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Hero of Alexandria

Hero of Alexandria was a mathematician and engineer, active in his native city of Alexandria, Roman Egypt. He is considered the greatest experimenter of antiquity and his work is representative of the Hellenistic scientific tradition. Hero published. Among his most famous inventions was a windwheel, constituting the earliest instance of wind harnessing on land, he is said to have been a follower of the atomists. In his work Mechanics, described the pantographs; some of his ideas were derived from the works of Ctesibius. In mathematics he is remembered for Heron's formula, a way to calculate the area of a triangle using only the lengths of its sides. Much of Hero's original writings and designs have been lost, but some of his works were preserved—mostly in manuscripts from the Eastern Roman Empire, a smaller part in Latin or Arabic translations. Hero may have been a Hellenized Egyptian, it is certain that Hero taught at the Musaeum which included the famous Library of Alexandria, because most of his writings appear as lecture notes for courses in mathematics, mechanics and pneumatics.

Although the field was not formalized until the twentieth century, it is thought that the work of Hero, his automated devices in particular, represents some of the first formal research into cybernetics. Hero described the construction of the aeolipile, a rocket-like reaction engine and the first-recorded steam engine, it was created two millennia before the industrial revolution. Another engine used air from a closed chamber heated by an altar fire to displace water from a sealed vessel; some historians have conflated the two inventions to assert that the aeolipile was capable of useful work. The first vending machine was one of his constructions; this was included in his list of inventions in his book Optics. When the coin was deposited, it fell upon a pan attached to a lever; the lever opened up a valve. The pan continued to tilt with the weight of the coin until it fell off, at which point a counter-weight would snap the lever back up and turn off the valve. A wind-wheel operating an organ, marking the first instance in history of wind powering a machine.

Hero invented many mechanisms for the Greek theater, including an mechanical play ten minutes in length, powered by a binary-like system of ropes and simple machines operated by a rotating cylindrical cogwheel. The sound of thunder was produced by the mechanically-timed dropping of metal balls onto a hidden drum; the force pump was used in the Roman world, one application was in a fire-engine. A syringe-like device was described by Hero to control the delivery of air or liquids. In optics, Hero formulated the principle of the shortest path of light: If a ray of light propagates from point A to point B within the same medium, the path-length followed is the shortest possible, it was nearly 1000 years that Alhacen expanded the principle to both reflection and refraction, the principle was stated in this form by Pierre de Fermat in 1662. A standalone fountain that operates under self-contained hydro-static energy. A programmable cart, powered by a falling weight; the "program" consisted of strings wrapped around the drive axle.

Hero described a method for iteratively computing the square root of a number. Today, his name is most associated with Heron's formula for finding the area of a triangle from its side lengths, he devised a method for calculating cube roots in the 1st century AD. A 1979 Soviet animated short film focuses on Hero's invention of the aeolipile, showing him as a plain craftsman who invented the turbine accidentally A 2007 The History Channel television show Ancient Discoveries includes recreations of most of Hero's devices A 2010 The History Channel television show Ancient Aliens episode "Alien Tech" includes discussion of Hero's steam engine A 2014 The History Channel television show Ancient Impossible episode "Ancient Einstein" Paul Levinson's 2006 science fiction novel, The Plot to Save Socrates, features Hero as an American time traveler; the most comprehensive edition of Hero's works was published in five volumes in Leipzig by the publishing house Teubner in 1903. Works known to have been written by Hero: Pneumatica, a description of machines working on air, steam or water pressure, including the hydraulis or water organ Automata, a description of machines which enable wonders in temples by mechanical or pneumatical means.

Zig-Zag (company)

Zig-Zag is a brand of rolling papers that originated in France. It is marketed in the USA by Turning Point Brands, in Europe by Republic Technologies, in Japan by Tsuge Pipes; the Zig-Zag brand produces hand-rolled tobacco related products such as cigarette rolling papers, cigarette tubes and rolling accessories. Cigarette papers: Made from wood pulp and flax, uses natural gum Arabic, they come in five sizes. One size is the single wide; this size is called "the white pack" because of its color. Another size is the size 78 called "the orange pack" because of its color; the third size are the kings, or king size known for their orange or reddish hue, the fourth is 1½ and the fifth is double wide. The white pack and orange pack are sold together in many stores across the United States. In Canada, the most popular size is the single wide, but with "kut-corners". In Australia, the most popular size is King size. There are varieties within these sizes including Liquorice, Water Resistant, Slow Burning, Free Burning.

Cigarette tobacco: Sold in four varieties. Filtered cigarette tubes: These are filters for hand-rolled cigarettes. Filter cigarette making machine: This is a basic rolling machine, used to roll tobacco into cigarette papers. Cigar Wraps: Flavored cigar wraps made for use with cigar tobacco. Cigarillos: Flavored mini cigars, similar to that of Phillies. Common flavors are mango and natural; the company was founded in 1855 by Jacques Braunstein. Based in Paris, in 1882 the company built the Papeterie de Gassicourt, a cigarette paper production plant near the town of Mantes-la-Jolie. In 1894 they invented the process of "interleaving" rolling papers, they called their papers Zig-Zag after the zigzag alternating packaging process. In 1900, Zig-Zag was awarded a gold medal at the Universal Exposition in Paris. Success led to expansion in 1919 to a new mill in Thonon-les-Bains. During World War II, the company's original facility in Mantes-la-Jolie was destroyed and at war's end, all production was shifted to the Thonon factory.

With the death of Jacques Braunstein, in the 1950s Zig-Zag was sold to a partnership of the Group Bolloré and competitor JOB. In 2000, Zig-Zag became part of Republic Technologies; the zouave soldier portrayed on the front of Zig-Zag products is colloquially known as the "Zig-Zag man". The choice of a member of this French North African regiment as a Zig-Zag icon originates from a folk story about an incident in the battle of Sevastopol; when the soldier's clay pipe was destroyed by a bullet, he attempted to roll his tobacco using a piece of paper torn from a musket cartridge. In an advertising campaign in the 1960s, Zig-Zag published leaflets with the zouave facing the viewer and the caption, "Captain Zig-Zag wants YOU!" The reason for using the rank of "captain" is unclear as the Zig-Zag man is portrayed in the fez and embroidered jacket of an ordinary zouave and is not an officer. Although an inexpensive item, counterfeit Zig-Zags have been an issue throughout recent years with several cases of counterfeit sales—and legal action that has resulted the seizure of businesses, large multi-million dollar fines and criminal liability.

Imitation Zig-Zags, which may look similar to authentic products, are of substandard quality but sold at regular price. In the case of a man arrested for trafficking counterfeit Zig-Zags in 2005, prosecutors claim his actions cost legitimate distributors $1.8 million. According to attorneys at Venable LLP, Zig-Zag takes a "zero tolerance" stance on counterfeits. During 2015, successful counterfeit raids were conducted. Attorneys claim that they will continue to "prosecute known violators to the fullest extent of the law." List of rolling papers Official Website Official UK Website Group Bolloré company history Republic Technologies official website

Yagodnoye, Magadan Oblast

Yagodnoye is an urban-type settlement in Magadan Oblast, Russia. Population: 4,210 ; the settlement lies in the south-eastern section of the Chersky Range, on the left bank of the Debin River, a tributary of the Kolyma. The oblast capital of Magadan lies 340 km to the south-east in a direct line, although it is over 550 km by road. Yagodnoye was founded in 1934 in connection with the construction of the Kolyma Highway and the development of gold mining in the area; the town's name is derived from the Russian word yagoda for berry. From 1949 until 1957, the settlement housed the administration of the SevLag forced labour camp in the Dalstroy section of the gulag network, where up to 15,800 prisoners were used in gold mining, road building and timber felling. With the creation of Yagodninsky District in 1953, Yagodnoye received urban-type settlement status; the main industry in the settlement remains gold mining, although this has declined since the collapse of the Soviet Union. Other industries such as production of food and construction materials suffered as a result, meaning that a large proportion of the town's population has left since the 1990s.

Magadan can be reached via the Kolyma Highway, with branch roads leading to the former mining settlements of Verkhny At-Uryakh and Elgen. Diana Arbenina, singer from the band Nochniye Snaiperi, spend her childhood in Yagodnoye Olga Pershina and rock musician, author Varlam Shalamov and Gulag survivor who spent over 15 years as a prisoner in the Kolyma region Yuri Shevchuk and rock musician Igor Vysotsky, boxer

By Request (Perry Como album)

By Request is Perry Como's Ninth RCA Victor 12" long-play album. The title made it sound like a number of his earlier LPs, again with the implication that the song choices were made by his audience rather than himself, but where previous records like We Get Letters and Sing to Me Mr. C consisted of old standards, By Request was, for the most part, a collection of recent material. In many cases, Como was borrowing songs associated with his competitors: Jack Jones had just scored a hit with "Lollipops and Roses"; the other tracks included "Maria", newly popular due to the movie version of West Side Story and Hammerstein's "My Favorite Things" from the 1959 musical The Sound of Music, "The Sweetest Sounds" from Richard Rodgers' new composed show No Strings. Many critics said that the material suited Como well, some claimed that the singer had made the songs his own. By Request was Como's most successful non-holiday LP release in three years. "Maria" – 3:28 "Lollipops and Roses" – 2:43 "The Sweetest Sounds" – 2:46 "More than Likely" – 2:52 "Moonglow and Theme from'Picnic' – 3:23 "My Favorite Things" – 2:56 "Once Upon a Time" – 3:50 "Can't Help Falling in Love" – 3:07 "What's New?"

– 3:04 "Somebody Cares" – 3:18 "I'll Remember April" – 3:02 "Moon River" –A recording of "The Bells of St. Mary's" was made during the sessions, but left off the completed album, it was not released until its inclusion on the 2001 compilation CD A Perry Como Christmas, which includes "My Favorite Things" from this album. Perry Como – vocals Peter Gamble – liner Notes Perry Como discography

Ear-reddening game

The ear-reddening game is a game of go of the Edo period of Japan, played on September 11, 1846 between Honinbo Shusaku and Inoue Genan Inseki. The game is Shusaku's most notable game as it contains the "ear-reddening move"—so named when a doctor, watching the game took note of Genan as his ears flushed red when Shusaku played the move, indicating he had become upset. Shusaku met Genan Inseki in July 1846 when he returned to Edo after staying in Onomichi for eighteen months. Shusaku was 17 years old and a 4-dan player at the time, while Genan was nearing his fifties and was ranked at 8-dan; the first game they played, Genan allowed Shusaku to play with a two stone handicap. Realizing he had no chance of winning, Genan suspended the game without finishing it, played another one with Shusaku playing black without handicap. Shusaku made a mistake early on in the taisha joseki, but would play well throughout the rest of the game to win by 2 points; the first time this joseki was documented was 24 years earlier, in 1822, at this time go sequences which were developed were held as trade secrets.

Play progressed into the taisha five-way junction, with Shusaku making what is now regarded as a mistake on move 25. The move gave influence to all four directions. While expanding the top, it brings some help to the four triangled black stones on the bottom, reduces the white thickness on the right side, aims at erasing or invading the left side. List of go games Sensei's Library article on the Ear Reddening Game

True Colors Tour

The True Colors Tour was a headlining concert tour by Russian-German music producer Zedd, launched in support of his studio album True Colors. The tour visited Asia and North America from 6 August 2015 to 11 January 2016. Intro of "Hourglass" Chorus of "Spectrum" "Beautiful Now" "Rather Be" "Rude" "Breakn' A Sweat" "Stay the Night" "Straight Into the Fire" "Bumble Bee" "Illusion" "Break Free" "Clarity" "Fall Into the Sky" "I Want You to Know" "The Legend of Zelda" "Find You" "Papercut" "Done with Love" "True Colors" "Spectrum" Zedd official website