hernán" more generally. Cortés was born in 1485 in the town of Medellín a village in the Kingdom of Castile, now a municipality of the modern-day province of Badajoz in Extremadura, Spain, his father, Martín Cortés de Monroy, born in 1449 to Rodrigo or Ruy Fernández de Monroy and his wife María Cortés, was an infantry captain of distinguished ancestry but slender means. Hernán's mother was Catalína Pizarro Altamirano. Through his mother, Hernán was second cousin once removed of Francisco Pizarro, who conquered the Inca Empire of modern-day Peru, not to be confused with another Francisco Pizarro, who joined Cortés to conquer the Aztecs. Through his father, Hernán was related to the third Governor of Hispaniola, his paternal great-grandfather was Rodrigo de Monroy y Almaraz, 5th Lord of Monroy.

According to his biographer and friend Francisco López de Gómara, Cortés was pale and sickly as a child. At the age of 14, he was sent to study Latin under an uncle in Salamanca. Modern historians have misconstrued this personal tutoring as time enrolled at the University of Salamanca. After two years, Cortés returned home to Medellín, much to the irritation of his parents, who had hoped to see him equipped for a profitable legal career. However, those two years in Salamanca, plus his long period of training and experience as a notary, first in Valladolid and in Hispaniola, gave him knowledge of the legal codes of Castile that he applied to help justify his unauthorized conquest of Mexico. At this point in his life, Cortés was described by Gómara as ruthless and mischievous; the 16-year-old youth had returned home to feel constrained life in his small provincial town. By this time, news of the exciting discoveries of Christopher Columbus in the New World was streaming back to Spain. Plans were made for Cortés to sail to the Americas with a family acquaintance and distant relative, Nicolás de Ovando, the newly appointed Governor of Hispaniola..

Cortés was prevented from traveling. He spent the next year wandering the country spending most of his time in Spain's southern ports of Cadiz, Palos and Seville, he left for Hispaniola in 1504 and became a colonist. Cortés reached Hispaniola in a ship commanded by Alonso Quintero, who tried to deceive his superiors and reach the New World before them in order to secure personal advantages. Quintero's mutinous conduct may have served as a model for Cortés in his subsequent career; the history of the conquistadores is rife with accounts of rivalry, jockeying for positions and betrayal. Upon his arrival in 1504 in Santo Domingo, the capital of Hispaniola, the 18-year-old Cortés registered as a citizen. Soon afterward, Governor Nicolás de Ovando granted him an encomienda and appointed him as a notary of the town of Azua de Compostela, his next five years seemed to help establish him in the colony. The expedition leader awarded him Indian slaves for his efforts. In

Gulfam (writer)

Gulfam, born Jahangir Nasharvanji Patel alias Pestonji, was a Gujarati humour writer and journalist from Bombay, India. He was born on 14 July 1861 in Parsi Patel family living in a large and one of the oldest house in Fort area of Bombay, used as a court and jail during Portuguese rule in city, his father was a translator. He started writing at the age of nine and published his first book Sonarna Gadh at the age of 13, he started writing in spreads then. As he believed that his host would not like it, he published in spreads under name of his sister, his first writing was published in Gul-afshan spreadsheet. He received a nickname Gulfam, he did not liked it but he proudly accepted it. At the age 16, his ghazal was published in Gyanvardhak magazine. At the age of 53, in 1931, he had written his autobiography Mari Potani Jindagino Hewal and wished to be published posthumously, published by Jahangir B. Karani & Sons, he died on 24 August 1936. He had written large number of works under several pen names.

It is not known that. His writing used to publish in several magazines and newspapers like Kaiser-e-Hind, Gyanvardhak, Akhbar-e-Sodagar, Jam-e-Jamshed and Bombay Samachar, his first book was Sonarna Gadh. He had written large number of humorous sketches which were so popular that they were plagiarised by other publishers. In 1909, Firozshah Jahangir Marzban, the founder of Jam-e-Jamshed, had written in introduction of his book Khen Kotak, "The writer of nearly 50 stories, several original anecdotes and original plays, column writer in half-dozen newspapers and quarter-less-in-dozen magazines, specialist of jokes and sketches, person who swam across an ocean of poetry and short stories, favourite of goddess of writing. Khen Kotak is filled with solid wit in its more than 200 pages. Guldaste Ramuj is 325 pages filled with jokes, he had translated a thousand year old Arabic work on dream interpretation as Swapnani Tasir. Sugandhma Sado and Mote Gharna Bai Saheb is a suspense stories based on Parsi householder life.

English writer H. Rider Haggard had written two popular novels. Pratapi Laxmi Prasad was a historical story set in before arrival of British in India. Naval Nanavati was a humorous story of a dumb Parsi boy, a duff lady, a gullible villager and honest Zoroastrian lady, it was considered as the most humorous story of all his work by himself. He has published 52 story-plays and if his plays and dramas for drama clubs and amateur clubs is considered it rises to 63, he has written more than 60 short stories. His sketches and jokes are counted in thousands, he had written one-act plays. He had written a book on European etiquette, Bhulsho Na – Aa Adab Ada Mateni Suchnao, published posthumously in 1937, it included his short biography. Amrit Keshav Nayak, a prolific stage actor had said, "I love whatever Jahangir writes as he is first born actor and second born writer among Parsis." Selected works Jangalma Mangal Mota Gharma Bai Saheb

Charles Mayiga

Charles Peter Mayiga is a Ugandan lawyer, cultural leader and author. He is the current Katikkiro in the government of Buganda, a constitutional monarchy in present-day Uganda, he was appointed to that position by the reigning Kabaka of Buganda, His Majesty Muwenda Mutebi II of Buganda, in May 2013, replacing Engineer John Baptist Walusimbi. Charles Peter Mayiga was born in Kabonera Parish, Masaka District, Central Uganda, his parents are Nnaalongo Rebecca Kyese Mukasa. He attended Nkoni Primary School. For his O-Level education, he attended St. Henry's College Kitovu, he studied at St. Mary's College Kisubi for his A-Levels, he holds the degree of Bachelor of Laws, from Makerere University, Uganda's oldest and largest public university. He holds a Diploma in Legal Practice, obtained from the Law Development Center, in Kampala Uganda's capital city. Starting in 1987, Mayiga has been working with the elders of the Kingdom of Buganda, sharpening his knowledge and understanding of the customs and traditions of Buganda.

On 4 July 1991, while preparing for the restoration of the Kingdom of Buganda, Mayiga was appointed to become the Secretary of the Council of Elders, responsible for organizing the cultural restoration. This title changed to Secretary following the restoration of the Monarchy; when the Kingdom was restored in 1993, Mayiga was appointed Buganda's Minister of Information & Official Spokesman for the Kingdom. He served in that capacity until he was appointed Katikkiro of Buganda in May 2013. Prior to his appointment as Katikkiro, Mayiga had turned down at least two opportunities to run for elective public office in the Central Ugandan government. Mayiga is a law partner in the company Buwule and Mayiga Company Advocates, based in Kampala, Uganda's capital and largest city, he has been married to Margaret Mayiga, an alumnus of Trinity College Nabbingo, since 1987. He is the author of a book titled King On The Throne, which chronicles the first 16 years of the reign of His Majesty Muwenda Mutebi II of Buganda.

Mayiga has authored Buganda ku Ntikko, a book in Luganda that states the five key kingdom aspirations. This book was published on 29 May 2013, the day he was handed the instruments of power. In 2017, Mayiga released his third book, titled Uganda:7-Key Transformation Idea, which details seven ideas that can help Third World countries develop. "Buganda, Centenary Bank partner in Kasubi tombs drive", New Vision, 21 February 2014 "Katikiro Mayiga Leadership Style Proves Critics Wrong", New Vision, 12 December 2013