The title Hero of the Soviet Union was the highest distinction in the Soviet Union, awarded or collectively for heroic feats in service to the Soviet state and society. The award was established on April 1934, by the Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Union; the first recipients of the title received only the Order of Lenin, the highest Soviet award, along with a certificate describing the heroic deed from the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. Because the Order of Lenin could be awarded for deeds not qualifying for the title of hero, to distinguish heroes from other Order of Lenin holders, the Gold Star medal was introduced on August 1, 1939. Earlier heroes were retroactively eligible for these items. A hero could be awarded the title again for a subsequent heroic feat with an additional Gold Star medal and certificate. An additional Order of Lenin was not given until 1973; the practice of awarding the title multiple times was abolished by the Supreme Soviet of the USSR in 1988 during perestroika.
Forty-four foreign citizens were awarded the title. The title was given posthumously, though without the actual Gold Star medal given; the title could be revoked only by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet. Individuals who received the award were entitled to special privileges, including: A pension with survivor benefits in the event of the death of the title holder. First priority on the housing list with 50% rent reduction, tax exempt and an additional 45 square metres in living space. Annual round-trip first class airline ticket Free bus transportation Free annual visit to sanatorium or rest home Medical benefits Entertainment benefits In total, during the existence of the USSR, the title of Hero of the Soviet Union was awarded to 12,777 people, including twice – 154, three times – 3 and four – 2. Ninety-five women were awarded the title. Among the Heroes of the Soviet Union, 44 people are citizens of foreign states; the great majority of them received it during World War II. Eighty-five people were awarded the title for actions related to the Soviet-Afghan War, which lasted from 1979 until 1989.
The first recipients of the award were the pilots Anatoly Liapidevsky, Sigizmund Levanevsky, Vasily Molokov, Mavriky Slepnyov, Nikolai Kamanin, Ivan Doronin, Mikhail Vodopianov, who participated in the successful aerial search and rescue of the crew of the steamship Cheliuskin, which sank in Arctic waters, crushed by ice fields, on February 13, 1934. Valentina Grizodubova, a female pilot, was the first woman to become a Hero of the Soviet Union for her international women's record for a straight-line distance flight. Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya, a Soviet partisan, was the first woman to become a Hero of the Soviet Union during World War II, posthumously. In addition, 101 people received the award twice. A second Hero title, either Hero of the Soviet Union or Hero of Socialist Labour entitled the recipient to have a bronze bust of his or her likeness with a commemorative inscription erected in his or her hometown. Two famous Soviet fighter pilots, Aleksandr Pokryshkin and Ivan Kozhedub were three times Heroes of the Soviet Union.
A third award entitled the recipient to have his/her bronze bust erected on a columnar pedestal in Moscow, near the Palace of the Soviets, but the Palace was never built. After his release from serving a 20-year sentence in a Mexican prison for the assassination of Leon Trotsky, Ramon Mercader moved to the Soviet Union in 1961 and was awarded the Hero of the Soviet Union medal from KGB head Alexander Shelepin; the only individuals to receive the title four times were Leonid Brezhnev. The original statute of the Hero of the Soviet Union, did not provide for a fourth title. Both Zhukov and Brezhnev received their fourth titles under controversial circumstances contrary to the statute, which remained unchanged until the award was abolished in 1991. Zhukov was awarded a fourth time "for his large accomplishments" on the occasion of his 60th birthday on December 1, 1956. There is some speculation that Zhukov's fourth Hero medal was for his participation in the arrest of Beria in 1953, but this was not entered in the records.
Brezhnev's four awards further eroded the prestige of the award because they were all birthday gifts, on the occasions of his 60th, 70th, 72nd and 75th birthdays. Such practices halted in 1988 due to a decision of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, which formally ended it. By the 1970s, the award had been somewhat devalued. Important political and military persons had been awarded it on the occasions of their anniversaries rather than for any immediate heroic activity. All Soviet cosmonauts, starting from Yuri Gagarin, as well as foreign citizens who participated in the Soviet space program as cosmonauts, received Hero award for each flight. Apart from individuals, the title was awarded to twelve cities as well as the fortress of Brest for collective heroism during the War; the last recipient of the title "Hero of the Soviet Union" was a Soviet diver, Captain of the 3rd rank Leonid Mikhailovich Solodkov on December 24, 1991 for his leadership and participation in a series of unprecedented extreme depth diving experiments.
Jackson Township is a township in Monroe County, United States. Its total population was 121 as of the 2010 United States Census, a decrease of 45.50 percent from 222 at the 2000 census. According to the 2010 Census, Jackson Township is located at 34°31′23″N 91°10′58″W, it has a total area of 61.369 square miles. As per the USGS National Elevation Dataset, the elevation is 167 feet. "2010 Census Block Map: Jackson Township, Arkansas". Arkansas 2010 Census Block Maps - County Subdivisions. U. S. Census Bureau. "2013 Boundary and Annexation Survey Map: Monroe County, Arkansas". Boundary and Annexation Survey Shapefiles and Maps. U. S. Census Bureau. "2010 Census County Subdivision Maps: Arkansas". County Subdivision Maps. U. S. Census Bureau
Wolfgang Staudte, born Georg Friedrich Staudte, was a German film director, script writer and actor. He was born in Saarbrücken, his most important work came in the ten years following World War II, in which he worked with the DEFA in East Germany. The main focus of his work was to highlight the limits of German national pride, his work in anti-Nazi films, such as Murderers Among Us, was a personal working through of his film career under the Nazis. Following 1956 he worked in West Germany. By the 1970s, his work was no longer considered modern and he moved to television, on shows such as Der Kommissar and Tatort. 1943 Bravo Acrobat! 1944 Der Mann, dem man den Namen stahl 1946 Die Mörder sind unter uns 1948 The Adventures of Fridolin 1949 Rotation 1949 Second Hand Destiny 1951 Der Untertan – from the novel by Heinrich Mann 1951 A Tale of Five Cities Poison in the Zoo 1953 Geschichte vom kleinen Muck – from the fairy tale by Wilhelm Hauff 1954 Leuchtfeuer 1955 Ciske de Rat 1957 Rose Bernd 1958 Madeleine und der Legionär 1958 Pezzo, capopezzo e capitano 1958 The Muzzle 1959 Roses for the Prosecutor 1960 Kirmes 1960 The Last Witness The Happy Years of the Thorwalds 1963 Die Dreigroschenoper – from the musical by Bertolt Brecht 1964 Herrenpartie 1964 Das Lamm 1966 Ganovenehre 1968 Heimlichkeiten 1970 Gentlemen in White Vests 1971 Jailbreak in Hamburg 1971 Der Seewolf 1975 Burning Daylight 1978 MS Franziska 1978 Zwischengleis The Street Song Secret of the Blue Room Tannenberg Homecoming to Happiness Grand Duchess Alexandra The Hymn of Leuthen Stronger Than Regulations Susanne in the Bath Togger All Lies By a Silken Thread D III 88 Shoulder Arms Legion Condor Jud Süß Friedemann Bach Riding for Germany The Big Game Wolfgang Staudte on IMDb Literature on Wolfgang Staudte